Top PDF The plight of women in Egyptian cinema (1940s 1960s)

The plight of women in Egyptian cinema (1940s 1960s)

The plight of women in Egyptian cinema (1940s 1960s)

For this purpose this research sets out to examine the connections between the Egyptian long-feature films of the selected period and the socio-historical and cultural realities of[r]

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Plight of Rural Women in The Era Of Globalisation

Plight of Rural Women in The Era Of Globalisation

India has been the second populous and the seventh largest country in the world & it is basically a village/rural oriented sub-continent. It has a agrarian economy where women constitute the backbone of agricultural production. In rural India women constitute 68 percent of the agricultural work force. Rural women have, since many centuries been putting in unfathomable, unbearable and inadequately paid. Despite the burden of poverty and house hold management they contribute significantly to family income in the form agricultural productions, storage, marketing, food processing and engaging in other small house industries. Joyless drudgery to earn for their families & livelihood, women in rural India provide food security to the country’s 1.13 billion people.The plight of most rural women has been pathetic since they have to collect firewood, fetch drinking water, searcher fodder to feed cattle, work on their meager land to raise crops, work as laborers on other farms, take care of children etc. In our rural economy agriculture & allied sector employed as many as 89.5 percent of total women labour. Women’s average contribution, in over all farm output, is estimated at 55 percent to 66 percent of total work force. According to World Bank Report, women accounted 94 percent of total employment in dairy sector. Women contributed 51 percent of total employment in forest based small-scale enterprises.
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Plight of Dalit Women in Haryana

Plight of Dalit Women in Haryana

Raigar, Ramdasi, Ravidasi, Balahi, Batoi, Bhatoi, Bhambi, Chamar-Rohidas, Jatav, Jatava, Mochi, Ramdasia. The traditional occupation of Chamars is the manufacturing of leather and leather products. The second s/c with highest population is Balmiki, chura, Bhangi which is around 19% of sc population in Haryana. The Balmiki are one of the largest socially stigmatized Dalit groups numbering slightly less than 1 milion in Uttar Pradesh alone and constitute about 16 % of India’s population. They occupy the lowliest position of the caste system. The main occupation of Balmiki is to remove excrement, clean toilet, sweeping sewers, deal with garbage etc. They are generally sweepers and sewer cleaner. Third largest SCs are Dhanak constituting 11.3% of total SC population in Haryana. Other includes Od(3.2%), Mazhabi(2.7%) and Bazigar(2.7%). To judge the plight of Dalit women in Haryana, literacy, employment status, basic amenities and crimes against schedule caste women are taken into consideration.
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Women In Post Revolutionary Egyptian Cinema: Female Centered Film Plots (2011-2018)

Women In Post Revolutionary Egyptian Cinema: Female Centered Film Plots (2011-2018)

Shafik contrasts this binary Freudian theory with Islamic interpretation of male and female sexualities. She claims that Freud’s threat of castration comes from the women; as they are exposed to the penetrating gaze of men. Islamic discourse distinguishes equal obligations and sexual rights for both women and men (Shafik, 2007). However, the social interpretation of this Islamic teaching had repercussion for women as they were because they were seen as emotionally chaotic, and as a result, female sexuality was perceived as problematic. This emphasis on a woman's body is perceived as a violation of religion, immoral and rebellious to traditions (Shafik, 2007). According to Shafik, this translated in the typical realization of romantic scene, where the male is the first to look at his female opposite, while she either passively responds and adverts her gaze, this is interpreted as a transgression or an invitation by an immoral woman. This embodiment of immorality in the appearance of the belly dancer was permitted because their initiated relationships ended in the devastation of the belly dancer herself (Shafik, 2007). Assaad refers to this recurring theme in Egyptian cinema as the destructive consequences of the search for love (Assaad, 2015). She notes that regardless of the social class to which the woman in the narrative belongs to, each attempt to actively seek a relationship, the female is betrayed. This disloyalty is not necessarily depicted as actual unfaithfulness from the chosen man. According to Assaad, it is a self- betrayal, which leads to overwhelming feelings of self-deception (Assaad, 2015).
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Of Negative Portrayal and the Plight of Women in the Akan Folktales

Of Negative Portrayal and the Plight of Women in the Akan Folktales

In Tale 46 titled, “Why Kraman the Dog Urinates at a Junction”, another woman is, as usual, negatively depicted as stubborn. In this tale also, we note how a maiden who is only identified by her dog’s name, Degre, refuses every suitor who asks for her hand in marriage. She defies all advice from parents and friends to change her behaviour. She eventually selects her own husband but lives to regret her action because she lands squarely in the hands of Sasabonsam, the wicked forest devil. But for the help of her dog, she would have been killed. So, again, the woman who chooses her own husband is considered stubborn. She is seen as one who deserves to die. This story, therefore, paints women derogatorily and reminds one of the plight of Aku-nna, the heroine of Emecheta’s novel, The Bride Price (1995). Aku-nna rejects the man selected for her as husband and suffers greatly for her action. Is it a case of another maiden seeking after independence? It is observed that traditional society finds unacceptable the practice where women choose their own husbands. Akan society believes that only men have the right to select their own spouses. Some men even win their wives as prizes, as found in some of the tales. In fact, there does not seem to be a single tale from the corpus of fifty in the author’s collection which shows that a man suffers for selecting a spouse. There is also no tale in the collection demanding that a boy must accept without question any bride selected for him to marry, and there is none in which the man suffers for refusing a bride. The foregoing emphasizes that Akan society is essentially patriarchal. Hence women who insist on deciding who to marry are derogated as disobedient and even hard-hearted.
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Facing the Healthcare System as a Refugee: The Plight of Somali Women

Facing the Healthcare System as a Refugee: The Plight of Somali Women

Global conflict has led to mass migration of populations to the U.S. where it is estimated that approximately 10% of the population is comprised of refugees and immigrants (Carroll et al., 2007). By the time many refugees, including Somali women, present to prenatal health care providers, the physical, mental, and spiritual effects of their pre-immigration losses, refugee camp experiences, post-immigration stressors, and cumulative traumas have often increased exponentially (Ishisaka, Nguyen, & Okimoto, 1985).Many Somali women, due to these experiences, are considered at risk for experiencing an overall decline in their ability to function optimally on a daily basis. In addition, linguistic barriers frequently make it even more challenging for perinatal providers to understand the complex and stressful contexts in which Somali women patients are engaging their services. Providers who are unable to understand what it means to attempt to adapt to a new environment given the numerous stressors refugees face run the risk of further contributing to Somali women’s increasing load of stressful experiences. These realities represent opportunities for social workers to play a critical role in co-creating spaces within which encounters between Somali women and perinatal providers are infused with sufficient understandings regarding patients’ background experiences, and mutual expectations for optimal perinatal care. The treatment received by patients at the hands of insensitive or ill-informed practitioners militates against such collaboration. It is difficult to tell the story of one’s life and how one may construct those experiences when it is evident even to newcomers that such information is unwelcome, or likely to be discounted when shared.
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Sex Slaves: The Plight Of Women In Civil Strife Zimbabwe

Sex Slaves: The Plight Of Women In Civil Strife Zimbabwe

In this paper we look at the nexus between sexual abuse / rape and civil strife. Although we approach the problem from a broad global perspective, we are mainly concerned with developments in Zimbabwe. We start by giving you a mbabwe before looking at issues of methodology and contextualising the problem. We then go on to discuss both theoretical / conceptual understandings and empirical evidence beyond Zimbabwean borders before taking the discussion to Zimbabwe using a historical and evolutionary perspective. We argue that civil strife communities reduce women to nothing more than sex objects. According to Amina Mire (2000:2) the female body has been used as a source of pleasure, plunder, political power and so forth. It is seen as passive, acted upon so that it produces sons of the nation. For Manathoko (2000: 76) “women are given in marriage, sent as tribute, traded, taken in battle, bought or sold… Men are also trafficked but only as shares, athletic stars, serfs, rather than
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The Plight of the Poor Women and Social Justice in Globalization Era

The Plight of the Poor Women and Social Justice in Globalization Era

The rising tide of globalization has not lifted all section of the society equally. It has further divided the society into haves and have-nots. The small group of world’s population holds maximum resources and majority of people are trapped in the vicious circle of poverty. . It is the process has brought prosperity for women ,who are small in number educated, skilled, elite , wealthy,socially,political and economic privileged have access to capital, education, productive assets and resources, but those who are already cash poor, socially and political disadvantaged, before since they compelled to operate in a more aggressive competitive environment without any government support. It is clear that during the process of globalization has not affected all the women groups in the same way. The state, as an institution, has guaranteed social welfare and social justice to the marginalized groups but globalization has reduced the role of a state considerably.
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Plight of women in agriculture sector: a case study

Plight of women in agriculture sector: a case study

They have protected the health of the soil through organic recycling and promoted crop security through the maintenance of varietal diversity and genetic resistance. The international development community has recognized that agriculture is an engine of growth and poverty reduction in countries where it is the main occupation of the poor. Women make essential contributions to the agricultural and rural economies in all developing countries. Their roles vary considerably between and within regions and are changing rapidly in many parts of the world, where economic and social forces are transforming the agricultural sector. Rural women often manage complex households and pursue multiple livelihood strategies. Their activities typically include producing agricultural crops, tending animals, processing and preparing food, working for wages in agricultural or other rural enterprises, collecting fuel and water, engaging in trade and marketing, caring for family members and maintaining their homes. Many of these activities are not defined as “economically active employment” in national accounts but they are essential to the wellbeing of rural households. This the gender debate in agriculture by assessing the empirical evidence in three areas that has received much attention in the literature: But the agricultural sector in many developing countries is underperforming, in part because women, who represent a crucial resource in agriculture and the rural economy through their roles as farmers, labourers and entrepreneurs, almost everywhere face more severe constraints than men in access to productive resources. Efforts by national governments and the international community to achieve their goals for agricultural development, economic growth and food security will be strengthened and accelerated if they build on the contributions that women make and take steps to alleviate these constraints. Among the rural women workforce, most of them are agriculture labour and some of cultivators. There are lot of variations in involvement of women in agriculture which is based on their culture, economic status, regions and crop selection. While the men are moving to cities for better occupations the women are taking care of cultivation and sometimes they used to work as farm labour to support their family needs. The weaker section of the women used to market their products such as selling vegetables and other food crops in farmers market or door to door.
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Are we intensifying the stigma?
 
 A content analysis of movies portraying mental and psychological illnesses in the Egyptian cinema

Are we intensifying the stigma? A content analysis of movies portraying mental and psychological illnesses in the Egyptian cinema

55 perhaps as the most evident element in the results of the study. Most patients exhibited low degrees of self-acceptance, such as having negative thoughts of self-worth, seeing themselves as unworthy of being loved and getting into serious relationships, like Reem (in ‘Esabet el Doctor Omar) who told Omar (the one she loved) that because of her illness (kleptomania), she can’t be a “suitable bride” for him. Similarly, in the case of Salwa (in Khali Balak men ‘Aqlak) who could not comprehend how the one who loved her does not care about people knowing he will be married to a “crazy” person. Another example of low self-acceptance, is that of Nahed (in Be’r Elherman) who had a breakdown upon knowing about her illness from her therapist and decided to break up with her fiancé, similarly Zainab (in Nisf ‘Azraa’) who sought therapy in secret for fear of exposing her illness (extreme anxiety and fainting upon seeing a sunset) to her fiancé, which could lead to her loosing of him. As elaborated above, all the examples who seemed to have exhibited low levels of self-acceptance were females. The mentally-ill male characters however, have not demonstrated indicators for low self-acceptance. Alternatively, most of them have decided to make up for their “weaknesses” (represented in their illnesses) in different ways, via exhibiting some kind of control over their lives. For example, Hassan (the schizophrenic in Asef ‘al Ez’ag) has created his own world, where he saw himself as a genius who has an idea for a brilliant project that could save hundreds of thousands of money for the country. In his imaginary world (and his comfort zone), Hassan lead a happy life with his parents and a girlfriend who shares with him his interest and takes him through interesting adventures. Another example, is that of Mimi (the serial killer in Saffah Elnesaa’) whose illness caused him to kill women to prove to himself that he has power over them, and hence making up for his childhood abuse which was practiced upon him by his step-mother. Some of the ill characters who were in denial (or were unaware) of their illnesses seemed to have faked a sense of “self-acceptance”, where they would show moments of strength and others of weakness and confusion, which indicated that their sense of self-acceptance is not really true.
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Men in the Picture: Representations of Men and Masculinities in Egyptian Cinema since 1952.

Men in the Picture: Representations of Men and Masculinities in Egyptian Cinema since 1952.

146 object, desired by the camera’s male gaze, the audience’s gaze and her co-actors’ gaze as well. These details are important, since the film will later explain through a series of flashbacks how she has reached her current status. Class and gender are at the core of this film’s narrative. The audience is told how she got married at an early age, in order to alleviate her father’s growing costs of providing for his family. However, she married a low-ranking clerk in a construction company with a lot of ambition to climb the social ladder and adhere to the new idealized consumerist lifestyle, represented by Western-looking parties, alcohol, women and fancy clothing and other expensive gadgets. The type representing this new consumerist lifestyle is the businessman who lives a life of luxury, who is a world traveler, has one or more mistresses, and never seems to be going about any business. Next to this hegemonic type of man is Hana’s husband Kamal (Yusif Sha‘ban). He is a subordinated man, a simple employee of Sa‘fan, but also complicit to the hegemonic ideal. A third man in her life is her first love from her old neighborhood, Ahmad (played by Mahmud Yassin). He is a medical student (again!), somehow marginalized yet embodying the Nasirist modern ideals of education, marriage and a hopeful future in the service of his country as a doctor. He will initially pose a threat to the hegemony of the rich Sa‘fan but will later moralistically reaffirm masculine domination over the woman’s sexuality.
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Egyptian Film and Feminism: Egypt’s View of Women Through Cinema

Egyptian Film and Feminism: Egypt’s View of Women Through Cinema

dominate the country’s industries, including film. By the late 1960’s, Egyptian cinema began declining, without signs of recovery (Thompson & Bordwell 607). President Anwar Sadat replaced the late President Nasser in 1970 and reduced government influence in film production. During Sadat’s presidency, the National Film Organization reached seven million Egyptian pounds in debt and was forced to discontinue the production of feature films (Joseph 76). Although nationalization of cinema ended, technical facilities remained controlled by the Egyptian government, reducing film quality due to national restrictions (Rahman 13). An almost abandoned Egyptian film industry plummeted in competition with a U.S.-dominated world market. The government’s disregard for film, however, further fueled socio-political films. In the 1970’s and 1980’s, realism returned as directors, known as the generation of “New Realists,” such as Atef El-Tayeb, Said Marzouk, Mohamed Khan, Khairy Beshara, and Beshir El-Dik, sought to produce relevant films but lacked sufficient financial support (Arab Cinema 129).
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The Plight of Persons with Disabilities in Zambia

The Plight of Persons with Disabilities in Zambia

with disabilities in those provinces was still a problem. PWDs, DPOs and provincial planning units revealed that there were stairs in hospitals and most public and private buildings, inaccessible toilets, open rainwater and/or sewage canals, narrow pathways in a way that is unable to accommodate a wheelchair, high reception desks unreachable by PWDs especially those in wheel chairs, dangerous road crossings and lack of parking space for PWDs. participants further noted that in responding to the challenges faced by PWD, service providers tend to group them together in social protection programming, with little distinction made between different kinds of disabilities. It was further realized that disability intersects with other inequalities rendering such combinations of disability deserving of greater attention in the promotion of rights of PWD. As such, disabled women, disabled older people or disabled rural people may need special consideration if their rights are to be realized. Persons with disabilities in the provinces visited also faced with serious stigmatization and torture. In some provinces it was actually learnt that persons with disabilities are locked in the house while others are tied to trees or other objects therefore regarding them as less human beings or animals.
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Realist cinema as world cinema: non-cinema, intermedial passages, total cinema

Realist cinema as world cinema: non-cinema, intermedial passages, total cinema

no doubt about its authenticity, but also about the film’s determination to change the lowest filth into poetry. Rat Fever’s storyline is not set in any specific time period. However, the choice of black and white stock – with the dazzling photography by one of Brazil’s greatest DoPs, Walter Carvalho – and the art direction in the deft hands of Renata Pinheiro, who over the years has created a particular identity for Pernambucan cinema, among other elements, bring it close to the 1960s and 70s and the Marginal Poetry movement which spread around the country from the 1970s onwards. This movement was part of what became known as the ‘geração mimeógrafo’, or the ‘mimeograph generation’, involving intellectuals of all kinds who, due to the censorship imposed by the military regime at the time, took to the mimeograph to print out their writings as an alternative means to spread their ideas. This was also the case of the ‘marginal poets’, who, unable to find commercial presses for their outputs, resorted to the mimeograph to print out and distribute them independently. The physicality of this mode of dissemination – which often included street recitals by the authors – is referenced throughout the film, starting with its initial credits, written in typical typewriter typeface, accompanied by the sound of a mimeograph press and shown as individual pages, in the form of ‘slides’, that succeed one another onscreen. More than a mannerism, this stylistic choice feeds into the construction of the character of Zizo himself, soon shown at work on a mimeograph, where he prints out, page by page, his independent newspaper, called ‘Febre do Rato’ (Rat Fever). His prose and poetry work is all self-produced in the same way, and self-distributed in brochures and pamphlets, often read out in the streets and bars, or on a microphone from his derelict car (Figure 7.5). Thus Zizo is not just a poet, but poetry itself, and accordingly he is at a certain point shown writing poetry across his face, torso and limbs.
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The Plight of Mixed Race Adolescents

The Plight of Mixed Race Adolescents

Over the past 40 years the fraction of mixed race black-white births has increased nearly nine-fold. There is little empirical evidence on how these children fare relative to their single-race counterparts. This paper describes basic facts about the plight of mixed race individuals during their adolescence and early adulthood. As one might expect, on a host of background and achievement characteristics, mixed race adolescents fall in between whites and blacks. When it comes to engaging in risky/anti-social adolescent behavior, however, mixed race adolescents are stark outliers compared to both blacks and whites. We argue that these behavioral patterns are most consistent with the "marginal man" hypothesis, which we formalize as a two-sector Roy model. Mixed race adolescents -- not having a natural peer group -- need to engage in more risky behaviors to be accepted. All other models we considered can explain neither why mixed race adolescents are outliers on risky behaviors nor why these behaviors are not strongly influenced by the racial composition at their school.
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Women Directors in ‘Global’ Art Cinema:

Negotiating Feminism and Representation

Women Directors in ‘Global’ Art Cinema: Negotiating Feminism and Representation

for women, which in turn shows his stubbornness and unprofessionalism. In this instance Jeanne cajoles the actor, using diplomacy, and her stance is reminiscent of the way a mother reasons with an unruly child, which she notes herself when she says that she is fed up with mothering the actors. At other moments she deals with the actor's whims and caprices in a more abrupt manner, shouting and ordering him to do as told. This shows that not only is Jeanne in the position of authority and in possession of a clear artistic vision but she is also very vocal about how she wants things to be done and demands from her colleagues that they abide by her guidelines. Yet despite this strong aspect of her character, she does have her moments of weakness and internal conflict. Rather notably, after the first day of shooting on the beach she says to Leo: “I'm always in control. They're MY actors! When I seem furious, I'm not really angry. Maybe I am, but it's good for the role. That's how the movie has to be shot”. This statement on the one hand shows her determination and firm hand in managing the film set, but also implies that in occupying the position of the director she is playing a role herself. She is very much aware of the power play and the part she has to perform to achieve her ultimate goal in bringing to life her creative vision. Immediately after this she tells Leo: “I never know what I'll do, it's terrifying. I don't know how I manage. It's always a last minute thing.” In a similar vein, towards the end of the film and during the filming of the sex scene, Jeanne once more temporarily crumbles under the pressure of filming and she starts crying. As with Sally in the previously discussed film, this is not a sign of weakness and incapacity to fulfil her role but a portrayal of the emotional turmoil that the constant pressure being in charge of a film-set places on the director within the filmmaking context of art cinema. In this way the film demystifies the romantic figure of the auteur and shows the less glamorous and more pragmatic side of the profession.
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The Plight of Mixed Race Adolescents

The Plight of Mixed Race Adolescents

In this section, we describe basic facts about the plight of mixed race individuals on the myriad dimensions we consider: birth outcomes, demographics, home environment, physical characteristics, academic achievement, psychological wellbeing, adult outcomes, and behaviors inside and outside of school. Summary statistics for the variables we use in our analysis are displayed in Tables 1-7. The left panels in these tables present means with standard deviations in parenthesis for whites, blacks, and mixed black-white students under our strict individual-centered definition, if possible. Individuals of all other races have been omitted from the analysis. As noted earlier, except where there are natural units for a variable (e.g. household income or weight), we have normalized the responses to be mean zero with a standard deviation of one in our sample.
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The Plight of Academic International Law

The Plight of Academic International Law

For example, in Hannum's Guide, Richard Bilder stressed the critical importance of domestic law in the actual realization of human rights" and Hannum detailed the i[r]

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The Plight of Mixed Race Adolescents

The Plight of Mixed Race Adolescents

In this section, we describe basic facts about the plight of mixed race individuals on the myriad dimensions we consider: birth outcomes, demographics, home environment, physical characteristics, academic achievement, psychological wellbeing, adult outcomes, and behaviors inside and outside of school. Summary statistics for the variables we use in our analysis are displayed in Tables 1-7. The left panels in these tables present means with standard deviations in parenthesis for whites, blacks, and mixed black-white students under our strict individual-centered definition, if possible. Individuals of all other races have been omitted from the analysis. As noted earlier, except where there are natural units for a variable (e.g. household income or weight), we have normalized the responses to be mean zero with a standard deviation of one in our sample.
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Islamist and Secularist Women in Egyptian Politics: Convergence or Divergence?

Islamist and Secularist Women in Egyptian Politics: Convergence or Divergence?

“compendium of pro-suffrage arguments” by seculars, Islamic scholars and Islamists. In 1956, women were granted the right to vote by the revolutionary government after feminists struggled for thirty-three years to gain it. Paradoxically, the state that granted women the right to vote banned the feminist organization the same year when they granted them that right. Moreover, the government “suppressed the public expression of feminist views.” Meanwhile, when the voting right was granted to women, feminists moved to raise the public awareness about the women’s rights, especially among the poor women, through the formation of al-Lajnaa al-Nisa’iyya li’l-Wa’I al- Intikhabi (Women’s Committee for Electoral Awareness, WCEA). Furthermore, around the same time, women from different perspectives came together to establish al-ittihad al-Nisa’I al’Qawmi (National Feminist Union). The government blocked this project and totally shut it down in 1959. Aflatun was sent to prison in the same year, and Sahfiq was under house arrest, Nabarawi and Rashid kept silence. Meantime, the suppressing of feminists was not only against the liberals, but also involved the Islamists. Al-Ghazali, the head of the Muslim Sisters was jailed, and her group banned in 1964.
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