Despite there is a high consensus that urbanplanning has a fundamental role to study, coordinate and implement measures to improve the urbanclimate for facing the climate change effect, the professionals still does not seem have internalized it. The Metropolitan Plan of Barcelona is now in process. The new plan for the metropolitanarea should direct the urban development of 36 municipalities, bringing together about 3.5 million inhabitants. For the first time, the aim is to include climate assessment in urbanplanning in Barcelona in order to mitigate the effects of the UHI. The present paper shows the results of the research project developed at the Technical University of Catalonia (Urban CLIM-PLAN) directed to build a set of physical and urban models of UHI in order to integrate them into a platform for multiscale simulation of the climate system of the MetropolitanArea of Barcelona. The paper shows the methodology used to define "local climate zones", or "climatopes", and their insertion in metropolitanurbanplanning. The urbanclimate zones are areas with similar microclimatic characteristics. They differ especially in the daily temperature curve, the vertical roughness (wind field disturbances), the topographic position and exposure and above all in the type of current land use. Another criterion to identify "climatopes" is the quantity of emissions produced. As microclimatic characteristics in built-up areas are primarily determined by the type of land use and especially by the type of development, “urbanclimate zones” are named after the dominant type of land use. Its inclusion in metropolitanplanning in Barcelona can be a decisive step to reduce the city's climate impacts, increasing its resilience to climate change.
The monocentric urban density analysis has received considerable attention form two disciplines: urban geography and regional science. This has been approached both theoretically and empirically. The classic study by Colin Clark (1951) has led to an extensive body of literature dealing with empirical implementations for a wide range of metropolitan areas and cities, in different countries and at different times. In this work, we analyse the classical econometric models of urban density. Some of them have been used in studies about traffic planning and some others in theoretical models on housing market. Quantitative geography has also attempted to model the urban population density. We analyse sixteen functional forms that originate both in theoretical models and in empirical observation and we introduce in the analysis a new functional form more general. Some of these functions have been used in studies about traffic planning, for example Tanner (1961) and Smeed (1963), and some others in theoretical models on housing market (Muth, 1969). Quantitative geography has also attempted to model the urban population density (Stewart, (1947), Newling (1969, 1971)). The generalisation of the functional form and the comparison of results are due to Casetti (1973), McDonald and Bowman, (1976), Kau and Lee, (1976a, 1976b), Zielinski (1979), Anselin and Can (1986) and Smith (1997). McDonald and Bowman estimate ten functional forms with data on sixteen cities, and they compare the results with the mean standard error, with the determination coefficient, and with the prediction of the total city population. Kau and Lee generalise the functional form by following the technique Box-Cox on data of forty cities. Zielinski uses the determination coefficient to evaluate ten functional forms, estimated for seven cities. Anselin and Cain, compare five forms for a city, following the contrast of McKinnon, White y Davidson (1983). Reviews of this literature are due to Thrall (1988), McDonald (1989), Smith (1997) and Wang and Zhou (1999). The functional form of urban population density is not unique and this fact forces the use of a selection process in each analysed case.
The habitation structure of the Helsinki region has already spread over a broad area with increases in employee commuting and other transportation con- sequences. The Helsinki MetropolitanArea trans- port system review (PLJ) estimates that traffic vol- umes will rise by 45 per cent by the year 2030, with a corresponding increase of 25 per cent in green- house gas emissions. Traffic volumes are forecast to grow by even more than this elsewhere in the Uusimaa region, with a 60 per cent rise in traffic resulting in 30 per cent higher greenhouse gas emissions. While it would be desirable to reduce the travel needs of residents in terms of overall mileage, many urban development factors tend to have the opposite effect. Good urbanplanning can also effectively encourage people to walk or cycle. National taxation policy can guide the choice of motor vehicles towards low-emission alternatives. By making greenhouse gas emissions a criterion of competitive tendering it is likewise possible for the cities to guide their own procurement towards the purchase of low-emission motor vehicles for use by city agencies and their use in transportation services purchased by the cities. It is also important for the cities to provide information on alternative modes of transportation in an optimally accessible and timely manner that most effectively meets the needs of residents.
3.1. Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Land Vulnerability to Degradation
Based on trends in the selected indicators reported in Table 1, non-urban land in the Rome metropolitanarea experienced a progressive increase in the degree of vulnerability to degradation associated to the expansion of urban settlements—especially low-density, discontinuous settlements. The average index of land vulnerability (ESAI) was higher than 1.375—the threshold identifying highly vulnerable land—over the whole time period. “Critical” areas—covering only 29% of the investigated area in 1960—expanded to 58% in 2010 (Figure 2). The increase in the ESAI was primarily due to anthropogenic pressures related to land management and climate change, as indicated by the specific trends in the MQI and CQI, growing respectively by 8.8% and 7.2%. By contrast, vegetation quality (increasing during 1960–2010) and soil quality contributed less to the ESAI dynamics. Relict natural ecosystems formed a natural belt around Rome with the lowest ESAI values observed in relict forest patches and natural parks.
The amount of pollution during the past years has grown an 8% worldwide , worsening the air quality and affecting hundreds of urban areas. The objective of this project is to determine if this rising is affecting in some way precipitation processes, using the BarcelonaMetropolitanArea (BMA) as an example. Based on precipitation and pollution data of the past years (2005-2015), measured automatic stations scattered all around the MAB, comparing data of the pairs of close stations and that are of the same type.
enhancing spatial flexibility by favouring car access and improving transit connectivity between residential locations and potential job opportunities is beneficial for the match between education and occupation, since it implies a reduction of job-search opportunity costs in urban labour markets. Therefore, the general implication of this study is that public policies that are designed to reduce commuting costs will help to improve employment and job quality. However, the processes of both urban sprawl and employment decentralisation of the Barcelona’s metropolitanarea took place in a context of weak metropolitan-wide planning. This growth pattern represents an important challenge in the development of an efficient (and cost-effective) public transport network that can satisfy transport needs, especially for working-related trips that take place outside central cities. Indeed, individuals who have to commute from residential areas to low job-density areas are more and more car-dependent. Therefore, although our results favour public policies aimed at increasing public transport accessibility ─ especially in the light of the environmental sustainability of public transport in dense urban areas ─ urban planners cannot disregard that having access to a car could be crucial for reaching jobs located at the periphery of the city.
First studies and publications on UHI date back to the early 1990s and the UHI is a phenomenon that is recognized and studied globally. Currently urbanization, anthropic activities and the use of outdoor materials are the major- influence factors of climate change, although urban areas are a small portion of the Earth's surface . The most notable consequence is the UHI, closely related to the air quality, overheating and population health problems. The magnitude or intensity of the UHI is related to the size of the city, but the UHI does not appear only in the big cities. The homogeneity of the development of the UHI is the result of an increasingly concentrated urban structure and its connections with suburban areas [14, 15, 16]. The highest temperatures are generally in the centre of a heat island often corresponding to downtown . By classifying the warmer and the main emissive source in a city, primarily there is the most densely built area, followed by commercial and industrial spaces; while, lower temperatures can be registered in the agricultural, hilly and forest land .
The model of the « compact city » aims at thwarting the cities’ tendency to spread out (Jenks et al., 1996). Compacification measures (such as urban containment) are seen as an efficient way to reduce automobile use, and hence pollution, in cities. The compact city has been underlying planning policies of numerous countries in Western Europe (Netherlands – van der Walk, 2002 ; Great Britain – Breheny, 1995 ; France, Law on a rational use of energy (LAURE) in 1996 and SRU law in 1999 1 ). As shown by the case of London, numerous european cities have adopted special measures to struggle against automobile use. It includes a strong commitment in land planning (2001 Plus, 2002) ; in Bordeaux for example, the PDU 2 aims at « having an effect on the evolution of urban morphology [so that] automobile use and its foreseeable growth could be limited (C.U.B, 2000, 31, translation made by the author).
The example of the H.E. Holmes Station Area, in Atlanta, Georgia, illustrates how the elements of an Urban Centers Policy relate. In the early 2000s, the City of Atlanta identified the H.E. Holmes MARTA station as an under-utilized area with potential for transit oriented development, and found its goals in the area reflected those of the Atlanta region’s Livable Cities Initiative. The City of Atlanta then submitted a formal request that ARC designate the area around the transit station a center. In the request, the City showed the various ways the area was eligible for designation, including that it met the minimum threshold for an urban center area. The City also identified that it needed planning study funds to rezone the area, and incentive of the regional policy. Planning staff at ARC reviewed the request, including its eligibility and its conformity to regional geography, and sent it to its boards for approval. ARC funded the study, which was completed in 2001 proposed rezoning the area (City of Atlanta, 2002). The rezoning occurred, and the City now discusses the area in meetings with ARC beyond the context of the study. It also has completed a five-year update showing
The third aspect developed in the Metropolitan Strategy 2031, to protect the global position of Sydney relates to the environmental qualities. Sydney’s natural attributes are introduced as key attractions for economic activity and investment driving the growth of the city to its prominent national and international position. From this perspective, protecting the natural environment is considered equally important to Sydney’s position at the global stage. Five years later, the Metropolitan Plan 2036 agreeing with this logic, takes the discussion over environmental issues to a different level. The revised document, defines climate change as one of major challenges for Sydney, and pushes for more sustainable development to prepare the metropolitanarea for the drier and unpredictable weather events ahead. Yet, both plans seem to neglect to value any specific change in order to practice more sustainable life/work style. In doing so, telework could be noted as an alternative work arrangement that reduces daily commute and supports sustainable choice of life/work style. This is another area that needs to be developed in future reviews of the plan.
ABSTRACT: The evaluation of the possible climate change influence on extreme precipitation is very interesting in the Mediterranean area due to the usual and characteristic high intensities of its rainfall pattern. This analysis is also very important in urban zones, especially those densely populated with complex sewer systems, generally vulnerable to torrential rainfall. In this work, a total of 114 simulated daily rainfall series, 84 for the period 2000–2099 and 30 for the control period 1951–1999, have been analysed. These series were obtained for six thermo-pluviometric stations located in the metropolitanarea of Barcelona using the information provided by five general circulation models under four future climate scenarios of greenhouse gas emissions and applying statistical downscaling methods. The potential changes in the intensity–duration–frequency relationships due to climate change have been investigated. For the last third of the 21st century, under A1B, A2 and B2 climate scenarios, an increase of at least 4% has been found on the expected daily rainfall with return period longer than 20 years. Using a temporal downscaling based on scaling properties of rainfall, future hourly extreme rainfall has been estimated. For almost all the scenarios and periods considered, the increase on the expected hourly rainfall has resulted slightly higher than the corresponding daily rainfall. The greatest differences between the future hourly and daily rainfall estimated have been found in the second third of the century under scenarios A1B (8%) and A2 (9%). Copyright 2013 Royal Meteorological Society
The patients could express their opinion about the usefulness of each environmental aid (eg, tactile pathway, chromatic contrast, pavement-level boarding signaling, handrail, pedes- trian crossing signaling, acoustic traffic light, tactile maps, and electronic information systems) and the frequency of use on a scale of 1–10. Figure 11 shows the overall average score for each aid with its relative maximum or minimum value. The handrail and the acoustic traffic light were considered the most useful aids by the majority of the study partici- pants. Figure 12 shows the most used environmental aids, and Figure 13 shows the least used aids. Figure 14 shows the aids that the participants identified as needing the most improvement in the Turin urbanarea.
Because extreme precipitation poses a potential threat to local water resource systems, this study predicts and analyzes future precipitation in the Houston area. The Modified Bartlett-Lewis Rectangular Pulse (MBLRP) model was utilized to generate stochastic precipitation based on source data. Observed precipitation of seven rainfall stations around the Houston area and daily precipitation data extracted from Global Circulation Model (GCM) were used as source data.
reject the null hypothesis for NO x and PM 10 at a 95% confidence level. These results
imply non-biased estimates of NO x and PM 10 air quality levels.
Most problems related to endogeneity can usually be avoided by using the differences-in-differences method (Bertrand et al., 2004). For instance, between 2006 and 2007, annual average concentrations of many pollutants fell, especially in what would be designated the 80 km/h speed limit area from 2008 onwards (Table 2). This suggests that policy implementation does not respond to air quality deterioration in the years immediately preceding the enforcement of speed reduction measures. As such, endogeneity problems that might bias policy effects can be avoided. It should likewise be noted that none of the political parties that was to form the coalition government had proposed the introduction of an 80 km/h speed limit in their election programs, a step that would have conditioned the adoption of the measure. Unobservable factors should not be underestimated in evaluations such as those conducted here. These factors can be classified into two types: those that are fixed throughout the program and those that vary over time. One of our assumptions is that the unobservable factors remain constant over time. The large number of time periods employed here ensures that the problems to which this type of assumption might give rise can be minimized.
52 6. Conclusions and Recommendations
The safety improvements recommended in this project are intended to increase the traffic safety in the Santa Fe metropolitanplanningarea. The systematic organization and analysis of this crash data, as shown in this study, will be of great use to the SFMPO and the city of Santa Fe to conduct future data-driven research as they work to improve the traffic safety in the area and apply for federal funding from the Highway Safety Improvement Program. The team recommends that the SFMPO implement this project as part of its regular planning activities, to be completed every few years. This will allow for a comparison between intersections before and after countermeasures are implemented, and it will ensure that the Santa Fe region becomes a safer place for all forms of transportation.
Palabras clave: Sustentabilidad Urbana; Formas de Crecimiento; Observatorios
Sustainability of Urban Growth Forms in MetropolitanArea of Buenos Aires
This paper presents advances of a research that is aimed to identify urban sustainability indicators which help to evaluate the performance of various forms of city growth and guide the establishment of observatories for monitoring environmental performance of territorial units of analysis, transferable to different AMBA sectors. The methodology applied, based in different theories that interpret changes of urbanization in the cities, was adapted to local context. Four units of analysis of
carrier(s), but also should be designed in most cases to readily accommodate 20- 30 foot extensions. Reasonable accommodation should also be provided at ground level to accommodate future equipment shelters.
Depending upon the type of technology, vertical co-location does not necessarily need 20 feet, 10 feet or even five feet of separation between different carriers’ antennas. Antennas sometimes can be placed “tip-to-tip” by using filtering, buffering and shielding software. Horizontal co-location is the clustering of two or more support structures in a common area. Some jurisdictions require a minimum spacing between support structures in order to avoid an “antenna farm” appearance. This plan does not suggest an overall spacing requirement, but leaves that visual impact question to be decided on a case-by-case basis.
coefficient of land availability, reading -0.404, indicates that every 1000 added, reduces spatial use by 404 units. The transport system test value of 1.139, states that subsequent addition of 1000 increases spatial use by 1.139 units. The increase in service by 1000 reduces the use by 526 units as seen in the coefficient value of - 0.526. (d) coefficient of facilities and infrastructure of 0.643 states that every addition of facilities and infrastructure equal to 1000 will add spatial use of 643 units. The investment/capital flow regression coefficient of -0,694 states that every additional investment/capital flow of 1000 will reduce spatial use by 694 units. Thus it can be concluded that the pattern of urban activity that continues to increase in line with economic growth will trigger spatial integration and change in spatial use in the urban suburbs of the Mamminasata Metropolitan and have a direct influence on the surrounding urban and rural areas. The best regression model was obtained by removing the variables of housing and settlements as well as the formal economy in order for only the independent variables, considered to significant influence spatial use variables. This assessment was carried out in 3 stages which include analysis using the enter method, meaning that all variables are included in the model in order to produce a regression model: Y = 27,549- 0. 4 1 1 X 1 + 1 . 1 5 1 X 2 + 0 . 1 8 6 X 3 - 0 . 2 1 0 X 4 - 0 . 0 6 0X5 +0.546X6-0.096X7+0.644X8-0.701X9; R square = 0.842. Analysis with the backward method, through the issued housing and settlement variables (Probability of F-to remove> = 0.100) from the model in order to form the regression: Y = 23,473-0.425X1+1.155X2+0.193X3- 0.228X4-0.558X6+ 0.105 X7+0.633X8-655X9; R square = 0.836 and . Analysis with the backward method, through