Top PDF Polanyi's tacit knowledge applied in intelligence

Polanyi's tacit knowledge applied in intelligence

Polanyi's tacit knowledge applied in intelligence

Owen Ormerod has developed a theory that Michael Polanyi's opinion on science can contribute to understanding the process and the "product" of intelligence analysis. (Ormerod 2018) Michael Polanyi's arguments about the activities of scientists are transferable in the field of intelligence analysis, providing a nuanced perspective for perceiving the epistemological challenges and the problems faced by analysts. Polanyi's concepts of "tacit knowledge" and "personal knowledge" contribute to the development of a more efficient epistemological understanding of some aspects of the process and the intelligence analysis product.
Show more

5 Read more

The Impact of Tacit Knowledge Sharing on Job Performance

The Impact of Tacit Knowledge Sharing on Job Performance

Abstract: The success or failure of an organization is dependent on its ability to manage and motivate its employees. It is widely accepted that knowledge management is a critical factor affecting an organization’s ability to remain competitive in the global marketplace. It is also one of the major strategic uses of informational technology. However, despite the growth in easily using and accessing online information, employees must still rely on their co-workers for knowledge sharing to deal effectively with their work. The thorny form of knowledge sharing is tacit knowledge because it is an experience that is embedded in an individual. Organizations recognize this and must develop a mechanism for obtaining this collective intelligence and skills of its employees to create a greater organizational knowledge base. Using the literature, this study critically analyzes the impact of tacit knowledge sharing on job performance. The study will also briefly explore any likely interactions between tacit knowledge sharing and explicit knowledge sharing. The main research objective is to establish an understanding of the effect of tacit knowledge sharing on job performance. The essence is to understand how organizations can more easily communicate knowledge that will increase job performance, driven by an understanding of leveraging tacit knowledge.
Show more

7 Read more

The Meaning of Tacit Knowledge

The Meaning of Tacit Knowledge

This list is not complete, and a significant number of codes remain that contain a groundedness of 1 and 2 instances in the literature (code total 1,310), which were considered too trivial for inclusion here. Note can nevertheless be made from the codes above that tacit knowledge is typically individualistic (50) (beliefs (6); oneself (3)), heavily organisationally based (46), it is directly related at least to skill (35) and it is context specific (24). Furthermore it tends to be practically (9) rather than theoretically oriented in nature (practice (7); learning by doing (6); learning by using (3); practical intelligence (3)), and given the nature of human competition, it is acquired in conditions of low environmental support (7), which leads to it’s being used for competitive advantage (3). One other very important issue, often not realised with tacit knowledge is the need for understanding (9) (internalisation (8); others (4); awareness (3); meaning (3); oneself (3)) on the part of the receiver.
Show more

11 Read more

The application of product innovation design based on Tacit Knowledge

The application of product innovation design based on Tacit Knowledge

ABSTRACT : With the advent of the era of knowledge economy, the knowledge of the traditional product design cannot meet the needs of the users for the product. Improving the quality of product design is the primary way to maximize the benefits, however, product innovation design is the main way to improve the core competitiveness of enterprises and tacit knowledge is the source of product innovation design. Therefore, this paper proposes a application of tacit knowledge in product innovation design. Under the premise of understanding the concept of tacit knowledge, attain tacit knowledge in the mind of the user access from the product, and transform the tacit knowledge through improved Kano model and analytic hierarchy process method to the user’s functional requirements to the product, so as to obtain a product of the specific function and function structure chart, completing product innovation design. Finally, the method is applied to the product innovation design of the small advertising cleaning machine to prove the feasibility of the method.
Show more

10 Read more

Tacit to Tacit Knowledge Sharing using ICT In  Higher Education

Tacit to Tacit Knowledge Sharing using ICT In Higher Education

In today‟s knowledge economy ability to manage knowledge is crucial. Knowledge has been identified as one of the most important resource that contributes to the competitive advantage of an organization. . The Knowledge is a critical organizational resource that provides a sustainable competitive advantage in a competitive and dynamic economy(Davenport & Prusak,1998). Knowledge is recognition (Know-what), capacity to act (know-how), understanding (know-why) that resides within the mind . Knowledge refers to the capacity for action i.e. “know about” and an understanding of facts , methods , principles, techniques i.e. “know how”. Knowledge includes perception, skills, training, common sense, and experience and helps to draw meaningful conclusion. Polanyi (1966) first divided the human knowledge into two dimensions : explicit and tacit dimensions. Explicit knowledge is codified knowledge that can be specified or communicated verbally or in symbolic forms such as written documents, blueprints or computer programmes. Tacit knowledge is a knowledge that a person can store inside his mind and is developed from direct experience and accomplishment . Higher education institutions are knowledge intensive organizations. These institutions require to obtain, store, share, utilize and generate knowledge so as to train and educate the students effectively (Ozmen, 2010). The whole process of education involves acquisition and transfer of knowledge from one source to another. In higher education to acquire knowledge from different sources and disseminate it to the students is regular practise. By considering the importance of tacit knowledge in higher education, author tried to investigate how tacit knowledge is applicable in every facet of higher education and use of ICT tools and technologies for tacit knowledge transfer in higher education.
Show more

5 Read more

Conceptualization of tacit knowledge dimension

Conceptualization of tacit knowledge dimension

The objectives of this paper are to elaborate the nature and attributes of the tacit knowledge. For the first objective, literature reviews from various scholars writing are analyzed to determine the nature and types of tacit knowledge. Twelve scholars’ writings are studied, representing various perspectives, such as organizational theorist, Nonaka, Baumard and Choo, philosophical views such as Polanyi and Collins, and behaviorist views such as Sternberg and Wagner, Aadne and Van Krogh. Besides the different perspective, these literature reviews are chosen based on the author’s contribution on the scholarly work on tacit knowledge. Polanyi is the first person who coined the word tacit knowledge. Collins and Wagner and Sternberg started the empirical research in tacit knowledge, Nonaka did an extensive research in knowledge creation, and popularized the SECI model. Baumard researched on knowledge in an organization context and introduce the concept of implicit knowledge. Choo, extends the work of Nonaka. Aadne started the research on social tacit knowledge, where as Van Krogh researched on tacit knowledge in relationship but maintains tacit knowledge is embedded in individual. Davenport and Prusak discusses knowledge in organizations.
Show more

6 Read more

TACIT KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT: A REVIEW

TACIT KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT: A REVIEW

To conclude, tacit knowledge is highly personal (Polanyi 1966), context-specific (Sternberg 1994) knowledge. The various other forms of creation of Ideas are through Quick Think method, Meta-plan technique or card technique, Morphological analysis. Though tacit knowledge is elusive and difficult to tap as it is socially embedded in the individual, my views is that it can be shared through interaction and cooperation amongst individuals. For this to happen, trust, communication and interpersonal skills as well as mutual commitment are essential. Besides, a socially cohesive environment is necessary for the learning process to take place. Thus, effective utilisation of tacit knowledge techniques in the presence of an efficient leader paves way for competitive advantage and thereby enhances firm’s performance. The various other forms of creation of ideas are through Quick Think method, Meta-plan technique or card technique, Morphological analysis, Metaphor-figurative language, analogy, model. To convert tacit knowledge in to explicit knowledge means finding a way to express the inexpressible. The authors recommend additional research to further explore in depth the various attributes that would pave way for Leadership enriched culture for effective utilisation of Tacit Knowledge which in turn leads to sustained organizational performance.
Show more

12 Read more

The role of tacit knowledge in the construction industry: towards a definition

The role of tacit knowledge in the construction industry: towards a definition

Polanyi [1] sees tacit knowledge as a personal form of knowledge, which individuals can only obtain from direct experience in a given domain. Further, he encapsulates the essence of tacit knowledge in the well-known phrase ‘‘we know more than we can tell’’. According to Polanyi [1], this knowledge is held in a non-verbal form, and therefore, the holder cannot provide a useful verbal explanation to another individual. Moreover, as he contends, tacit knowing is such an elusive and subjective awareness of the individual that it cannot be articulated in words. It is from Polanyi’s argument that the differentiation between tacitness and implicitness was apparent, and from his terminology, tacitness was evidently different from implicitness. Implicitness, another form of expressing knowing, does exist. It implies that one can articulate it but is unwilling to do that because of specific reasons under certain settings such as, intrinsic behaviour in perception, cultural custom, or organisational style. [18]. Therefore, by describing implicit knowledge, Polanyi was referring to the technical dimension of the tacit knowledge, whereas cognitive dimension purely represented the tacit knowledge that he considered as always being tacit.
Show more

15 Read more

Tacit Knowledge, Organisational Learning and Innovation A Societal Perspective

Tacit Knowledge, Organisational Learning and Innovation A Societal Perspective

Human knowledge exists in different forms; it can be articulated explicitly or manifested implicitly (tacit). The critical differences between these two forms lie in three major areas. First, its codifiability and mechanisms for transfer. Explicit knowledge is also codified knowledge. It is that part of human knowledge that can be specified or communicated verbally, or in symbolic forms such as written documents, blueprints or computer programmes. It belongs to Popper's (1972) 'World three' knowledge: it can be abstracted and stored in the 'objective world', and understood and shared without a 'knowing subject'. Ease of communication and transfer is its fundamental property. Tacit knowledge, in contrast, refers to knowledge that is intuitive, unarticulated and that cannot be easily codified and transferred. It resides in Popper's 'World two' where knowledge cannot be communicated, understood or used without the 'knowing subject'. Hence, tacit knowledge is also 'subjective knowledge'. The notion of 'tacit knowledge' was first expounded by Polanyi (1962). Based on the simple observation, 'We know more than we can tell', Polanyi argued that a large part of human knowledge is occupied by knowledge that cannot be articulated. This is particularly true in the case of operational skills or know-how acquired through practical experience. It is action oriented and has a personal quality that makes it difficult to formalise or communicate. Since tacit knowledge cannot be specified in detail and is revealed through practice, it cannot be transmitted by prescription. It can be transferred only by example or observation, such as from master to apprentice. This restricts the range of diffusion to personal contacts. Unlike explicit knowledge which can be formulated, abstracted and transferred across time and space independently of the knowing subjects, the transfer of tacit knowledge requires close interaction and the build up of shared understanding and trust among them.
Show more

61 Read more

Exploiting Distributed Cognition to Make Tacit Knowledge Explicating

Exploiting Distributed Cognition to Make Tacit Knowledge Explicating

The function of artifacts in the system is not only as tool, but also as a teacher sometimes. Artifacts expand and support human’s intelligence, even they are more effec- tive in some special task. When artifacts are applied, cognitive residue phenomenon will appear. When indi- vidual must finish some task without these artifacts, cog- nitive residue can provide efficient service for individual. For instance, the recorders can record those micro motions and effects of learners in detail. Even without the knowledge holder instruction and demonstration, the records could make learners go on to study. The cognitive residue phenomenon would support learners to understand the skill effectively. So in tacit knowledge explicating activity, how to choose and design suitable artifacts should also not be neglected. Such as, how to apply in- formation bank and how to apply symbols, etc.
Show more

7 Read more

The Influence of Knowledge Visualization on Externalizing Tacit Knowledge

The Influence of Knowledge Visualization on Externalizing Tacit Knowledge

In educational field, lecturer’s tacit knowledge is transform into students’ explicit knowledge in cultivating group learning. Lecturer’s tacit knowledge must be complete, broad, details and need to be built from basic knowledge to be understood fairly and becomes students’ explicit knowledge, and the knowledge is easy to be transferred to other students. The requirement for the externalization process for the lecturer is substantial because it covers all of the above in ensuring the knowledge being accepted and applied by the student. A number of lecturers from the same field of expertise contribute their expertise in developing teaching materials that are easy to understand and utilize images, symbols and language to be shared in groups that spark students’ outcomes. Explicit knowledge is translated into images, symbols and language for better understanding [18]. A clear tacit knowledge is the result from good externalization process that becomes the foundation to a new knowledge [33].
Show more

5 Read more

Tacit knowledge management at universities in Kenya

Tacit knowledge management at universities in Kenya

Taylor-Powell and Renner (2003) indicated that “qualitative data for the most part consists of words and observations, and like all other data requires analysis and interpretation to bring order and understanding” (p. 1). “Qualitative analysis transforms data into findings which involves; reducing the volume of raw information, sifting significance from trivia, identifying significant patterns and constructing a framework for communicating the essence of what the data reveal” (Patton, 2002, p. 432). Best and Khan (2006) further detailed steps for qualitative data analysis. First, is organizing the data, and second is describing the various pertinent aspect of the study. Patton (2002) described the third step as “interpretation which involves an explanation of the findings which aims at answering why questions, attaching significance to particular results, and putting patterns into an analytic framework” (p. 434). Questions for collecting qualitative data were aligned to this study’s objectives as follows: what are the TK assets in universities in Kenya? and how is TK managed in universities in Kenya? The researcher applied a combination of data analysis techniques to accommodate all types of data collected during this study. Hoey and Kendrick (2017) defined “Conversation Analysis (CA) as an inductive, micro-analytic, and predominantly qualitative method for studying human social interactions” (p. 2). Its “purpose is to characterize and explain the ways in which those engaged in conversation maintain an interactional social order by examining the technology of conversation” (Sacks, 1992, p. 339). Emerging themes were coded, categorized (thematic, analytical and natural categories) and then presented and discussed case by case. Kripperndorff (2004) defined content analysis as “a systematic reading of a body of texts, images, and symbolic matter not necessarily from an author’s or user’s perspective” (p. 3). Using this technique, the researcher was able to analyse primary documents in relation to TKM and performance in universities in Kenya. The documents included policies (HR, ICT, Library, research, & innovation), newsletters, appraisal forms and brochures. These provided insights on how universities are taking care of TK in terms of motivation, rewards, appraisal, promotions, recognition, and general management.
Show more

30 Read more

Sharing of Tacit Knowledge in Organizations: A Review

Sharing of Tacit Knowledge in Organizations: A Review

Ikujiro Nonaka, Ryoko Totama and Akiya Nagata expressed that tacit knowledge is derived from personal experience; it is subjective and difficult to formalize [82]. On the other hand, Nonaka and Hirotaka Takeuchi confirmed that tacit knowledge is often learned via shared and collaborative experiences. They brought the concept closer to business management by writing about knowledge creating company in 1995 [84]. They argued that knowledge is initiated from interaction among employees in organizations. The Knowledge Creating Company of Nonaka and Takeuchi in management is that when communication is conducted from a person to a group, inside an organization and among organizations, tacit knowledge and explicit knowledge interact with each other. But this seems to be a little different from Polanyi’s tacit knowledge [67]. Nonaka and Takeuchi [84] have developed the knowledge spiral model in 1995 to show interaction between tacit and explicit knowledge in an organization for socialization, externalization, combination and internalization (SECI), which helps synthesize subjective knowledge and values into objective and socially shared organizational knowledge.
Show more

18 Read more

Reframing Tacit Human-Nature Relations : An Inquiry into Process Philosophy and the Philosophy of Michael Polanyi

Reframing Tacit Human-Nature Relations : An Inquiry into Process Philosophy and the Philosophy of Michael Polanyi

Whilst it follows then that this tacit framework will escape any complete explicit formalization, it is reasonable and justifiable to apply pragmatically incomplete measures to attempt to explicate an environmentally unsound tenet of metaphysical thought that much of our civilization dwells in. I have suggested above that we live in a framework of substance metaphysics where the human has separated itself from nature and has justified itself to abuse its environment at the price of both its own and the environment’s well- being. As Honig et al. (2015) note, altering environmental behaviour requires a novel understanding of how society and earth systems are connected, yet to achieve this it is simply not enough to attempt to modify human–environment interaction through building on explicit or rational knowledge. A more thorough Gestalt shift in how we attend to the world is required, and I suggest process philosophy can serve as the metaphysical basis for this thorough reinterpretation of human–environment interaction. To dwell in a tacit framework of process, due to the five tenets mentioned in Section 2.3., arguably has the potential for being more sustainable and environmentally sound than a substance-biased framework. It is the implementation of this framework, which Gare (1996) has dubbed a ‘metaphysics of sustainability’, that is left for environmental policy.
Show more

54 Read more

The Tacit Dimension inKnowledge Management: The Implications of the Epistemology of Michael Polanyi

The Tacit Dimension inKnowledge Management: The Implications of the Epistemology of Michael Polanyi

the same world view. Both were members of The Galilei Circle and in this circle both brothers shared the same ideas: they were free in spirit and anti-materialist. By the end of the 1920s, both had moved from free- thinking atheism to Tolstoyan Christianity based on the view that indi- vidual self-completion could be the impetus for social change. Here, at this period, however, the brothers began to diverge. While Karl took a definite step beyond individualist ethics towards the societal one, and tried to imbue sociology with moral imperatives, influenced by Kant’s categori- cal imperatives and by Christianity, Michael seemed to keep insisting upon the anti-materialist world view and shifted towards a theoretical philoso- phy in which the theory of knowledge dominated the theory of society. From here on, the brothers took divergent directions. Karl became a socialist or more precisely a social democrat, while Michael, with his deep understanding of the personal and social dimension of man, from the be- ginning of his career as scientist and philosopher, engaged in a criticism of Marxism.
Show more

21 Read more

Agenda. Bradesco s DNA. Tacit Knowledge. Customer Base. Bradesco s CRM. Operational. Campaigns. Competitive Intelligence. Performance Measurements

Agenda. Bradesco s DNA. Tacit Knowledge. Customer Base. Bradesco s CRM. Operational. Campaigns. Competitive Intelligence. Performance Measurements

Data Warehouse Sales Force Automation Customer Relationship Campaigns Party Information Branch Electronic Telebank Customer Analysis p Tools Feedback Financial Information External[r]

33 Read more

Design enquiry: tacit knowledge  and invention in science

Design enquiry: tacit knowledge and invention in science

So it can be argued that the historical move from one-off literal pictorial representations to the generalised languages that we take for granted today is essential for the development of knowledge. However it may be profitable to consider how different forms of representation, including complex, very specific artefacts, can support our efforts to employ tacit knowledge in our enquiries, whether we are seeking to engage our own tacit processes or those of our audience. This tension between simplified generic symbols and complex specific representations reflects the
Show more

14 Read more

Filling the Kasteelgracht with a stream of tacit knowledge; Finding solutions for a complex water problem by using tacit knowledge of people in a Working place

Filling the Kasteelgracht with a stream of tacit knowledge; Finding solutions for a complex water problem by using tacit knowledge of people in a Working place

In Chapter 4, the effects of the Working place were determined by analyzing the process of the Working place. In addition, the actors were interviewed and completed a survey before and after two session of the Working place. This survey was based on the 22 factors of the Adaptive Capacity Wheel (ACW). This is a tool, which can be used to determine the weak and strong point of persons, organizations and approaches. By comparing the results before and after two session of the Working place, the effect of the Working place became clear. Almost all scores of the factors increased due to the Working place. However, the residents, board members of the water board and a representative of the municipality were not being present in the Working place. This lead to lower scores of the factors ability to improve and multi actor, level & sector. The scores remained the same of the factors: Entrepreneurial (incite people to act), single loop learning (improving routine) and double loop learning (when social actors challenge norms and basic assumptions). Despite that some scores became lower or remained the same value, almost all scores increased. The actors were positive about the process. The problem was urgent enough for everyone and they were willing to find a solution together. The relationship between the actors improved and they were willing to share their tacit knowledge. Furthermore, due to the documentation (the growing narrative) and many
Show more

88 Read more

Managing construction workers and their tacit knowledge in a knowledge environment: A conceptual framework

Managing construction workers and their tacit knowledge in a knowledge environment: A conceptual framework

By taking a different stance Stahle (1999) suggests organisations into three-dimensional system i.e. mechanistic, organic and dynamic nature, depending on the different challenges presented for management of knowledge. Mechanistic part deals more with explicit knowledge whilst organic nature helps the organisation to work flexibly with a people- centred orientation and involves the management of tacit knowledge. The dynamic nature facilitates continuous improvement and innovation. Wetherill et al’s classification reflects the organisational hierarchy and when one moves from domain knowledge to project knowledge the concentration on knowledge too moves from explicit to tacit nature, which further highlights the knowledge worker concept in construction. Stahle’s suggestion indicates both the management and the production of the knowledge. In a similar sense Moodley et al (2001) contend that the tacit knowledge is developed through the individual or project teams, while the explicit knowledge is created through process, procedures and other routines that can be codified. Whatever the classification, tacit knowledge of the workers has been highlighted in much research carried out in the construction industry. A research carried out within structural design firms (Al-Ghassani, 2003) showed that about 80% of knowledge used during concept design stage is tacit compared to about 20% of explicit knowledge. As such, managing tacit knowledge more effectively offers construction organisations a possible mechanism for improving their performance in times of greater competition. Having discussed the importance of construction knowledge worker and their tacit knowledge, succeeding section explores more into tacit knowledge and its management.
Show more

15 Read more

Strategies to Retain Tacit Knowledge From Baby Boomers

Strategies to Retain Tacit Knowledge From Baby Boomers

Baby boomer employees who leave the workplace without sharing tacit knowledge create a knowledge gap within the organization. The purpose of this qualitative case study was to explore strategies local government leaders use to retain tacit knowledge of baby boomer employees. Six government leaders who worked in the Midwest United States participated in the study and shared their experiences and perceptions. Building upon systems theory, transformational leadership theory, and knowledge management theory, research was conducted to identify strategies to retain tacit knowledge from retiring baby boomers. The central research question was: What strategies do local government leaders need to retain tacit knowledge from retiring baby boomers? Data along with secondary information were collected through participant interviews, gathered from the study site, and analyzed using traditional text analysis. Three themes emerged: (a) mentoring, (b) generational differences, and (c) lack of structured systems. Mentoring was the most critical strategy leaders used to retain tacit knowledge from baby boomer employees. Acquiring collaborative leaders who foster a knowledge-sharing environment and encourage communication between multigenerational teams remained imperative to retain tacit knowledge. Implications for positive social change include taking advantage of the human capital and resources the baby boomer population characterized, and
Show more

154 Read more

Show all 10000 documents...