contains Salaretin and mangiferin which reduces the suguar level and protect the body from any secondary side effect of Diabetes. Mangiferin in Salacia Reticulata inhibits the formation of LDL and thus maintains the blood lipid profiles. Indian Research has shown that Salacia Reticulata also has hepatoprotective effects 4,5,6,7 . As such, it is also used as a liver tonic. Salacia Reticulata is very effective in case of Rheumatism, Menstrual disorders, Skin diseases, inflammations, spermatorrhoea. The roots are acrid, bitter, thermogenic, urinarty, astrigent, anodyne, anti-inflammatory. They are useful in vitiated conditions of vata diabetes, haemorrhoids, rehumatism, gonorrhaea and skin diseases 8,9 .
The sterols fraction from methanolic extract of the fruits of carissa carandus was investigated for anti-inflammatoryactivity in animal models.The powder of carissa carandus fruits was subjected to extraction with methanol in soxhlet extractor. The methanolic extract after preliminary phytochemicalinvestigation showed the presence of sterols, triterpenoids, phenolic compounds and flavonoids. Results of the study revealed that sterols possesses significant anti-inflammatoryactivity. The anti-inflammatoryactivity was studied using acetic acid induced vascular permeability and croton oil induced ear edema at a two different doses (200 and 400 mg/kg) of methanolic extract. The methanolic extract of carissa carandus fruit was exhibited significant anti-inflammatoryactivity at the dose of 400 mg/kg in both models when compared with control group. Indomethacin (10 mg/kg) was also shown significant anti-inflammatoryactivity in both models.
Triterpenoids, lupeol, betulinic acid, oleanolic acid, α-amyrin and β-amyrin were largely distributed in the leaves, roots, and fruits of the Carissa genus (15). A novel oleandric acid isolated from Nerium oleander exhibited anti‐inflammatory and anticancer potential (4,11). Phytochemicalinvestigation of Wrightia tinctoria led to the isolation of a new triterpenoid, wrightial, and known lupeol (4). Taraxasterol acetate was isolated from the roots and stem of T. divaricata (4,11). Alstonic acids and oleanolic acid were reported from the leaves of Alstonia scholaris. These triterpenoids exhibited antitumor, antimicrobial and anti‐inflammatory activities (15). Oleanolic acid exhibited anti‐inflammatoryactivity against proinflammatory mediators such as nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor‐α (TNF- α), and interlukin‐1b (4,16).
Tannins are polyphenolic compounds present in plants, food, beverages, soluble in water and polar organic solvents. Tannins possesss high antioxidants, antimicrobial, gastroprotective, anti-ulcerogenic ativities, anti-fibrotic effects and free radical scavenging activity.  Flavanoids are also widely distributed in plants which have been reported to exert multiple biological effects, including antioxidant, free radical scavenging abilities, anti-inflammatory, anticarcinogenic activity etc.  The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the phytochemicals and antibacterial activity of stem extract of salacia chinensis.
This study was focused on the roots and rhizomes of G. glabra L, which can be useful as a source of medicine for some oral diseases and as an important component of the health care system. Since the main topic is to find a medicine from natural source that can be useful in the treatment of some oral diseases, therefore some biological activities must be taken into consideration mainly the analgesic , anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activities of the medicinally active principles.The roots extract of licorice possesses powerful anti-inflammatoryactivity as G. radix increased corticosterone levels in rats. Also, glycyrrhizin and glycyrrhetinic acid are known to inhibit phospholipase A2. Not only active as analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial, licorice is also very active as antiulcerogenic agent [16,17] which increases its potential for the treatment of oral ulcers like aphthus ulcer and lichen planus. In this study the investigation of the biological activity of licorice successive extracts as analgesic and anti-inflammatory agent using in vitro models namely writhing technique and hind rat paw oedema, together with separation of the major phytchemical constituents which may be responsible for these activities, in addition to the preparation of pharmaceutical dosage forms of the active extracts and performing clinical trials on patients suffering from oral diseases were carried out. The results revealed a remarkable and significant anti-inflammatoryactivity of the polar extract (P>0.05) by using the carrageenan induced hind rat paw oedema and this result represents 58% potency comparing with Indomethacin at the first hour of carrageenan injection.The bioactive polar extract of G. glabra was then subjected to further chemical investigation to isolate the phytochemical constituents
Berberis lyceum is also known as Indian Barberry. It is a rapidly growing herb mainly distributed in India and Pakistan. In traditional system of medicine, the plant is used for various affliction and diseases. The different parts of the plant like leaves, stem, root, fruits and flowers are used by the people as medicines and food. The plant is known to prevent eye disorders, abdominal disorders, skin diseases etc. Pharmacological investigation has shown that it exhibits antibacterial property, antidiabetic property and cardiac diseases. The Present review article overview the phytochemical and pharmacological properties of the plant and in this article attempt has been made to summarize the anti-inflammatory property of the plant.
The present study was carried out to investigate the antiulcer activity of methanolic extract of Terminalia bellirica in ethanol-induced ulceration in the rats model. The results revealed that the ethanol administration in the negative control group resulted in massive ulcer formation (P<0.01) in comparison with the normal group. However, pre- treatment with omeprazole at the dose of 20 mg/kg and methanolic extract of T. bellirica at the doses of 100 250 and 500 mg/kg showed significant inhibition (P<0.01, P<0.05, P<0.01 and P<0.01, respectively). Among the test drugs, the best result was obtained with T. bellirica at an optimum dose of 500 mg/kg which was potentially effective as compared with a standard drug, omeprazole. In the present study, the histopathological examination of the stomach disclosed that oral administration of T. bellirica suppressed the massive degeneration and accumulation of inflammatory cells in the gastric mucosal layer after ethanol challenge. The suppressive effects were observed at all doses of the test drugs. So, the findings observed in the current studies support and extend previous results that reported the anti- inflammatory and anti-ulcer activities of T. bellirica of leave extract, respectively. Furthermore, the present studies also revealed a better inhibition of inflammation and gastric ulcer as compare to the previously reported.
Abstract: Salacia Linn belongs to the family Celastraceae which was formerly known as Hippocreataceae. It is the largest and most valuable genus possessing various Secondary Metabolites which have high medicinal properties. Hence, this study was focused on screening the presence of various phytochemicals such as steroids, terpenoids, tannins, flavonoids, phenols, carbohydrates, quinines, coumarins etc. Methanol was used as a Solvent system for the extraction process. Seven species of Salacia such as Salacia beddomei Gamble, Salacia chinensis L., Salacia fruticosa Heyne ex Lawson, Salacia gambleana Whiting & Kaul, Salacia macrosperma Wight, Salacia malabarica Gamble, and Salacia oblonga Wall, were selected for this study. The present study showed that steroid, flavonoid, saponins, tannins and alkaloid were found to be present in all species of Salacia whereas furan, quinone and phenol were absent in Salacia chinensis and Salacia oblonga respectively, terpenoid was absent in Salacia fruticosa, Salacia gambleana, carbohydrate was absent in Salacia macrosperma, Salacia malabarica and Salacia oblonga, coumarin was absent in Salacia beddomei, Salacia fruticosa, Salacia malabarica and acid was absent in Salacia chinensis, Salacia fruticosa and Salacia gambleana. Methanolic extract of selected species of Salacia was further subjected to antibacterial activity to find their inhibitory action against two bacterial species such as E-Coli (Gram +ve) and Bacillus cereus (Gram –ve). Various concentrations such as 250µg, 500 µg, 750 µg and 1000 µg were taken. All species of Salacia showed maximum inhibitory action against Bacillus cereus than E-Coli and the zone of inhibition was expressed in terms of Mean ± SD. Streptomycin was used as a standard positive control.
Therapeutically active principles are extracted from all parts of the plant body, but the concentration of these components varies from part to part. Normally, parts known to contain the highest concentration of the principles are preferred to therapeutic purposes and it can either be the leaves, stems, barks, roots, bulks, rhizomes, woods, flowers, fruits or the seeds. 1 The literature review revealed that antimicrobial, analgesic, antifertility and antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, purgative and hepatoprotective activities. In the indigenous system of medicine, the paste of the fruits, leaves and roots of Thespesia populnea is applied locally for their anti-inflammatory effects on swollen joints. 2 Gossypol was found to be the major component of Thespesia populnea which is responsible for anti-inflammatory and antifertility effects in rats as well as in human beings. 3 The flowers contained kaempferol, kaempferol-7-glucoside and gossypetin, The fruit kernels were reported to contain sitosterol, ceryl alcohol and a yellow pigment, thespesin. 4 The plant is traditionally claimed to possess useful medicinal properties 5,6 such as antifertility, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, purgative and hepatoprotective 7 activities and its bark, leaves and flowers are useful in cutaneous infections such as scabies, psoriasis, eczema, ring worms, guinea worm, 8 anti- inflammatory for poultice as a folk medicine etc. In addition to these T. populnea has been scientifically proved to possess medicinal properties such as antibacterial, antifertility, and antinociceptive activities, 9 as
Plants have been used for pain relieving and health care needs from earlier times. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the anti-diabetic activity of Salacia chinensis specimen stem collected from Karikan location, Karnataka, India. The aqueous stem extract of Salacia chinensis were evaluated for in -vivo anti-diabetic activity in animal rat model. Young adult male albino rats(Sprague-Dawley strain) were used. Experimental diabetes was induced in rats by intraperitoneal administration of streptozotocin. The animals were divided in to five groups each constituting six rats. One group of diabetic rats were treated with standard drug Glibenclamide 5mg/kg/b.w./p.o and other two groups were treated with low and high dose of Salacia chinensis aqueous extract. The above mentioned treatment scheduele was followed for the respective group of animals for 28 days. Blood samples were collected from tail vein in overnight fasted animals on 0 th , 7 th , 21 st and 28 th day to estimate blood glucose levels using a commercial glucometer and glucose – oxidase strips. (One touch glucometer). The aqueous stem extract of the Salacia chinensis with low and high dose showed significant, anti-diabetic efficiency in Streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetics in experimental model rats and the results were Comparable with the standard drug Glibenclamide.
only by acting as antioxidants but also by mediating cytokines and enzymes inhibition . Many studies have demonstrated that polyphenols possess anti- inflammatory effects via scavenging ROS [58,59], and have been reported to be beneficial in the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases associated with overproduction of nitric oxide (NO) . In addition, for this reason, numerous plant rich in these potent antioxidant compounds have been investigated as potential inhibitors of NO production in inflammatory reactions .
The present study was carried out to investigate the diuretic activity of ethanol extract of the leaves of Trichosanthes cucurmena L. (EETC), Cucumis sativus L.(EECS) and fruits of Corriandrum sativum L. (EECRS) to make a poly herbal formulation (PHF) and were administered to experimental rats orally at the dose level of of 150mg/kg and compared with standard drug Furosemide (20mg/kg). The diuretic effects of the extracts and PHF were evaluated by measuring the parameters like urine volume, sodium, potassium and chloride contents. The lipschistz method used in rat for the experiment purpose.
The result was satisfying when compared with the standard drug at 150 mg/kg anti-inflammatoryactivity shows inhibition of edema MEJC i.e. 100 mg/kg (0.71 ± 0.03), 200 mg/kg (0.7±0.03), 400 mg/kg (0.6 ± 0.03) which is comparable with the standard drug aspirin 150 mg/kg (0.53 ± 0.02). In analgesic all the three doses of MEJC i.e. 100 mg/kg (9.33 ± 0.33 sec), 200 mg/kg (10.67 ± 0.88 sec) and 400 mg/kg (11.33 ± 0.88). This result suggests that fruits of Jatropha curcas has anti- inflammatory and analgesic properties comparable with those of standard drugs and may be useful for the treatment of painful inflammatory conditions. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT: The author is thankful to the Management and Principal Dr. Subhakanta Dash, Girijananda Chowdhury Institute of Pharmaceutical Science, Guwahati, Assam for
DOI: 10.4236/nm.2019.103020 261 Neuroscience & Medicine by the traditional herbalists and local communities . Phytochemical screening of P. dodecandra , show the presence of various chemical compounds including the saponins, alkaloid, phenolics, steroids, terpenoids and many others   and these could be responsible for the pharmacological activities of the plant and its toxic properties   . However, whereas P. dodecandra is commonly used by the local communities to relieve pain and inflammatory conditions attri- buted to various pathological conditions and diseases, its pharmacological activity in management and controlling of these conditions has not been fully scientifically evaluated and documented. The study therefore, evaluated the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of the total crude leaf extracts of P. dodecandra in Wistar albino rats.
Cucuma longa (turmeric) is used extensively as spice, preservative and coloring agent in India, China & South East Asia 5 . It is also used locally for home made remedy for various diseases. Curcumin (diferuloylmethane), the main yellow bioactive component of turmeric has been shown to have a wide spectrum of biological actions: Antioxidant effects, Hepatoprotective effects, Anti-inflammatory effects, Anticarcinogenic effects, Antimicrobial effects and Cardiovascular effects 2, 6-8 . Here, we have re- investigated the Antimicrobial activity and Anti- inflammatoryactivity of crude Curcuma longa and searched for new compounds other than the known compounds using chromatography.
Design and synthesis of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is the important field in drug design, hence in recent years the newer strategy of synthesizing molecules for the inhibition of enzyme leading to inflammation is of special interest, PLA2 is a low molecular mass enzyme (Moeira et al., 2011) which is responsible for the release of arachidonic acid and lysophospholipid by catalyzing the hydrolysis of Sn2-ester bond of phospholipids. Arachidonic acid is precursor in the biosynthesis of eicosanoids and the lysophospholipid serves as a precursor for platelet activating factor, these products when produced in excess are responsible for chronic diseases such as cancer and autoimmune disorders (Dennis, 1997). Further, supported by extensive research and clinical evidences, it is found that pathophysiological conditions during inflammation are associated
Several new fluorinated quinazolinone derivatives were prepared and evaluated for in vitro anti-inflammatoryactivity. The molecular modelling study was performed for compounds 4, 8, 9, 10 and 13. The tested compounds showed strong interactions at the COX-2 binding sites. Compounds 8, 13, 9, and 10 containing triazole, thiadiazole, and oxadiazole rings showed the highest in vitro anti-inflammatoryactivity and the best binding into the COX-2 binding site.
Variety of phytochemicals like flavonoids, terpenoids, and saponins has been described to possess significant anti-inflammatoryactivity. Several studies proved naturally occurring coumarins (Yasser, and Nabil, 2012) and flavonoids (Selvum, 2004) act as dual inhibitors of cyclooxygenase and 5- lipoxygenase activities. Flavonoids inhibit biosynthesis of prostaglandins (the end products of the COX and lipoxygenase pathways), which acts as a secondary messengers and are involved in various immunologic responses. (Min and al, 2004). Inhibition of these enzymes provides the mechanism by which flavonoids inhibit inflammatory disorders (Ram and al, 2012).
Curcuma caesia possesses strong antioxidant activity as evidenced by the free radical scavenging property, can be a very effective antioxidant and can protect biological systems against the oxidative stress that is found to be an important pathophysiological event in a variety of diseases including aging, cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular disorders, and rheumatoid arthritis. This may be due to the presence of phenolic components in the Curcuma caesia. Overall, Curcuma caesia is a source of natural antioxidant that can be important in disease prevention and health preservation. The antimicrobial activity of the rhizomes of Curcuma caesia was evaluated by using the disk diffusion method. The microorganisms chosen to be studied Gram positive, S. aureus and Gram- negative E. coli and fungus like C. albicans. This microorganism were chosen to be studied as they are imperative pathogens and furthermore because of quickly created anti-microbial resistance. The plant extract possess antimicrobial activity.