At the present time, it appears that shortages of conventional forms of energy, particularly oil, have become critical. Much effort has been devoted to finding alternate sources of energy. Most energy sources suffer from drawbacks. Some are limited as to the amounts available, and when a particular material has been used it is gone forever. They are not available to all nations. Some have created ecological problems . There exist numerous prior devices which have attempted to harness the potential energy contained in moving vehicles. Typically, these devices convert the potential energy into kinetic energy for providing useful work by means of pneumatic and/or mechanical means which can be used to run a generator .
The single acting pneumatic cylinder (Figure.3) is used here to get the compressed air and to supple the air to the air tank. The air is getting suppressed when the vehicle passes over the hump and to get back in the original position, cylinder uses its spring. Some modification has been done as per our requirements to make it work in setup. The piston of the cylinder is welded with the speed beaker base and spring is also attached here.
An air mount was constructed with a base frame, a stone surface plate, 4 active devices, 4 gap sensors, 4 throttle valves and 3 height control valves. A base frame was made of cast iron, and placed on the earth. The 4 active devices were installed on the corners of the base frame. A 3-ton stone surface plate was mounted on the active devices. The compressed air was generated in an air sup- ply, and the pressure was adjusted by regulating valves. The amount of regulation was varied manually. The regulated air was transferred to 3 height control valves. The height control valve adjusted the air flow by the ver- tical motion of a contact point. When the contact point was compressed, the air flow to the active device in- creased. When the contact point was released, the air flow passed to an exhaust port. Two of the height control valves were installed under the corner of the stone sur- face plate, and the air from the work port was transferred to an active device. The other was placed under the cen- ter point at the center of the opposite edge. The work port was shared with two active devices. Throttle valves were connected between the height control valves and the ac- tive devices for setting air pressure in each of the active devices. This mechanism provides mechanical detection of 3 DOF motion in the air mount. Air leak in the pneu- matic system can be compensated for and excessive air can decrease in response to vibration and mass move- ment during motion. Figure 4 shows the arrangement of the pneumatic valves and connection of the air lines.
In this paper a complete non-linear model of an electro-pneumatic actuator has been presented where input to the system is PWM input and the output of diaphragm position has been controlling. The proportional valve uses a damper or a spring and its advantage over conventional ON/OFF solenoid valve is that it can attain more than two positions with different input voltages. The EPC used in the VGT actuator has mixed characteristics. It has a spring and damper mechanism but without air pressure it acts as an ON/OFF solenoid valve. The reason for this mixed design is that in the pressure converter, the force due to air pressure plays a significant role. The second part of the system is a single acting pneumatic actuator. It can be modeled as a spring damper mechanism with input as pressure difference across both the chambers of pneumatic actuator
One important point to note from Fig. 8(b) is that as power generation from the renewable source at bus 2 increases, the voltage across the non-critical load (and hence the active power consumed by it) reduces in order to regulate the voltage across the critical load to its nominal value of 216 V. In such cases, the non- critical load voltage has to be lower than its nominal value for a non-zero ES voltage. Hence the active power consumed by the non-critical load cannot increase above its nominal value. This restriction can be overcome if the load has non-unity power factor in which case the two voltages are not constrained to be in quadrature. Alternatively, the ES can be allowed to inject a voltage with any phase angle (not just ±90 degrees) with respect to the current requiring exchange of both active and reactive power with the system which is possible through incorporation of energy storage (i.e. a battery) into the ES. This type of ES with embedded energy storage is more versatile in terms of its capability to control the voltage while ensuring power balance and hence regulate the system frequency and is referred to as version 2 or generation 2 of ES (ESv2) . The scope of this paper is limited to reactive power only version (ESv1)  to ensure a fair comparison against STATCOM which only exchanges reactive power with the system.
ElectricSpring, a new smart grid technology, has earlier been used for providing voltage and power stability in a weakly regulated/stand-alone renewable energy source powered grid. It has been proposed as a demand side management technique to provide voltage and power regulation.To improve voltage regulations, stability and power factor in ac transmission and distribution systems and how the reactive power affects power system operations, the challenges to voltage control in power systems and to provide background information on the mathematical challenges associated with voltage control and reactive power supplied. This paper presents an energy efficiency comparison of the electromagnetic and electronic ballast systems under both full power and dimming conditions. for controlling the output from individual DG‘s that were installed in micro grid the author developed an energy control system because as we know that DG‘s uses an renewable energy sources have an unstable output and this can negatively affect existing electric power system. To control the active power supplied by distributed generation system while compensating harmonics and reactive currents caused by nonlinear loads using shunt active power filter.
In conclusion human power there is vast scope in economical use of Bicycle mechanism as an alternative energy Source thereby renewable energygeneration as well as exercising for good health cause. In this paper an energy scavenging system built with recycled, independent components and targeted at energy consumed while exercising is presented. The amount of harvested energy is more than sufficient to motivate us not to let it be wasted into heat or other forms of un-useful energy. While building the scavenging system authors observed a couple of problems related to both interconnections between mechanical and electrical systems, as well as interconnection between the scavenging system and the electrical network. Solutions for these problems are reviewed. Economical perspective shows vital utility due to the recycled components, the system is affordable. All the components can still be used separately.
In most of the industries grinding is the final stage in manufacturing process, there is no any further process. The aim of development is to increase safety and efficiency of grinding machine which will affect the industrial profit. Since to obtain a good finishing of work piece and mass production the various developments are recently carried out in industries. During grinding operation facing problems of flexibility, spark generation in electric power tools which are hazardous. Because of that types of problems the different types of power tools such as electric and pneumatic and smart intelligence robotic systems are used.
The proposed method is to design and develop a hybrid renewable energy system comprising of a vertical axis turbine and solar panels for electricenergygeneration and to utilize the wind energy provided by speeding vehicles for running the turbines day and night. The main objective is to generate electricity in hybrid renewable energy resources by ENLIL turbine so, it can produce the electricity in any wind blowing areas. Most of the electricity demands of countries like Denmark, Norway comes from renewable energy resources over a long time. Indian government allows the offshore wing plants recently for power generation as the energy demands are increasing drastically. With this example people can realise how far our country need to go to match the developed nations. This method utilizes both wind and solar energy for its operation of power generation, which is a great advantage.
This paper proposed the mechanical multi-attribute evaluation method of the pneumatic & electric actuators based on AHP-FCE. For the same working conditions of pneumatic actuators and electric actuators, mechanical properties parameter table of the two kinds of actuators was established. AHP-FCE method for the actuators MPE is very easy and can be quickly operated to select the better object. Evaluation and selection of similar electromechanical products can also use this objectivity method to compare them quickly.
The back EMF of the motor winding can be detected during off time of PWM as the terminal voltage of the DC motor is directly proportional to the back emf during this interval. Also, the back emf voltage is referenced to ground to prevent any common mode noise [4,8]. Therefore this back EMF sensing method has an advantage that it is resistant to switching noise and common mode voltage. Hence, no attenuation and filtering necessary for the back EMF sensing. This unique back EMF capture method has better performance to existing methods which depend on neutral voltage information, providing much wider speed range at low cost.
Solar cells are long lasting sources of energy which can be used for prolonged time. The solar rays are directly converted into AC using an inverter circuit, which is accompanied by an astable multivibrator generates a frequency of 50Hz. Since battery usage is avoided, the bulky unit is reduced lading in weight loss in entire system making it cost efficient and economical in the presents of sunrays. With an experimental setup as shown in fig 4, for 3 Solar panel array a generation of 230V is successfully observed with a lighting load of 11W CFL.
Borme district, a mountainous District, Papua Province, is a district bordering the country of Papua New Guinea (PNG) new 2 years more can enjoy the facilities of electric Micro Hydro power plant (PLTMH) and power generation Centralized solar power (PLTS Centered) with a capacity of 22 Kwp. Based on the data of radiation of sunlight, water and discharge of rivers in Borme District, generating hybrid system model designed to simulate and determine the most optimal system for supplying electrical energy to the electrical load on the settlement residents .
deciding on which technique would be best suited for the task. In the case of using machine learning techniques, not only are there many methods to choose from, there is nearly an infinite number of ways they could be trained. How a machine learning algorithm learns has an immense impact on its results. Once a suitable method is chosen, it must be properly implemented and trained to become useful for improving the balancing of a hybrid energy storage system such that it saves power.
The main aim of the project is to design, install and oper- ate a prototype pollution mitigation system that will use In-Situ Chemical Oxidation (ISCO) with alkaline activa- tion to restore water quality in aquifers that have been contaminated by lindane from landfill sites. Once the pilot test is completed, and all information and results have been collected and interpreted, the project will as- sess the technical and economic feasibility of a full scale programme of aquifer remediation in the polluted area. Project actions will focus on: demonstrating the feasibili- ty of ISCO techniques in lab and field conditions; carrying out risk reduction assessments according to specific en- vironmental quality indicators; preparing innovative ap- proaches for adapting ISCO technologies to the existing pollutant mixture; assessing the full-scale applicability and effectiveness of these techniques (via evaluation of ratios such as cost/effectiveness/times, cost/treatment times/energy consumption, and feasibility/efficiency of the pollution reduction); and analysing the applicability and transferability of these techniques to the decontam- ination of similar sites.
In this paper an accurate short-term electric forecasting models for hydro generation, energy met and peak demand of India are developed using conventional methods, i.e., AR, MA, ARMA & ARIMA, and artificial intelligence technique i.e. ANN. It is found that accuracy of developed forecasted models is improved by using ANN methodology in comparison to conventional models. Additionally, proper selection of hidden neurons is also shown here. Thus, it is found that 20 hidden neurons gives minimum error in comparison to other number of hidden neurons.
. *** Comparative analysis of the energy performances of the helicoid compressors at the National Hardcoal Company Petrosani translate from romanian (Analiza comparativa a performanţelor energetice a compresoarelor elicoidale din cadrul CNH Petroşani), Scientific research contract no. 121, ASL/2006-2007. Contracting parties: National Hardcoal Company Petrosani (CNH Petroşani)- beneficiary, University of Petrosani (Universitatea din Petroşani) - provider. . Irimie, I., I., Matei, I., Gas dynamics of the pneumatic networks translate from romanian (Gazodinamica retelelor pneumatice), Technical Publishing House, Bucharest, 1994.
The active power filter consists of 8 switches in which 6 switches are used for the 3-phase line and the remaining 2 switches are used to compensate the neutral current. As the pulses are generated from the control circuit which is designed for the inverter for triggering the switches in order to switch on the switches alternatively by using the gate to compensate the harmonics in current at the point of common coupling. As the inverter is operated in such a way that it is used to draw and supplies the fundamental active power from to the grid.
Rechargeable batteries come in many different sizes and use different combinations of chemicals. The commonly used secondary cell chemistries are lead-acid, nickel-cadmium, nickel metal hydride, lithium ion, and lithium ion polymer. The rechargeable batteries can offer economic and environmental benefits compared to disposable batteries. Rechargeable batteries currently are used for applications such as automobile starters, portable consumer devices, light vehicles, tools, and uninterruptible power supplies. Emerging applications in electric and hybrid electric vehicles are driving the technology to reduce cost, reduce weight, and increase lifetime. Unlike non-rechargeable batteries rechargeable batteries have to be charged before use.