In protected areas such as GonarezhouNationalPark (GNP), southeastZimbabwe, large herbivores and fires have a significant negative impact on vegetation structure and composition thereby threatening local extirpation of some plant species (O’Connor et al., 2007). Marula is one of the heavily utilized tree species facing pressure from elephants and humans in savanna ecosystems (Helm & Witkowski, 2013). Gadd (2002) asserts that the marula species has poor regeneration and recruitment ability which is mainly attributed to overutilization. With the increasing human and large herbivore populations in southeast lowveld of Zimbabwe, the survival of the marula species is a cause of concern mostly due to overutilization. Elsewhere, in South Africa, the marula species is regarded as a keystone species, hence, this contributes towards its conservation (Shackleton et al., 2007). To date, little is known about the populationdensity and structure of the marula species in the south eastern lowveld of Zimbabwe. Therefore, the present study provides a baseline assessment of the marula species in GNP and adjacentareas. The objective of this study was to assess the populationdensity and structure of marula (Sclerocarya birrea) in the northwestern GNP and adjacentareas.
The study findings show that local people can recognize and distinguish different animal species, as well as notice and explain qualitative population trends. Goats and poultry were largely perceived to have increased in abundance, whereas cattle, sheep, donkeys and pigs were largely perceived to have declined in abundance between 2000 and 2010. Goats and poultry were reported to be less negatively affected by diseases and also were regarded as being easier to keep and protect from predators, hence the perceived increase in these species' populations. In contrast, the majority of the respondents reported that cattle, sheep, donkeys and pigs were more negatively affected by diseases such as anthrax and foot-and-mouth, hence the perceived decline in their populations over the study period. Cattle have been reported to play a central role in livelihoods of people living in marginal areas in semi-arid regions . Accordingly, in the southeast lowveld of Zimbabwe cattle-based households generally cope with hazards such as crop failures and economic decline by selling cattle . For instance, in the present study respondents reported that during the socio-economic challenges in Zimbabwe between 2000 and 2008, they raised money through selling cattle despite the unreliable livestock marketing system. Additionally, livestock were reportedly sold during crop failure periods to buffer the households against hunger, probably contributing to the perceived decline in cattle populations.
This study recorded significant differences in height, basal area, tree density and species diversity of
A. johnsonii woodland in GNP. The structural and compositional differences in A. johnsonii woodland
in GNP probably result from factors such as herbivory, fires, soil differences, soil moisture, past human activities and droughts. Androstachys johnsonii woodland in the northern section of GNP, an area with high fire frequency and high elephant density, seems to be degraded. The reduced heights in woody species show that elephants and fire are influencing the woodland. Repeated fires are known to stress normal growth and affect the health of the woodland, while elephant browsing may top-kill woody species ; hence A. johnsonii species fail to grow to their maximum attainable height of about 15 m . It was evident from this study that A. johnsonii trees occurring in all the three soil strata were to some extent damaged by elephants and showed evidence of past fires in GNP. There was noticeable damage to A. johnsonii woodland in areas of high elephant density and frequent fires . Tree damage was not uniform, however. Larger trees were less damaged by elephants and fire. In contrast, most damage was recorded on the juveniles and immature trees. Affected trees showed burn marks, scars, black surfaces and charred plant remains. Elephant damage was characterized by breaking of branches and stems, uprooting, pushing over and scarring of woody species. However, trees on hilltops and rocky outcrops showed evidence of slight elephant damage, whereas trees in the plains were more damaged by elephants. This may be attributed to difficult access by elephants to hilltops and rocky outcrops. One of the major reasons why elephants target A. johnsonii trees can be attributed to their evergreen nature. This is compounded by the social behaviour of elephants, including indiscriminate destruction of trees, especially by the male groups . In areas with high elephant densities, vegetation is destroyed not only by browsing but also by trampling. It has been suggested that some of the tree felling may be a social display unrelated to feeding . Additionally, elephants often change the structure and composition of vegetation, particularly in areas close to water sources . In semi-arid savannas, a clear example of spatial heterogeneity in environmental impact by herbivores is the development of utilization gradients around water sources where the grazing and trampling are high .
Results showed differences and similarities in woody vegetation structure and composition between Manjinji Pan and Save-Runde Junction IBAs. Tree density and number of stems per plant differed whereas plant height, density of shrubs and dead plants were similar in both study areas (Table 2). Tree densities and number of stems per plant could have differed due to interaction of fires and herbivory effects leading to a lower tree density and an associated high number of stems per plant primarily from resprouting in Save-Runde Junction IBA than in Manjinji Pan IBA. Intensive browsing by mostly large herbivores such as elephants and repeated fires are known to open up woodlands through breaking and killing of mature trees (Skarpe et al., 2004; O’Connor et al., 2007; Guldemond and Van Aarde, 2008). Previous studies on vegetation structure and composition across various woodland types in GonarezhouNationalPark have also attributed the lowering of tree density and high numbers of stem per plant to herbivory and fires (Tafangenyasha, 1997; Gandiwa et al., 2011; Mpofu et al., 2012). Higher tree density and lower numbers of stems per plant in Manjinji Pan IBA could be attributed to lower negative impact of browsing by goats and low fire occurrences in adjacent communal land due to low fuel load resulting from heavy grazing by livestock.
We investigated the structure and composition of Spirostachys africana woodlands in GonarezhouNationalPark (GNP), southeastZimbabwe. We divided the GNP into three strata, namely northern, central and southern GNP, based on physical feature such as major perennial rivers. The main objective was to determine whether the structure and composition of S. africana woodlands varied across the GNP. In addition, we evaluated whether herbivory and fires played important roles in influencing the structure and composition of S. africana woodland stands. A stratified random sampling design was used and data were collected from a total of 60 sample plots. The following variables were recorded in each study plot: woody plant height, species name, plant status (alive or dead), fire or browse evidence and number of stems per plant. A total of 2,588 woody plants comprising of 73 woody species were recorded from the sampled S. africana woodlands in the GNP. Our results showed that woody species diversity, woody plant heights, shrub density, density of dead plants, sapling density, density of fire damaged plants, and number of stems per plant were significantly different across the S. africana woodlands in GNP. In contrast, only densities of trees and browsed plants did not differ significantly across the GNP. Most plots in the southern GNP had higher tree and sapling densities and taller trees whereas those in the northern GNP had higher densities of fire damaged plants. In addition, plots from central GNP were characterised with higher shrub densities of S. africana woodlands. Overall, our results suggest that there are both structural and compositional differences of S. africana woodland stands across the GNP. Evidence of herbivory did not differ significantly across the GNP suggesting that plants were uniformly affected by herbivores. However, fire evidence seemed to vary across the GNP, with areas having frequent fires being more degraded and having to some extent more woody vegetation species diversity.
BIRESAW, M. A.: Vegetation structure and density of woody plant species in two woodland areas of Amhara Na- tional Regional State, Ethiopia. Acta univ. agric. et silvic. Mendel. Brun., 2010, LVIII, No. 1, pp. 21–32 This study was conducted in Jawi and East Belesa districts of the Amhara National Regional State in Ethiopia. It has an objective of describing the vegetation structure in relation to diﬀ erent environ- mental factors in general and Boswellia papyrifera, which is economically important species in partic- ular. Vegetation data were collected in both sites (Mosebit and Hamusit) using plots of 50 m x 50 m (0.25 ha). In total 15 sample plots were set up. In each plot, all trees with DBH (Diameter at Breast Height), i.e. at 1.3 m above the ground were measured using caliper. In each major plot four subplots (4 m × 4 m) were established. Tree height measured using Hypsometer (Vertex III). Data’s on diﬀ erent environmental variables (slope, aspect and altitude) of each plot were also taken respectively using laser rangeﬁ nder Impulse 200 Standard, an electronic compass Map-Star Module II and GPS Juno™ ST handheld (Trimble, USA). A total of 58 woody species belonging to 22 families were identiﬁ ed from both sites. A total of 241 trees/ha and 292 trees/ha were found in Mosebit and Hamusit study sites, respectively. The seedling density result indicates 3656 seedlings/ha and 2469 seedlings/ha in Mosebit and Hamusit study areas, respectively. The density of Boswellia Papyrifera, which is economi- cally important species were 140 and 127 tree/ha in Mosebit, and Hamusit study areas, respectively. The relative density of diﬀ erent tree species in diﬀ erent height and diameter classes were determined by altitude, aspect, and gradient of the study areas. The study result concludes that distribution of the species, relative density, height class and diameter class of species in the two sites is dependent on environmental factors. Finally, the ﬁ ndings indicate that the two woodlands harbor, economically important tree species. Therefore, giving due attention in conserving these wood lands is important from ecological, economical and conservation point of view.
As well as their important role in water conservation, Australia’s mountain soils also support numerous unusual plants and animals, many of which occur only in the mountainous regions. In these environments they form communities with other species that, like them, have evolved to survive snow and extreme cold, strong winds and nutrient-poor soils (ISC 2002, Costin 1979-2000). Many species are slow growing and, as a result, they can take a long time to recolonise an area once they have been removed, especially if the organic soils have also been washed or blown away from the site. When this occurs, areas become susceptible to weed invasion, which, along with loss of habitat, may reduce the competitive ability of native fauna (Costin 1979-2000).
Broader significance of this mapping endeavour The principle underlying vegetation mapping is to translate the spectral data acquired by a remote sensor into the desired vegetation categories. In the past four decades, the means to do so have evolved fast owing chiefly to advancement in the field of remote sensing, particularly regarding the diversification of the spatial, spectral, temporal and radiometric resolutions of sensors and of the ability to store, analyse and interpret the data they acquire (Chuvieco 2016; Jensen 2013). Nevertheless, remote sensing remains highly underused by conservationists, mainly because of the cost of and access to imagery and software (Turner et al. 2015). Aiming at making such new technologies more easily accessible to the end user, the international research community, backed by governments and transnational institutions, has pushed forward an agenda to make satellite imagery, derived products (Fonseca et al. 2014; Wulder et al. 2012) and software (Development Team QGIS 2015; GDAL 2018; GRASS 2012; Inglada & Christophe 2009) freely available to all in easy-to-use repositories. Given our requirement of a vegetation structure map to be used by several ongoing ecological and conservation studies within and around HNP, coupled with our limited budget for producing it, we opted to tackle the challenge of creating one using solely such freely available data and software. We hope that by providing a step-by-step description of our mapping (see the ‘Materials’ and ‘Procedure’ sections), our work may help researchers and conservationists produce future maps of HNP or similar maps of other protected savannas at a low cost. Conclusion
your local trying to bash his Ford in there, he can’t afford to wreck his tyres or whatever [community member] .
The ramifications of transport limitations are such that the ability of locals to visit Purnululu is restricted, as also reported by Brown (2009) regarding Indigenous visits to Australia‘s Yuraygir NationalPark. More generally, Walsh and Mitchell (2002) discuss the high value placed upon vehicles by Indigenous people yet difficulties in obtaining them owing to costs. Transport difficulties are perhaps attributable to the prevalence of CDEP income in Warmun (Warmun Community 2007): overwhelmingly the only employment we can offer here is CDEP [community member] . CDEP delivers a limited income to recipients 96 , rapidly consumed by the high costs of goods, services and transport (Clare, pers. comm. 2008). Thus, the prominence of CDEP (as well as other welfare payments) in Warmun implies a general lack of financial resources. This slow variable effectively precludes car ownership for many locals (Table 6.1). In lieu of funds to purchase and maintain appropriate vehicles, locals wishing to visit Purnululu must arrange to share transport with another. Transport difficulties also partly reflect a lack of requisite skills, as many locals do not hold valid driving licences (Clare, pers. comm. 2008) and so risk legal repercussions in driving to Purnululu.
judiciously implement and promote agency-wide structures will be an important task as the NPS strives for greater relevance and resilience.
Public organizations, stressed under conditions of complexity and change (or “permanent whitewater” as Comfort et al.  evocatively state), are a prime area for investigating the balance between bureaucracy and adaptation (Stark, 2014), or scaffolds and innovation, central to resilience (Walker & Salt, 2006). We suggest that precursor resilience can be enhanced primarily through bridge-building. In this way, the mesoscale of organizational groups appears to share similarities with macroscale organizational collaborative approaches to reducing vulnerabilities (Andrew & Carr, 2013; Granovetter, 1973; Putnam, 2000). However, three key points differentiate the mesoscale. First, this finer level of detail is imperative for examining seemingly monolithic agencies. Although each “tentacle” of the NPS may have robust external relationships, the lack of shared knowledge among tentacles indicates that intra and inter-organizational resilience may not always match. Second, recognizable groups (i.e., “the face” of an organization) may be both more powerful and more rigid because of this exposure. Including all groups, especially underrepresented ones, is important to examine where pathways to resilience may already be being forged. Third, tying mesoscale resilience to macroscale relevance is an important unifying consideration. In public agencies especially, efforts center on public contribution. Thus, examining the structure of internal collaborations for external relevance emphasizes this goal and reinforces linkages between internal capacity and external success.
The Kolsai Koldery State National Natural Park is situated on the northern slope of the Kungey Alatau mountains range. The park was established according to the Decree No. 88 of the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan dated February 7, 2007. The most northern part of the park is the Chilik River, while the southern border is the border with Kyrgyzstan passing along the Kungei Alatau range. The greatest part of the park is situated on the territory of Kyrgyzstan, and only the eastern part of the northern slope of the ridge belongs to Kazakhstan. The relief of the park and adjacentareas is mostly mountainous one. Dry
The Western Bieszczady Mountains, the westernmost range of the North Eastern Carpathians, are the mountains of medium height with Tarnica as their highest mountain of 1,348 m above sea level (Fig. 1). They are situated in the fl ysch outer Carpathians. The bedrock is mainly com- posed of Krosno and inoceramus sandstones and menilite layers. The ridges are most often built of sandstones while schists, very susceptible to weathering, prevail in valleys. Such a structure resulted in so called lattice system of
Termite mounds are well known to host a suite of unique plants compared to the surrounding savanna matrix. However, most studies testing the significance of mounds for ecosystem heterogeneity have been conducted at single sites. Mound effects on savanna heterogeneity across varying landscapes are less well understood, and how effects might vary across geological types is as yet unknown. In addition, the effect of mound size on savanna herbaceous vegetation has not been previously tested. We studied the effects of termite mounds on vegetation spatial heterogeneity across two geologies (granite and basalt) in Zimbabwe’s GonarezhouNationalPark, including effects of mound size and the spatial extent of termite influence. Herbaceous vegetation was sampled on mounds and in savanna matrix plots, as well as along distance transects away from mounds. Soil nutrients on mounds and in the savanna matrix were also compared between geologies. Large mounds had higher soil nutrients compared to the savanna matrix on granite, but not on basalt, with mounds therefore acting as nutrient hot-spots on nutrient-poor granite only. Large and medium sized mounds hosted compositionally different grass species to the savanna matrix on granite, but not on basalt. Large mounds on granite also had significantly lower grass and forb species richness compared to the savanna matrix. However, small mounds on granite, as well as all mound size categories on basalt, did not have an effect on grass and forb species richness or assemblage composition, an observation that is attributed to a lack of difference in soil nutrients between mounds and the savanna matrix here. Our study shows that the significance of termite mounds to ecosystem spatial heterogeneity is highly influenced by geology and mound size. Mound effects on herbaceous plant species heterogeneity are more pronounced in dystrophic geologies, but this is dependent on mound size. Future studies on the significance of termite mounds for vegetation heterogeneity should take cognisance of landscape context, such as geology, and mound size when seeking to understand the contribution of termite mounds to ecosystem structure and function.
MATERIAL AND METHODS Study area
The study area includes two phytocenoses of the Mixed Ombrophylous Forest (MOF), typical and exclusive formation of the Southern Brazil highlands, with representation of tropical and temperate floras, with dominance of Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol.) Kuntze (RODERJAN et al., 2002). The study was conducted in the Iguaçu NationalPark (ParNa Iguaçu), a federal conservation unit of integral protection (RYLANDS; BRANDON, 2005). ParNa Iguaçu covers 185,262.50 ha, according to the Brazilian Institute of Environment and Natural Resources (IBAMA, 1999), forming one of the main areas with native vegetation in the state of Paraná. With the exception of the Brazilian Serra do Mar, it represents, together with the São Joaquim NationalPark, SC, the last remaining of the original Atlantic Forest with core bigger than 50,000 ha, being the only fragment with areas 12 km far from the edge (RIBEIRO et al., 2009).
Habitat degradation and fragmentation are eating deep into conservation areas and this is a serious threat to species diversity and abundance. Species like the antelopes have a sedentary and docile nature which makes them highly vulnerable to habitat degradation or human intrusion. The effect be- comes complex as the remaining flora and fauna communities can be signifi- cantly impacted by changes in ecosystem structure and function. Populationdensity, diversity and abundance of fauna species will either increase or de- crease over time depending on the quality of the environment/habitat and the level of human interference or disturbance. Hence an updated checklist of species diversity and abundance is necessary to enable management and other stakeholders make pragmatic plans and policy towards sustainable species conservation. With the aid of a Global Positioning System (GPS), a 5 km transect was established per site and censured for Antelope species using the King Census method of enumeration. Descriptive statistics and ANOVA was used to analyze the data. Seven (7) species of Antelopes were recorded. Kobs ( Kobus kob ) were the most abundant (2019), while Reedbuck ( Redunca re- dunca ) was the least abundant with twenty-five (25) individuals. Kob is the most observed species in Oli Complex with 24.13%, ranking about 50% of kob in proportion. This was followed by roan antelope ( Hippotragus equi- nus ), and Red Flanked duiker, 4.02% and 3.63% respectively. Kobs had the highest density of 40.38 per square km followed by roan antelope (3.32) and RF duiker (2.36). Relative density followed a similar trend. The least encoun- ter rate was observed in Sylvicapra grimmia (0.02) and increse further to Hippotragus equinus (0.4), Redunca redunca (0.06) and Alcelaphus busela- phus (0.09) respectively. It was low amongst Tragelaphus scriptus (0.2), and How to cite this paper: Oladipo, O.S.,
benefit derived from activities conducted in these areas. However, in reality the process of creating WMA is not clearly known to local communities and no full ownership and control is given to them hence it is not easy to reap benefit from it (Wilfred, 2010). The policy also emphasize that people must benefit from living adjacent to protected areas. It recognizes that a range of direct and indirect benefits can be derived from wildlife and wetland resources, and that sharing of revenues is an important aspect of conservation (URT, 2007). However, it does not give clear indication as to how these benefits can be accrued by the communities. The policy rather suggest on building better relationships between protected areas and local communities and educating local communities about the potential value of wildlife as a strategy to ensure that local communities benefit. TANAPA for example, has the extension programme for provision of conservation education to local communities known as Community Conservation Services (CCS). The main role of CCS is to strengthen education and benefit sharing (Dembe et al, 1996). CCS in many National Parks has managed to reduce the tension that communities hold for protected areas. Generally, even with the new wildlife policy, it is still not clear how
Gorce NationalPark and local governments are working together to help recreational tourism de- velop in the region. Both sides generally agree that this process is going well. The minor conflicts that do exist tend to focus on local spatial management. Nevertheless, the extent of collaboration between the Park and local governments could be even greater, especially in the realm of tourist traffic management in the Park and agro-tourism in the Park’s fringe zone. Tourism development ought to follow the principles of sustainable growth based on the input of local residents. It is desirable to create a regional partner- ship for tourism development based on the Park as a chief attraction in the area. The gminas where the Park is located still need a comprehensive market- ing strategy that would promote the tourist offer of the region. Local villages also need to develop their own recreational areas. Finally, it is important to note that the development of tourism and recreation can be consistent with a balanced approach to meeting the needs of local communities while protecting the natural environment. This includes changes in land management in areasadjacent to national parks.
be caused by the historical development of agroforestry, where simple and complex agroforestry in the Kamarora Village (SAF2 and CAF2) located inside the buffer zone of Lore Lindu NationalPark, which is established from natural forests. Thus the high number of trees felled during the conversion of natural forest into agroforestry. While in simple agroforestry (SAF1 and SAF3) established from a garden, so that the dead trees less because the necromass just from branches and twigs of cash crop trees (cocoa).
Much of the flora and some of the fauna of the Park is related to the flora and fauna of other southern continents and is relevant to the study of continental drift. The altitudinal vegetation zones are also important for the study of plant adaptation, comparative morphology and speciation. Special interest has been shown in the alpine area. Together with its geological features, this makes the Park a focus of scientific interest. Likewise, its flora, fauna and scenery have attracted interest from the general public. Mt Kosciusko, the highest mountain in Australia, also attracts many visitors. At the same time, the area forms the catchment for the two major river systems (the Murray and Murrumbidgee Rivers) which flow through the low rainfall areas in the south east of the continent. The eastward flowing Snowy River (noted for its plentiful supply of water in a continent where rivers frequently dry up) also rises in the mountains. As one of the few areas of Australia where snow falls, the Kosciusko area is becoming increasingly used for snow sports. This combination of cultural and scientific attractions with the natural resources of water, timber and grasslands (and, lately, snow) has given the area a national significance and provides the framework for its land use history since the beginning of European settlement in the area.