ALS Association in 2014, are regulars in the #trending sidebar. That campaign was estimated to have raised $100m over 30 days, to raise awareness about, and fund research into, Amyothrophic Lateral Sclerosis. Campaign groups, turning to digital platforms, now bring thousands of people out into the a march against the Tampon Tax, opposing marches in support and against the imprisonment of Tommy Robinson, marches in support of unions, the NHS, Brexit, Palestine, animal rights and so on, all of which appeared on our digital streets as well as our offline ones. Participants in socialaction might act alone, might act in new groups or organisations enabled by socialmedia, or, more worryingly, incited into action by groups looking to exploit these same tools to cause social division and harm.
In recent days Mobile phones, Internets and socialmedia are used by most of the people in the society. Especially most of the youth groups in the age between 18 to 30 are using socialmedia than any other age group. It was expected that youngsters using socialmedia for entertainment and other fun/s. But, information shared through socialmedia influence much in health awareness, social development and governance. It leads many activities through youth for socialaction in Tamil Nadu. So, this is the time of the hour to study the impact of socialmedia in the empowerment of rural youth and its intensity. Objectives of the Study
Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, Vine, Snapchat, and LinkedIn. In this present day and age, it seems as if everyone is logged on or plugged in to one or more of these sites. These sites have progressed from letting followers/friends know what you did last night to being able to connect you with different employers for a future job. However, it seems that this generation is still focused on posting pictures and tweeting about what they did last night instead of using these social medias for better and more important things. That is the case because to this generation, getting 100 likes or retweets on what they did last night is still the most important thing. The problem with this generation’s socialmedia usage is that they are unable to see past their computer screens; they’re stuck in their virtual world rather than the real world. Both Say Everything by Emily Nussbaum and Generation Why? by Zadie Smith analyze this generation’s obsession with socialmedia and their unwavering need to put it all out there for the world to see.
Eight items were used to measure a participant’s social self-efficacy. Social self-efficacy refers to individuals’ belief that they are competent in forging new friendships (Zullig, Teoli and Valois, 2011). The items were adapted from Zullig et al.’s study (2011) of US adolescents. Those items included: (i) “How well can you express your opinions when friends or classmates disagree with you?”; (ii) “How well can you become friends with other people your age?”; (iii) “How well can you have a chat with an unfamiliar person?”; (iv) “How well can you work in harmony with your classmates or co-workers?”; (v) “How well can you tell other people your age that you are doing something they don’t like?”; (vi) “How well can you tell a funny story to a group your age?”; (vii) “How well do you succeed in staying friends with people your age?”; and (viii) “How well do you succeed in preventing quarrels with other people your age?” The reliability of the resulting scale was tested by Cronbach’s alpha, the most widely used measure of reliability, and the value was .87.
establishing a collaboration between a variety of stakeholders. The authors argue that connecting the stakeholders enabled them to address two social problems simulta- neously. Domegan, McHugh, McCauley, and Davidson ’ s “ Co-creating a Sea Change campaign for Ocean Literacy in Europe ” (Chap. 26) program invokes their “ co-creation ” theory which expands on the notion of ef ﬁ cacy at multiple levels to help understand what barriers may limit people ’ s efforts. They propose that, “ For co-creation, collaborating, and empowering each of these target audiences together was foundational to Sea Change and its approach to its target markets. ” This approach suggests that target groups need to develop an understanding of experi- ences and therefore proposes that social marketers include formal and informal education around the behavior that allows not only individual actions, but supports changes in media coverage and in public policy. Diaz Meneses ’ s case “ Social Marketing and SocialMedia Marketing for Enhancing Health by Means of MOOCs ” (Chap. 27) also uses co-creation theory through the inclusion of a variety of par- ticipants including researchers, healthcare professionals, and web designers. Their input was central to the development of massive open online courses (MOOCs) tailored to health-related issues including diabetes, pregnancy, and breastfeeding, and aimed at vulnerable groups including children, adolescents, and the elderly. Similarly, D í az-Perdomo, Á lvarez-Gonz á lez, and Sanzo-Perez ’ s case on the Ana Bella social school for female empowerment (Chap. 29) draws on co-creation theory to explain the development of this business-nonpro ﬁ t partnership. This school is a social project in conjunction with the Danone company that attempts to train and employ women who have suffered from gender violence. As part of the social mandate, it attempts to improve women ’ s economic standing, ful ﬁ ll some of their social needs, and change the perceived image of these women in society.
of dentists in South Africa in their adoption of social me- dia marketing. Certainly, the findings of this study could by no means be generalised to the whole dentist population, due to the limitations imposed by the sampling method. By restricting the study to dentists with internet access, bias could have been introduced as it may be expected that experienced internet users generally would have a greater tendency towards utilising computer options such as socialmedia. Despite these limitations, the study gives a clear in- dication that dentists are engaging with socialmedia, mainly for personal purposes, including keeping in touch with fam- ily and friends, sharing videos and chatting online. There is an association between the frequency of socialmedia inter- action and age, as well as for personal purposes with age and gender, consistent with socialmedia behaviour of the South African population in general. Socialmedia statistics for South Africa indicate that the majority of current users are females under the age of 35. 13
In the country like India the process of globalization has not only affected urban societies, but also it is influencing rural communities. Understanding different facets of media and social change is a most challenging phenomenon for Asia, Africa and Latin American countries. Laws are enacted for the protection of people and for the smooth functioning of the society. Laws provide a fair framework within which individuals and groups can choose their own values and codes, consistent with a similar liberty for others. Hence laws both protect the integrity of different sects of society and also promote their hormonal existence. In the absence of law and order, society will turn into an unbearable chaos. However law acquires its life and performs its intended social functions through the process of implementation and enforcements, without which it has little meaning in any given society. Implementation of law is about law-in-action and not law-in-the-books.
Prototypical CTAs are imperatives prompting the addressee to perform some action, such as “Don’t let the government tell you what to think!”. This seems like a straightforward category to annotate, but in reality CTAs may be expressed in various ways, including both direct and indirect speech acts. There are many borderline cases that would in the absence of clear guidelines decrease inter- annotator agreement (IAA). There is relevant work on the task of identification of requests in emails (Lampert et al., 2010) and intention classification for dialogue agents (Quinn and Zaiane, 2014), but, to the best of our knowledge, this work is the first to create a detailed schema for CTA annotation in the context of a political protest.
As it has been derived that the Digital Usage has been increasing at a tremendous rate, research in this related field has therefore been growing at a pace too. This field of study has many aspects which are practically relevant and are theoretically important too. As the digital world is continuously changing, therefore constant need of studies and experiments must be conducted for better usage of the advantages these platforms provide with keeping in mind their disadvantages. A deeper study into the topic as to how consumers actually use the information that is available to them is demanding insistent attention. Another topic in a direction to be considered is the impact of how with the presence of several kinds of platforms, it affects the different groups of networked consumers including the psychological and economical constructs. With research growing into the advertising field, relevant studies into how digital environments negatively affects the population of people using these platforms is also required. With reference to the information stated above in the article, it has been observed that people using these platforms at a high frequency have low self control. It has also been observed that users experience a feeling of endowment when they use touch based application interfaces. These small issues taken together can leave a large impact on the future generations and therefore these topics require more attention. Other important topics demanding attention are those of privacy and security concerns. Enhanced mechanisms and study is required to control the misuse of socialmedia and internet platforms. Study in the topics like how the consumer thinks about personal privacy, the concerns individual consumers take to protect their privacy and the current necessity of digital security and privacy enhancement is required for better outcomes of the digital world. If all strategies constructed will be properly planned and executed using thorough research and experiments, better leverage can be taken of the ongoing trend of digital market. With advanced research and studies further in the field, development is assured.
The law has adjudicated the employment issues surrounding socialmedia using tests pre- dating the medium. Although this is an unsurprising point, given the common law system, it does highlight a gap in consideration of the challenges arising from the innovation of virtual social platforms. Treatment of workers’ socialmedia speech stands at a distance behind the more robust engagement that defamation law reforms (common law and statute) have encouraged. In this section, the topic is investigated as follows. An example of the common law applying to socialmedia will be used to demonstrate how ‘old law’ may be adapted to a new setting. Another illustration will foreshadow the protective approach adopted by courts regarding workers’ potential to affect employers’ business reputations. Then, in the first subsection below, this protective approach will be explored in UK employment cases, where workers were terminated for socialmedia comments.
consequences that this activity may entail. The research examining children (those aged under thirteen) and socialmedia is still relatively under-researched as researchers have focused their attentions primarily on adolescents and socialmedia. Some studies have included children in their sample, but oftentimes they are combined with an adolescent sample, regardless of the different developmental stages these two groups are in. Nevertheless, there are important issues that still need to be addressed regarding the risks of children using socialmedia (e.g., cyberbullying) as well as concerns about children’s developmental readiness to be active online. This is particularly pertinent when considering how more traditional screen media (i.e., television) can now be integrated with the Internet and socialmedia. Additionally, it should also be remembered that the role of the parent needs to be considered. Parents are often the ones supplying children with smartphones and tablets in order for children to access various types of socialmedia.
Kilcar M in his research paper “The Impact of SocialMedia on Recruitment in Ireland” discusses about the changing recruitment landscape and this change is driven by technology. Organisations that adopt SM expect to achieve a range of benefits through its use, including employer branding, ability to reach passive candidates, referrals for vacancies, service feedback, cost reduction in advertising and the speed at which information can potentially travel at. SM is not a strategy in itself but rather a communication tool that helps the business in order to achieve business objectives.
Aloia & Naughton (2016) in their research study looked at how socialmedia can be an effective resource disseminating and finding information on grey literature. Persson & Svenningsson (2016) investigate the level of awareness of the professional use of socialmedia among Linkoping University, Sweden researchers and found that use of socialmedia was not significant; however, a small number saw potential. Sriram (2016) through his case study of KN Raj Library of Centre for Development Studies, Thiruvananthapuram explained how socialmedia tools can be effectively put to use in libraries for marketing its resources and services. Gupta (2015)
The study of how societies operate is at once highly challenging and highly rewarding. Societies are a complex and poorly understood phenomenon. We make decisions and do things collectively. Although sociologists and social psychologists have been studying how collective decision making happens and how it evolves, social processes on large scales of populations and time are still poorly understood. Cultural evolution remains a mystery [Pennebaker and Lay 2002]. It is important to realise the sheer scope of this challenge — the complexity of human social systems, arguably, rivals any other system we study bar cosmology and life itself. Nonetheless, the modern proliferation of data about the individuals in our societies, the evolving tools and techniques available to examine this data, and the rapid evolution of computer hardware enabling our ability to process it, all show enormous promise in advancing our knowledge. Though there are limitations to this endeavour and the quantity of useful information that can be extracted from large scale social noise is not clear [Ruths and Pfeffer 2014], the opportunities have only begun to be realised and it is apparent that much more can be achieved.
multitasking (Moisala et al., 2016; Stothart et al., 2015; Thornton, Faires, Robbins, & Rollins, 2014). Moisala et al. (2016) found that media multitaskers did not experience benefits from their media habits; rather, they showed lower performance and, therefore, higher distractibility. Media multitasking’s impact on attention depended on the nature of the media (i.e. positive or negative tweets; Kätsyri, Kinnunen, Kusumoto, Oittinen, & Ravaja, 2016). Meaning, negative tweets distracted participants for longer than positive tweets. Ralph et al. (2015) demonstrated that HMM might face attentional deficits; however, they state that there is more to these attentional costs than just the fact that people are multitasking on their devices. Therefore, I think that expanding the research to investigate social media’s role in these attentional costs is needed. Since most people have multiple platforms and use socialmedia during other tasks, such as work and class (Best et al., 2014; Wilmer & Chein, 2016), socialmedia has become analogous to media multitasking. That is, socialmedia is the most probable media that people are
Get the message across. In my opinion, library use of web 2.0 platforms should be aiming to accomplish the following: add value in order to increase engagement so that you can deliver key messages to a wider audience. In other words, make your Twitter feed (or whatever) more interesting so more people follow you, so that more people then get the really important messages you want to market about your library. The added value parts (the replies, the links to external content and so on) are what give your socialmedia presences personality, and the personality is what draws in more followers. Then when you have the really important messages to impart (new opening hours, new collections, new services or whatever you really need to convey) there are more members of your captive audience. If on the other hand you only communicate those really important messages, people will think
What follows during the next 50-year span is the discursive infiltration of the term audience into various Olympic documents, along with the mass popularization of television, and a recognition of a diversification of audience groups. Nonetheless, it is worth acknowledging here, particularly for the astute audience scholar, the slippage back and forth between terms. On the one hand, those watching the Olympics are described as publics by the IOC, yet on the other hand, in certain instances, they also become audiences. This is not a smooth evolution and both terms (not to mention others, like spectator) exist in more recent IOC documents, which I have discursively analyzed in a separate piece (see Girginova, 2016a). Nonetheless, in the context of this dissertation, I opt more consistently for the use of the plural term ‘audiences’. To begin with, there is no universally agreed upon term for how to best describe people who actively consume and produce media content – particularly on a global scale. Still, the term audiences became popularized in the mass broadcast era, which was dominated by television, much like media events continue to be today. In the plural, the term audiences also takes on hues of active audience research that acknowledges the diversity in practices of audiencing. Further, the term audiences nods toward the capacity of socialmedia to serve as personal mass broadcasting tools thus, hinting at an evolution, not complete rupture, of media platforms and practices around public events. In short, after much deliberation, I have yet to find a term that more accurately describes the plural groups of Twitter users, broadcast viewers, and engaged people in the Olympic movement than ‘audiences’.
By its very definition, Web 2.0 and socialmedia are based on the collaboration of its users, and it follows that socialmedia management is a collaborative venture as well. Realizing shared organizational goals by sharing knowledge, learning, and building consensus across departments is yet another socialmedia management competency. Interdepartmental coordination allows the leveraging of tools and techniques into the organization’s socialmedia culture and into its products and services. It ensures that a consistent message is delivered through its socialmedia channels and avoids faux pas such as Chrysler’s March 2011 f-bomb Tweet, (Kiley, 2011).
Socialmedia are fundamentally scalable communications technologies that turn Internet-based communications, (i.e., smart phones, PCs, tablet computers, portable media players, etc.) into an interactive dialogue platform. Socialmedia platforms, such as; Delicious, Digg, Facebook, Flickr, LinkedIn, My Space, Reddit, Second Life, StumbleUpon, Twitter, Wikis, and You Tube all exist as a result of Web 2.0 (Kaplan & Haenlein, 2010). Web 2.0 is the second evolutionary stage of the World Wide Web that collaboratively harnesses the collective intelligence of its users and emerged soon after the turn of the new millennium. The inherent value of Web 2.0 is based on its users who co-create its content that in effect increases its value with increased use. The more users a socialmedia platform such as Facebook or You Tube has, the more useful it becomes to its community, (Karlgaard, 2005). Web 2.0 is all about the collaboration and participation between its users rather than about the developers as Web 1.0 was.
Today internet and e-commerce have changed the way products and services are purchased and sold. People sitting from their home can order anything from pin to aeroplane through e- commerce sites. These e-commerce sites have brought many benefits to small and medium sellers who find it easier to sell online than opening their own showroom. These e-commerce sites in an attempt to cater to more customers have also introduced the feature of cash on delivery besides online payment mode.To further increase the acceptability return policy is also good and very fast. All these features have led to growth in online business but it is still at nascent stage in India. But the future estimates project a very optimistic and rosy picture. Also now people are more logged onto their smart phones rather than television and newspapers so the businesses also have to think out of box for their marketing activities. They have to focus more on socialmedia marketing.