Top PDF Rock Physics Characterization of Organic-Rich Shale Formations to Predict Organic Properties

Rock Physics Characterization of Organic-Rich Shale Formations to Predict Organic Properties

Rock Physics Characterization of Organic-Rich Shale Formations to Predict Organic Properties

iii The modeled PSP is observed to correlate with rock properties, specifically the TOC, hydrocarbon saturation, thermal maturity, clay volume and acoustic impedance. Significant variation still occurs between the PSP and some rock properties, this suggests the actual case is much more complicated than the ideal situation. A strong correlation between the PSP and organic properties is seen as the amount of organic material increases suggesting that higher amounts of variation with lower organic content relates to intervals where the ideal case is not valid; the correlation is greater with respect to the shear wave, indicating the importance of the shear wave to rock physics modeling. Through the integration of Gassmann and Sun equations a rock physics model has been developed which can potentially relate organic-rock properties to acoustic properties, this correlation can greatly enhance the evaluation of organic-rich shale play
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Pore space characterization of organic-rich shales using BIB-SEM

Pore space characterization of organic-rich shales using BIB-SEM

and the anisotropic microstructure of the material, can cause an effective stress,  ', (Terzaghi, 1923) and compression of the rock instead of filling of the pore space, which cannot be distinguished based on the MIP data only. Recent advances in ion polishing have improved the imaging of pores in fine-grained rocks using BIB-SEM (e.g., Hemes et al., 2013; Houben et al., 2013; Klaver et al., 2012) and in 3D Focused Ion Beam (FIB)-SEM image-stacks (e.g., Curtis et al., 2010; Holzer et al., 2004; Keller et al., 2011a). However, FIB-SEM tomography in fine-grained rocks often does not re- solve the connecting pore throats (e.g., Houben, 2013; Houben et al., 2014b; Keller et al., 2013b) and studied sample volumes are generally smaller than the representative volume element of heterogeneous mudstones (Keller et al., 2013a). By combining BIB-SEM with Wood's Metal Injection (WMI), the connected pore space can be visual- ized over representative areas and at high, nanometer scale resolution. The ad- vantage of Wood’s Metal (WM; 50 % bismuth (Bi), 25 % lead (Pb), 12.5 % tin (Sn), 12.5 % cadmium (Cd)) is that in the molten state it has similar physical properties to mer- cury but it melts at 70 °C. This allows injection of the liquid WM into the pore space in a pressure vessel at 90 ºC, solidifying under pressure, and imaging the metal in the pores with BIB-SEM to obtain direct evidence of pores filled with the metal and com- pare it with MIP. In previous studies, WMI was used on a wide variety of materials; for example sandstone (Dullien, 1981; Yadav et al., 1987), cements (Abell et al., 1999; Willis et al., 1998), induced fractures in concrete (Nemati, 2000), feldspars (Dultz et al., 2006), salt and clays (Hildenbrand and Urai, 2003), porous ash (Lloyd et al., 2009), po- rous carbonates (Galaup et al., 2012), Berea sandstone and metagraywacke (Hu et al., 2012). These studies used lower pressures than MIP and used mechanical polish- ing which hinders accurate SEM imaging of nanopores (Klaver et al., 2012). Houben (2013) applied WMI on Opalinus Clay at pressures up to 200 MPa and found WM mostly in the cracks and large pores adjacent to the cracks, but not in matrix pores. Hu et al. (Hu et al., 2014) injected a Barnet shale sample with liquid WM at 600 MPa and found no noticeable connected matrix porosity.
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Rock Classification in Organic Shale Based on Petrophysical and Elastic Rock Properties Calculated from Well Logs

Rock Classification in Organic Shale Based on Petrophysical and Elastic Rock Properties Calculated from Well Logs

1 Projected hydrocarbon recovery from organic-shale reservoirs has increased, from 2% to estimates of about 50%, over the past decade due to technological developments such as horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing (King 2010). The ability to unlock the hydrocarbon reserves in organic-shale reservoirs has transformed these formations into economical performers in the oil and gas industry. Hydrocarbon production from organic- rich shale, however, due to their complex nature, remains challenging. Permeabilities in the nano-Darcy range and low porosity make hydraulic fracturing essential to achieve the best connection between the reservoir and the wellbore in these formations. An optimal completion design, which includes zone selection based on petrophysical, compositional, and elastic properties, results in an efficient and economical response of the formation to fracture stimulation. Oil companies can reduce completion costs by minimizing the number of fractures necessary to complete a well successfully. Therefore, the challenge of identifying the best intervals to complete has made petrophysical and compositional evaluation in organic-rich shale critical for the petroleum industry.
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Determining the Temperature of Shale Material Conversion
Into Crude Oil Based on Organic Clay and Organic Carbonate Test Outside Reservoir

Determining the Temperature of Shale Material Conversion Into Crude Oil Based on Organic Clay and Organic Carbonate Test Outside Reservoir

Effort to build laboratory acoustics data to detect the change of organic material properties in the rocks from the result of physics and chemistry properties analysis on reservoir rocks in Indonesia has been conducted by Siswoyo (1995), Subono (1995) and Dewanto et al (2002-2004). According to them, the result of measurement and analysis the change of rock chemical properties in the laboratory arises some methods which support this research. The method generated in the research is to determine the maturity of hydrocarbon and its parameter which are used as indicator to predict the level of change in organic material in the rocks (shale material).
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Seismic Attenuation in Carbonate Rocks and Rock Physics Models of Clay-Bearing and Organic-Rich Formations

Seismic Attenuation in Carbonate Rocks and Rock Physics Models of Clay-Bearing and Organic-Rich Formations

2 Accurate prediction of key reservoir parameters (e.g. lithology, porosity, and transport properties) from acoustic logs or seismic wave velocities requires a comprehensive understanding of how these reservoir parameters and wave velocities are related. In clay-bearing clastic reservoirs, such relationships are largely affected by clay content and clay distribution. Previous elastic models for clay-bearing sand formations treated clay as part of the solid matrix, and the effective elastic moduli of the matrix were usually estimated using common averaging schemes such as Wyllie’s time-average equation or Voigt-Reuss-Hill (VRH) average (Han et al., 1986; Liu et al., 2014; Xu and White, 1995). However, clay (when wet) has much lower elastic moduli compared to other stiff matrix minerals (quartz, calcite, or dolomite) and therefore averaging schemes may not be accurate in describing the effective moduli of the clay–bearing total matrix. To address this problem, this dissertation presents a two-stage model to predict the effective elastic moduli of clay-bearing formations. The model considers the large moduli contrast between clay and other matrix minerals and the structural effect of the clay-occupied space on matrix properties.
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Combining electronic and structural features in machine learning models to predict organic solar cells properties

Combining electronic and structural features in machine learning models to predict organic solar cells properties

molecules and on their chemical environment, and can be obtained by 2D representations of the molecules, i.e. the ability to draw them. This is very appealing because it opens up the possibility to obtain predictions without any computational data from more complicated approaches, allowing non experts to adopt very simple and quick models to predict properties of interest that are not accessible otherwise.

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Thermal Properties of Organic Foods

Thermal Properties of Organic Foods

Organic products are commonly associated with higher sustainability and an improved or at least different product quality compare to conventional products. The aim of the present investigation was to determine if the thermal properties of selected organic products are different from conventional products. The report includes determination of freezing temperatures, glass transition temperatures, amount of ice, and end of freezing point, heat capacity and thermal conductivity for selected cases. A part of investigation was devoted to investigation of the difference between oils extracted form organic and typical aquaculture salmon.
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Temporal dynamics of halogenated organic compounds in Marcellus Shale flowback

Temporal dynamics of halogenated organic compounds in Marcellus Shale flowback

many halogenated organic molecular ions were identified in flowback fluids and early produced 33  .. waters based on exact mass.[r]

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Characterization of Photophysical Properties of D AD Type Diketopyrrolopyrrole Based Molecules for Organic Light-Emitting diodes and Organic Solar Cells

Characterization of Photophysical Properties of D AD Type Diketopyrrolopyrrole Based Molecules for Organic Light-Emitting diodes and Organic Solar Cells

Organic semiconductors have attracted considerable interest in recent years due to the advantages over their inorganic counterparts, such as low-cost, lightweight, and flexible electronic devices [1–5]. In particular, small-molecule-based organic semiconductors are expected to open new possibilities for their optoelectronic applications in organic electronic devices including organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), organic solar cells (OSCs), and field effect transistors (FETs). Small-molecule-based organic semiconductors exhibit strong absorption and emission, high fluorescence quantum yields, and good charge carrier mobility. Nevertheless, the lower efficiency of OLEDs and OSCs has seriously restricted their commercialization application. The development of new small molecular materials with highly desirable properties remains a major challenge. Therefore, it is critically important to design and synthesize efficient multifunctional materials. These materials can serve as efficient light emitting in OLEDs, donor material for OSCs as well as charge transport materials simultaneously [6,7]. In order to achieve high performance and enhance the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of OSCs, the frontier molecular orbitals (FMOs) energy levels of donors should match to typical acceptors. A deep HOMO (highest occupied molecular orbital) energy provides high open circuit voltage (V oc ). A relatively high LUMO (lowest unoccupied
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Fracture Conductivity Behavior in Shale Formations

Fracture Conductivity Behavior in Shale Formations

The way rock fails enabling the creation of a fracture depends on the stress distribution downhole in the field, and also on the mineralogy distribution of the formation. For whatever the reasons, the fractures created by hydraulic power in the field all have certain degree of unevenness along the fracture face. To understand fracture conductivity behavior, using artificially fractured samples represent an improvement to better emulate the fracture surfaces in the field. For an uneven surface, proppant concentration varied along the fracture surface. Meanwhile, some areas of the fracture surface carried a higher level of stress than others. This non-uniform stress profile along the fracture surface can occur any time the two fracture surfaces do not come in perfect contact with each other. These two features caused by fractured surface topography, uneven proppant distribution and uneven stress distribution, can both enhance fracture conductivity. Hundreds of fracture conductivity experiments were conducted under different test conditions, including by Enriquez (2016), and as summarized and analyzed by Kainer et al. (2017), and others using the same Modified API Fracture Conductivity Cell utilized in this study. All of them used a rough fractured surface instead of a saw-cut smooth surface. Yet, the self-channeling phenomenon was observed in only in a small portion of the tested samples.
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Metal-loaded organic scintillators for neutrino physics

Metal-loaded organic scintillators for neutrino physics

A range of carboxylic acids with alkyl chains containing from 2 to 9 carbons has been studied by early developments of the LENS solar neutrino project [52]. The higher the carbon number, the lower is the acid strength and the solubility of water. Acetic acid, HAc (C2) and propionic acid, HPPI (C3), were found to have very low efficiencies for ex- traction of the metallic ions into the organic phase. Isobutyl acid, HIB (C4) and isovaleric acid, HIVA (C5) both have unpleasant odors and require the presence of other components as neutral organophosphorus compounds (e.g. TBPO) to achieve high extraction efficien- cies [52]. Carboxylic acids containing more than 6 carbons extract the metal efficiently due to their increasing non-polarity. The rule of thumb is that the longer-carbon-chain carboxylic acids are more organic-like and thus their organometallic complexes can be dissolved in the organic liquid more easily. However, since the light yield is dominated by the weight percent of the LS, the criterion is to select the shortest possible carbon-chain acid (i.e., the lightest molecular weight carboxylic acid) that will achieve the goals of suitable optical property and chemical stability.
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Synthesis, characterization and chelating properties of furan ring containing
organic ligands

Synthesis, characterization and chelating properties of furan ring containing organic ligands

temperature in DMF(20 ml) for 1.5hrs and pinch of KI was added. After that diethyl amine (0.01mole) was added to reaction mixture which was refluxed for 6 hrs. The reaction mixture was poured into water (20 ml) and the mixture was extracted with diethyl ether. The organic extracts were washed with water, dried over anhydrous sodium sulphate and concentrated to obtain crude product. The residue was recrystallized ethyl acetate from to give pure compound. Yield: 72%, m.p. 118-119°C,IR,cm -1

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Synthesis, characterization and properties of hybrid organic - inorganic perovskites for photovaltaic applications

Synthesis, characterization and properties of hybrid organic - inorganic perovskites for photovaltaic applications

pressure for FAPbBr 3 further indicates that it is less mechanically stable than its MA counterpart under external load. One factor is likely to be the weakness of the hydrogen bonding in FAPbBr 3 , as discussed above. Another factor is that for perovskites with high tolerance factors, the accommodation of large cations increases the possibility of local octahedral tilting, which reduces their mechanical stability while attempting to maintain the overall cubic structure. We should note that a hard sphere model was used in the tolerance factor approach, assuming the cations are fully disordered at room temperature. The effect of the asymmetric cation shape on the lattice distortions, however, is not captured in the tolerance factor calculations. Considering ionic size effects in double perovskites, we calculated using DFT the mechanical properties of a range of existing and hypothetical hybrid double perovskites in 𝑅3̅𝑚 space group symmetry (calculations were done by Zeyu Deng). [15] The results revealed that although most double perovskites are most stiff along the inorganic bond direction, for compositions with high tolerance factors, directions parallel to the C-N bonds of the MA cation become the stiffest, highlighting the role of cationic steric effects and hydrogen bonding.
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Organic Richness and Organic Matter Quality Studies of Shale Gas Reservoir in South Sumatra Basin, Indonesia

Organic Richness and Organic Matter Quality Studies of Shale Gas Reservoir in South Sumatra Basin, Indonesia

Talang Akar Formation is a proven hydrocarbon source rock in South Suma- tra basin. The formation contains dominant shale at the top, with some sand- stone interbeds. Whereas it contains coarse to very coarse sandstone beds at the bottom. The lower sandstone unit also contains carbonaceous shale and some coal seams. The geochemical analysis is important to identify a source rock quality in shale gas. The quality of source rock is determined by richness of the source rock and type of kerogen. 37 samples were collected from well cuttings in JML-1 and JML-2 wells. Samples we are received into the labora- tories in the form of well site canned ditch cuttings, bagged ditch cuttings in various stages of preparation from wet, unwashed to dried, washed; sidewall cores, conventional cores, outcrop samples. The richness of a source rock can be defined by the content of organic carbon which is measured as total or- ganic carbon (TOC). Based on geochemical result of analysis, quantity of shale hydrocarbon potential is indicated by the TOC value of 0.52 wt% - 6.12 wt% (fair to excellent criteria), with average of shale thickness more than 50 m. Tmax is an indication of the maturation stage of organic material and Hydrogen Index (HI) is a parameter used to explain the origin of organic material. HI versus Tmax crossplot was analysed for kerogen type determina- tion and presence of type II/III kerogen was identified. This study concludes that the source rock contains abundant humic organic matter that was depo- sited in a transitional (Fluvio-deltaic) to marginal marine environment under oxic conditions.
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Isotopic investigation of subsurface rock and fluid interactions: Case studies of CO2 sequestration and gas-bearing shale formations

Isotopic investigation of subsurface rock and fluid interactions: Case studies of CO2 sequestration and gas-bearing shale formations

Neodymium (Nd) isotope data were obtained on a subset of samples from the Greene County core. None of the leachates had enough Sm-Nd to analyze isotopically, so all of the results here are from the silicate organic residues obtained from the procedure depicted in Figure 29. The samples range from marly limestone to calcareous shale to organic-rich black shale. Shales within the Marcellus Formation can have high calcium carbonate contents that can reflect post- depositional/diagenetic precipitation. To understand the provenance of the silicate and organic portions of the shale, the residues remaining after the acetic acid leaches were used. The acetic acid-soluble portions of shales in this section of the core ranged from 0.2 to 4.4% (Phan et al, 2012); the residue of one limestone (#35) was analyzed as well. Two volcanic ash samples were also analyzed; one was from the same Greene County core that produced the shale and limestone samples, while the other volcanic ash sample was from a core in Clearfield County, Pennsylvania.
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Application of Conventional Well Logs for Rock Classification to Enhance Characterization of Heterogeneity in Carbonate Formations

Application of Conventional Well Logs for Rock Classification to Enhance Characterization of Heterogeneity in Carbonate Formations

selected zone. Their variograms correspond to a larger correlation length compared to the correlation length identified using permeability estimates (Fig. 4.8a). This behavior is expected, as GR only corresponds to the shale content in the formation and apparent resistivity logs have a relatively poor vertical resolution. However, variograms of well logs such as bulk density and PEF provide correlation lengths, similar to that of permeability estimates. As individual well logs might not be indicative of spatial heterogeneity, I used PCA to assimilate all the well logs with no significant loss of variability in the dataset. Principle Component is an alternative form of presenting the data, while retaining the main structure of the dataset. Fig. 4.8b shows the variogram constructed using PC1 for the zone under study. The
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An NMR study of porous rock and biochar containing organic material

An NMR study of porous rock and biochar containing organic material

ual hydrocarbon matter. There are two techniques that will be discussed : Proton NMR Relaxation (NMRR) and NMR Cryoporometry (NMRC) [10.1016/j.physrep.2008.02.001] This study applies proton NMR relaxation to characterise the quantity and mobility of hydrocarbon matter in dried shale and carbonate rock and biochar pores. Curve-fitting is applied to the Free Induction Decays (FIDs) and Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) echo trains to quantify the measurements. This study also applies NMR cry- oporometry, to measure structure: pore-size distribution and pore volumes of the rock, and of the stable carbon skeleton. It has the significant advantage of being usable even when there are liquids and volatile components already in the pores. In porous rocks, combining mobility and structural information will provide a measure of the difficulty of removing the tar/oil from the rock. In biochar, combining the mobility of the labile components with the struc- tural information for the stable biochar skeleton will inform calculations of lifetime of the labile components within the biochar. The NMRC data will also inform estimates of the lifetime of the biochar carbon skeleton.
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Geoelectrical Characterization of Rock Formations Underlying Idonyi River, Amaeke-Abam, Southeastern Nigeria

Geoelectrical Characterization of Rock Formations Underlying Idonyi River, Amaeke-Abam, Southeastern Nigeria

of Novermber – March there is insufficient water supply for agricultural practices. Therefore there is need for a dam to be in place. Such a dam must have adequate foundation study to enable structural design by experts. For ages, the engineering of dams has evolved from crude works to increasingly complex systems. Ancient dam construction was a tentative art drawn from simple experimentation.The early dam builders made practical use of alluvium that was readily available along streams. They created precarious embankments, easily erased by floods. Consequently, earthfills inspired little confidence for thousands of years. Dams made of rock materials were favoured in many parts of the world. In the Wadi el-Garawi dam near Helwan in Egypt are remnants of Sadd el – Kafara dam which date from as early as 2600BC to 2900BC. It was a 46ft – high (14 meters) rockfill with cut-stone masonry faces and a core of rubble and gravel. The central section is assumed to have been destroyed by flood soon after or in the final stage of construction. The core materials were not well protected from erosion. Insufficient provision for spill was responsible. This has been the case for the failures of many dams throughout history [1]. As the centuries unfolded, craftmanship improved. The Romans constructed many dams of very durable mortarted masonry. Some of them are still in service. Their large spill–ways attesting to the Roman understanding of engineering fundamentals. Some historians believe that the Romans were the originators of the arch dams. An impresssive structure of this type was built on a tributary of the Khabur River near Daras on the Turkish –Syrian border [1]. A notable dam of the Mongol Period in Persia was built in a narrow gorge on the Kebar River about 15miles (24km
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Organic compounds in ejected rocks of mud volcanoes as geological and geochemical indicators of source rock: a study of oil shale in  shamakhi-gobustan region (azerbaijan)

Organic compounds in ejected rocks of mud volcanoes as geological and geochemical indicators of source rock: a study of oil shale in shamakhi-gobustan region (azerbaijan)

Almost all the mud volcanic structures in the Shamakhy­ Gobustan region are potentially oil­bearing. Duvanny oil and gas field is developing in Southern Gobustan (Productive series, Miocene). Commercial oil and gas content of the productive series V and VII horizons has been established (over the Garadag break­down suite) at the Dashgil mudvolcanic area; Kyanizadag gas condensate field has been discovered in the Productive series; commercial oil influx from the Miocene sediments (Chockrak horizon) has been obtained on the Dashgil structure. Eruption of mud volcanoes ends with emission of products at a depth of 6­8 km and more. These products are sole data, which contain information on geology of deep deposits of region, where have not been studied with drilling or detailed geophysical surveys [3­5]. In this regard, Shamakhy­Gobustan region is a model area to search of hydrocarbon deposits in deeper sediments. The study aimed at obtaining new information on stratigraphic intervals and depths of hydrocarbon in the study area. To clarify the potential of hydrocarbon generation in Eocene and the Maikopian deposits and its possible accumulation in relatively young rocks, the geochemical and geological indicators of mud volcanic products were analyzed. The first researches on oil shale of Azerbaijan have been carried out at the last century [9, 15, 16­19, 21, 22]. More detailed studies have been carrying out since 2000 by scientists of Institute of
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Controls on amorphous organic matter type and sulphurization in a Mississippian black shale

Controls on amorphous organic matter type and sulphurization in a Mississippian black shale

AOM is usually described under transmitted and fl uorescent light by eye (e.g., Tyson, 1995), and is often subdivided into “ homogenous ” and “ heterogeneous ” types (e.g., Hennissen et al., 2017). “ Homogenous ” AOM includes gelli fi ed humic material, and is therefore often interpreted as Type III OM (Tyson, 1995). “ Heterogeneous ” AOM is subdivided into “ diffuse-edged ” (also termed “ granular ” ) and “ sharp- edged ” AOM (Tyson, 1995). The former is typically interpreted as bacte- rial or highly degraded plant material and de fi ned as Type III OM. “ Sharp-edged ” AOM is usually interpreted as “ well-preserved ” Type I or II OM, particularly if this is highly fl uorescent under ultra-violet light (Tyson, 1995). Where AOM exhibits a distinctive orange color under transmitted light, this is usually a proxy for S-rich compounds (e.g., Tribovillard et al., 2001). Under suitable conditions, S may be in- corporated into OM during syngenesis or early diagenesis, a process that is termed sulphurization (e.g., Sinninghe Damsté and De Leeuw, 1990a; Amrani, 2014).
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