According to Oswal, Pednekar, and Gupta (2010) Canada was the first country to introduce this regulation in 2001 while Brazil, Thailand and New Zealand introduced it shortly after. According to World Health Organization (n.d.) placing pictorialhealthwarnings on tobacco products is a practical and cost effective way of raising awareness of health risks regarding smoking. Furthermore guidelines for implementation of Article 11 state that combination of text and pictures as a form of a health warning is much effective than only text ones. Additionally citizens with low level of literacy are in that way also better informed about the threats of cigarette smoke. Haeran and Madhubalan (2012) explain that consumers with low level of literacy heavily rely on pictorial information. Moreover when comparing text-only to those with pictures, evidence gathered by World Health Organization. an (n.d.) show that packs with pictorialhealthwarnings are more noticeable, more effective according to smokers, much more effectively communicate health threats, disrupt product/brand image, cause smokers to think more about what they are doing and finally lead towards increased motivation/attempts to quit smoking. But as history repeats itself, the tobacco industry again found ways to interfere with the implementation of this law in countries who decided to enforce this WHO recommendation. For example, India has struggled with implementation of pictorialhealthwarnings. The tobacco industry used many different methods that “constantly diluted, delayed, and deferred” (Oswal et al., 2010, p. 101) packaging and labelling rules. Extreme Health Warning Regulation
Abstract. This study was carried out to determine whether health warning pictures(HWP) affect smoking cessation using a structured equation model for intending-to-quit smokers in work places. Data from a 1-year longitudinal follow- up of attempt-to-quit employees was obtained to determine if pack warnings affect tobacco cessation rates. Stratified simple random sampling, and Structured Equa- tion Modeling (SEM) were employed. Approximately 20% of intending-to-quit smokers were successful. The integrated model, combining internal, interpersonal factors and health warning pictures as external factors, fit the fail to quit pattern of the model. Having a smoking father was the most significant proximate indi- cator linked with failure to quit. Although HWL pictures were an external factor in the decision to stop smoking, the direct and indirect causes of failure to quit smoking were the influence of the family members. Fathers contributed to the success or failure of smoking cessation in their children by having an influence on the decision making process. Future HWP should include information about factors that stimulate smokers to quit successfully. The role model of a father on quitting is also important.
In this review, pictorialhealthwarnings were consist- ently perceived as more effective than text-only warnings in communicating the health risks associated with to- bacco use and modifying non-smoker and smoker be- haviours [26–28, 30, 31, 34]. This is supported by a recent meta-analysis that included both adults and ado- lescents, which reported that pictorialwarnings attracted more attention, caused strong reactions, incited more negative attitudes towards packaging and smoking, and were more effective in reducing tobacco use . The increased size and ‘graphicness’ (also referred to as strengthening) of healthwarnings has also been found to be an important aspect of individual warnings, result- ing in improved knowledge of the risks of tobacco use and intentions to quit smoking . In this review, GHWs depicting lung cancer were perceived by partici- pants as being the most effective, followed by those depicting oral diseases [26, 27, 30, 32]. In comparison to text-only messages, GHWs which clearly depict negative (particularly external) health consequences of tobacco use have been theorised to have a greater public reach as they require minimal levels of health literacy for basic understanding. This is made more important by the trend of increased smoking prevalence amongst those with a lower level of education [48–50]. However,
Abstract: Smoking negatively affects individuals’ health, and health problems caused by tobacco products are an important burden on the economy. Thus, struggle against cigarette is a topic of interest for governments. Turkish Health Ministry has mandated to place 14 different textual and pictorialhealthwarnings (graphic warning label - GWL) on cigarette packs since 2010. However, the extent of GWLs effectiveness is not fully known. Therefore, this research aims to investigate 14 GWLs in terms of their effectiveness. During research, participators were asked to evaluate each GWL which they considered effective; the most effective 3 GWLs were determined by frequency analysis. Besides, the relations between the most effective 3 GWLs, gender, age and smoking levels were tested. Results revealed that the fact that GWLs were considered effective is not independent of gender and smoking levels. In this respect, the amount of female participants who considered GWLs as effective was proportionately higher than male respondents. In a similar vein, along with the decrease in smoking frequency, more respondents indicated that GWLs are effective. However, findings illustrated that there was no relation between age and the fact that whether GWLs are perceived as effective.
Using Google Trends data has some notable advantages, such as being able to study a precursor of behavioural change that is not covered by traditional smoking behaviour surveys. Searching for information online offers very low barriers, it is accessible to most people, comes with no additional costs, and is virtually anonymous. For many people, the internet is now the first source of information regarding their health, and the information found online might even be more readily accepted than the advice of health professionals 30 . In addition, having
Moreover, it has been observed that the user’s accept- ance of warnings provided by advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) is related to the provision time. Thus, if the driver is warned late by an ADAS, in order to brake quickly, due to its critical distance from the vehicle ahead, an accident might occur, while if the warning comes earlier than it should, the driver will receive a big number of warnings. This might cause driver’s irritation and rejection of the system. As an example, at the IN-ARTE tests, the system that was tested used the thresholds by the manufacturers, which led to a great
Abstract Otosclerosis is an otodystrophy of the otic capsule and is a cause of conductive, mixed or sensorineural hearing loss in the 2nd to 4th decades of life. Otosclerosis is categorised into two types, fenestral and retrofenestral. Imag- ing plays an important role in the diagnosis and management of otosclerosis. High-resolution CT (HRCT) of the temporal bone using 1-mm (or less) thick sections is the modality of choice for assessment of the labyrinthine windows and co- chlear capsules. MRI has limited application in the evaluation of the labyrinthine capsules but is useful for assessment of the cochlear lumen prior to cochlear implantation in patients with profound hearing loss. The treatment of fenestral otosclerosis is primarily surgical with stapedectomy and prosthesis inser- tion. Patients with retrofenestral otosclerosis and profound hearing loss are treated medically using fluorides, but may derive significant benefit from cochlear implantation. This pictorial review aims to acquaint the reader with the pathology and clinical features of otosclerosis, the classical imaging appearances on CT and MRI, a radiological checklist for preoperative CT evaluation of otosclerosis, imaging mimics and a few examples of post-stapedectomy imaging and complications.
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As in many countries, Egypt has adopted the practice of placing healthwarnings on waterpipe tobacco packs in an attempt to control tobacco smoking. However, most of participants in all phases agreed that GHWs would be more visible if they were placed somewhere other than on tobacco packs, largely because smokers do not see the packs in the venues where waterpipe smoking typically occurs. A qualitative study conducted in London, UK examined the impact of health warning labels on waterpipe packs. The researchers found that participants perceived healthwarnings on waterpipe tobacco packages as ineffective and suggested exposing smokers to warnings during consumption to enhance their effect 39 .
was observed during the following trials; congruency was less important for abstract warnings. Performance advantages for well-mapped auditory icons over more distantly mapped sounds have been reported in a number of studies (for instance see Keller and Stevens, 2004; McKeown and Isherwood, 2007; McKeown, Isherwood and Conway, 2010). The importance of congruency for novice, but not for experienced, listeners of the auditory icons also mirrors visual icon research in which the representativeness and closeness of icon-referent pairings has been found to be of most importance for
the subjects in both the elementary experimental and the elementary control groups. It happened three times a week seeing through one test each time. Previous to the onset of the listening, all the subjects were asked to read the related comprehension questions to make sure they understood all the questions. All the members in both the experimental and control groups were given the same text to listen to, while those in the experimental group had the added assistance of the related pictures before their eyes while listening; this we called pictorial assistance. The control group, though, only listened to the text without pictorial assistance. Both groups were then asked to answer the related comprehension questions.
There is limited research on the presentation of on-product warnings and their role as primary warnings. When warning information found in a product manual is also presented on a product it serves as a secondary warning (i.e., reminders). Insufficient research in this area also exists. The manual-exposure times used in this experiment were based on the results of pilot tests. Results revealed that 25 seconds with the product manual was not enough time for participants to locate the warning information. Pilot tests also revealed that 300 seconds with the product manual gave participants more than adequate time to locate and review warning information several times.
by the meteorological authority concerned for aerodromes where wind shear is considered a factor, in accordance with local arrangements with the appropriate ATS unit and operators concerned. Wind shear warnings shall give concise information on the observed or expected existence of wind shear which could adversely affect aircraft on the approach path or take-off path or during circling approach between runway level and 500 m (1 600 ft) above that level and aircraft on the runway during the landing roll or take-off run. Where local topography has been shown to produce significant wind shears at heights in excess of 500 m (1 600 ft) above runway level, then 500 m (1 600 ft) shall not be considered restrictive.