Top PDF Porcine somatotropin to improve meat quality of pigs

Porcine somatotropin to improve meat quality of pigs

Porcine somatotropin to improve meat quality of pigs

A method of improving muscle quality of pigs normally susceptible to procine stress syndrome, said method comprising: administering daily to said pigs during their period of time for cri[r]

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Effect of dietary linseed supplementation on the performance, meat quality, and fatty acid profile of pigs

Effect of dietary linseed supplementation on the performance, meat quality, and fatty acid profile of pigs

It can be assumed that feeding linseed, which is rich in α-linolenic acid, causes increasing n-3 tissue PUFA level and decreasing the atherogenic and thrombogenic index of pig meat. Physical and chemical characteristics are supposedly in- fluenced, too. Presumably, gilts and barrows will react differently on linseed addition due to differ- ent ability to store fat in the body on the basis of sex hormones. Barrows have a higher proportion of intramuscular fat compared to boars and gilts. The fatty acid composition of backfat and intra- muscular fat showed much smaller differences between sexes than between fat supplements to the diets (Flachowsky et al., 2008). There are only a few studies dealing with the interaction of dietary linseed supplement and sex in pigs. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to determine the effect of the addition of linseed to the diet of pigs of different sexes (barrows and gilts) on the characteristics of quantitative and qualitative indicators of carcass value and the profile of fatty acids in the loin and to improve the nutritional value and fatty acid ratios of pig meat. Moreover, the effect of linseed addition with simultaneous increase of energy value of mixed feed and sex on fattening indicators was evaluated.
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Effect of immunocastration in group housed commercial fattening pigs on reproductive organs, malodorous compounds, carcass and meat quality

Effect of immunocastration in group housed commercial fattening pigs on reproductive organs, malodorous compounds, carcass and meat quality

eral ban on castration is envisaged in the EU by the year 2018 (EC declaration, 2010). In view of these changes, immunocastration is one of the possible alternatives. The method is based on vaccination against GnRH (gonadotropin releasing hormone) and may improve animal welfare, since no surgi- cal procedure is needed (Thun et al., 2006). Two vaccinations are needed for a full response, caus- ing reduction of testes and accessory reproductive organs and elimination of boar taint (Dunshea et al., 2001; Cronin et al, 2003; McCauley et al., 2003; Jaros et al., 2005; Zamaratskaia et al., 2008a, b). Notable changes in metabolism and behaviour of animals have also been reported (Cronin et al, 2003; Claus et al., 2007). Immunocastration enables ex- ploiting boar-like growth potential until the second vaccination, when the castration is effective. In the last few years, several studies have investigated the effect of immunocastration in pigs (reviewed by Millet et al., 2011 and Batorek et al., 2012), how- ever, they were mostly focused on growth perfor- mance and boar taint elimination, whereas there is much less information on carcass and meat quality. Moreover, because the results of the studies are not always consistent due to numerous factors inter- fering with the effect of immunocastration, there is a need for testing this alternative in the local conditions. The present paper presents the results of a study conducted in commercial rearing condi- tions, evaluating the effects of immunocastration on performance, carcass and meat quality traits, development of reproductive organs and boar taint elimination.
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Genome-Wide Association Analysis of Meat Quality Traits in a Porcine Large White × Minzhu Intercross Population

Genome-Wide Association Analysis of Meat Quality Traits in a Porcine Large White × Minzhu Intercross Population

can only be measured after slaughtering the pigs. For breeding stock, some traits can only be predicted us- ing related animal information. The detection of markers associated with these traits is necessary for marker-assisted selection (MAS) which could im- prove early selection and enormously decrease the cost of breeding for meat quality trait optimization. Since the initial report of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for meat quality traits by Andersson-Eklund [2], ap- proximately 4,434 off these QTLs were identified via genome scanning based on linkage analyses (http://www.animalgenome.org/cgi-bin/QTLdb/SS /index, Apr 20, 2011). As a result of the low density of currently detected microsatellite markers, QTLs are often mapped to a large interval of 20 centimorgans (cM) or more. Only a few quantitative trait nucleo- tides (QTN) have been identified on the basis of re- sults for complex traits in domestic animals via QTL fine mapping analysis [3-6]. The current porcine 60K SNP panel provides more density than the available microsatellite markers and contributes to improved accuracy in finding the exact QTL locations.
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Variability in the leptin, leptin receptor and heart fatty acid binding protein genes in relationship with meat quality traits in pigs

Variability in the leptin, leptin receptor and heart fatty acid binding protein genes in relationship with meat quality traits in pigs

87 The breeding programs in the pig production brou- ght a real improvement in measurable characteristics in the last decade. It came to fruition mainly in the percentage of lean meat weight and back fat thick- ness. However, average daily gain and feed conver- sion were enhanced too. In the relative short time, there were cumulated desirable genes and their forms (alleles) in the contemporary breeds of pigs. On the other hand, several new problems had occurred there, for example the robustness reduction, leg weakness (tePAS and Visscher, 1994) and a porcine stress syn- drome, which is considered as a causative factor for the PSE (pale, soft, exudative) meat quality. The cau- sal mutation in the RyR1 = CRC (calcium release channel) gene, a key aspect for the stress suscepti- bility, was revealed by Fujii et al. (1991). The CRC genotyping is performed using the molecular gene- tics methods (PCR-RFLP) for selected animals, and this initiated the implementation of marker assisted
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 Evaluation of fattening and slaughter performance and determination of meat quality in Złotnicka Spotted pigs and their crosses with the Duroc breed

 Evaluation of fattening and slaughter performance and determination of meat quality in Złotnicka Spotted pigs and their crosses with the Duroc breed

ABSTRACT: The study aimed at an evaluation of fattening and slaughter performance as well as meat quality of the native Złotnicka Spotted (ZS) pigs and its crosses with Duroc pigs. The experimental material comprised 60 fatteners, divided into three genetic groups of 20 animals (100% ZS, 75% ZS and 50% ZS). The specific character of conservative breeding results in low values of fattening and slaughter performance traits observed in ZS breed. Among the analysed groups, animals with 100% share of ZS genes in their genotype were characterised by low daily weight gains (0.59 kg), considerable backfat thickness (34.96 mm), slight muscle thickness (48.05 mm), and low leanness (41.83%). These parameters were higher in both groups of crosses. Differences between the 100% ZS group and the 50% ZS group were significant for backfat thickness and highly significant for leanness. Acidity and colour parameters analysis showed that meat from all the genetic groups analysed was characterised by a good quality. The highest pH 45 values were in the 75% ZS group, and meat from this group had the darkest colour (L* = 49.73) and the highest red colour share (a* = 5.11). Statistical analyses showed that ZS breed retained its original traits through the years of breeding. It was confirmed that meat of Złotnicka Spotted breed is characterised by excellent quality. The results indicate that ZS and Duroc breeds crossing improves fattening and slaughter performance, while maintaining good meat quality in their crosses. Results of this study may also be used by breeders. They indicate that crosses of both the breeds kept in extensive breeding may be successfully used in high quality meat production. Pork from such animals may be a raw material for market niche production, such as regional products. The use of meat from crosses in meat processing may improve both quality of the processed products and efficiency of production based on the native Złotnicka Spotted breed.
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Effects of creatine and vitamin E on muscle energetic metabolism, antioxidant stability and meat quality of pigs

Effects of creatine and vitamin E on muscle energetic metabolism, antioxidant stability and meat quality of pigs

Inorganic phosphate (Pi) tended to be lower in CMH supplemented pigs and diff erences between control and CMH + vitamin E supplemented groups were signifi cant (P ≤ 0.05). Opposite tendency were found for phosphocreatine level (PCr) with highest value in pigs supplemented with CMH + vitamin E but diff erences if compare to control group were signifi cant (P ≤ 0.05). Values of ATP (- ATP) were relatively stabile if compare control and experimental groups and diff erences were not signifi cant (P ≥ 0.05). Effi ciency of the metabolism of muscle energetic compounds evaluated by index PCr/Pi was found higher in groups supplemented with CMH and diff erences between group supplemented CMH + vitamin E and control pigs were signifi cant (P ≤ 0.05). Results on P NMR spectroscopy parameters are comparable with earlier results of non mutated genotype (on MH homozygote) of biopsy samples taken of 15 min a er slaughter (Lahucky et al., 2004). Higher effi ciency of energetic muscle metabolism (reduced PCr breakdown, slower PCr decay and higher PCr/ Pi ratio) were found also by others (Moesgaard et al., 1995; Lahucky et al., 2004) in pigs supplemented by magnesium oxide (MgO). It was also shown (Lahucky et al., 2000) that supplementation with vitamin E could improve the effi ciency of the metabolism of energetic compounds in musculus longissimus dorsi. Total water and total protein contents (Tab. IV) were not infl uenced and signifi cant diff erences were not found (P ≥ 0.05). Intramuscular fat content was higher in group CMH compared to CMH + E and the control group. Berg and Allee (2001) reported 5 days CMH
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Comparison of PRKAG3 and RYR1 gene effect on carcass traits and meat quality in Slovenian commercial pigs

Comparison of PRKAG3 and RYR1 gene effect on carcass traits and meat quality in Slovenian commercial pigs

N/n pigs, found no significant interactions between these genes either for carcass or for meat quality measurements (ultimate pH, Minolta L*, a* and b* and drip loss). Similarly Otto et al. (2007), study- ing the associations of multiple DNA markers with meat quality traits, reported no interaction between PRKAG3 codon 199 and RYR1 gene for drip loss. Based on our results, some interesting assumptions could be made, which, if properly used in breeding, could help in search of the compromise between carcass yield and meat quality and contribute to lower variability in meat quality. When comparing the differences between the PRKAG3 genotypes (Figure 1) within the RYR1 homozygous N/N and heterozygous N/n pigs, similar values of pHu, drip loss 24 and 48 h were observed in the case of N/N-R/R-V/V and N/n-R/R-I/I. These results indicate that by using the “n” allele in pig breed- ing schemes to improve carcass yields the nega- tive impact of “n” allele on meat quality could be counterbalanced by the presence of I/I genotype. The poorest meat quality is expected to come from the co-appearance of “n” allele on RYR1 gene and 200Q alleles on PRKAG3, which should be avoided. Based on the results of the present study, the meat industry should consider if the advantage in carcass yields (≈1% point) when using “n” or 200Q allele can justify the loss in meat quality translated to the considerably higher drip loss (2 to 4% points).
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Novel SNPs of the porcine TRIP12 are associated with water holding capacity of meat

Novel SNPs of the porcine TRIP12 are associated with water holding capacity of meat

ABSTRACT: Degradation of proteins during maturation of meat, mediated by the calpain/calpastatin system and the ubiquitination system, largely affects the tenderness and the water holding capacity (WHC) of meat. The thyroid hormone receptor interacting protein 12 (TRIP12) is known as a HECT domain-containing E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase that recognizes protein substrates for ubiquitination. This study aims to identify poly- morphisms of the TRIP12 gene and to evaluate the relationship between genotype, transcript abundance, and meat quality traits in pigs. Two synonymous SNPs (XM_003484315.1:c.2211T>C, c.4957A>C) were identified that segregated among animals of herds of the breed German Landrace (DL, n = 269) and the commercial crossbreed of Pietrain × (German Large White × German Landrace) (PiF1, n = 300). Statistical analysis revealed associations between TRIP12 polymorphisms and the organismal traits related to water holding capacity, i.e. conductivity 45 min postmortem (CON 1 , P < 0.1) and pH 24 h postmortem (pH 24 , P < 0.1). Haplotype analysis revealed consistent effects on muscle CON 1 in the two populations (P < 0.1). Carriers of the minor alleles C at the two polymorphic sites tended to have higher transcript abundance as well as higher water holding capacity. The integrated analysis of genotypic and haplotypic variation, transcript abundance, and technological param- eters of WHC indicates that the XM_003484315.1:c.2211T>C and c.4957A>C of TRIP12 are in linkage disequi- librium with a causal factor located in a cis-regulatory region, which affects in the first instance gene expression and in the second traits related to water holding capacity. Our results provide statistical-genetical evidence supporting TRIP12 as a functional candidate gene for water holding capacity of porcine M. longissimus dorsi.
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Mechanism of continuous high temperature affecting growth performance, meat quality, and muscle biochemical properties of finishing pigs

Mechanism of continuous high temperature affecting growth performance, meat quality, and muscle biochemical properties of finishing pigs

Pools (four pools of two pigs per treatment) of muscle proteins (40 μg, one for each treatment) were separated by SDS-PAGE and proteins were electro-transferred to PVDF membranes at 250 mA for 90 min, as described by Ma et al. [14]. Membranes were blocked overnight at 4 °C with 5% non-fat milk in TBST (10 mmol/L Tris-HCl, pH 8.0, 150 mmol/L NaCl, 0.1% Tween 20). All primary anti- bodies were raised in rabbits and were suitable for detect- ing specific porcine proteins: DECR1(sc-393473, Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Dallas, TX), FABP3 (orb156814, Bior- byt, Berkeley, CA), HSPA1L (bs-18079R, Bioss, Columbia, TN), LPIN1 (sc-50050, Santa Cruz), PEKM (sc-31712, Santa Cruz), TNNI1 (orb106871, Biorbyt), TNNT3 (BWB- MS201C, Genway Biotech, San Diego, CA), PPARGC-1 (bs-7535R, Bioss), MSTN (ab98337, Abcam), FASN (ab128856, Abcam), PCK1 (ab87340, Abcam), and GAPDH (sc-20357, Santa Cruz). Each was used at 1:250 diluted in blocking buffer for 2 h at room temperature. Membranes were washed three times, each for 10 min, with 10 mL TBST then incubated for 1 h in blocking buf- fer containing horseradish peroxidase-labeled (HRP) anti- rabbit secondary antibody (ABCAM Biotechnology, Cam- bridge, UK) diluted 1:5000. After three 10-min washes, immunoreactive proteins were visualized using a chemilu- minescent HRP substrate (Millipore, Billerica, MA) and a Versa Doc imaging system (Bio-Rad). The band densities were calculated by Quantity One software (Bio-Rad) and compared to the density of GADPH. The Western blot analyses were performed in triplicate and data were ana- lyzed with IMAGE J 1.49 software (NIH, Bethesda, MD).
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Association of miR-208b Polymorphism with Meat Quality Traits and Texture Parameters in Pigs

Association of miR-208b Polymorphism with Meat Quality Traits and Texture Parameters in Pigs

binding to the 3' untranslated regions of protein- coding transcripts and lead to degradation of target mRNA or inhibition of translation (Bartel 2004). MicroRNAs, which are specific for muscle, are called myomiRs. Only a few types of myomiRs have been identified so far: miR-1, miR-133a, miR-133b, miR-206, miR-208a, miR-208b, miR-486, and miR-499. They play an important role in myogenesis, em- bryonic muscle growth, and cardiac function in- cluding hypertrophy. Most of genes that encode myomiRs are located inside the host genes, except miR-133b and miR-206, which are located in in- tergenic regions (McCarthy 2008; Horak et al. 2016). In the swine transcriptome 382 precursors and 411 mature types of miRNAs have been de- scribed in miRBase (release 21.0) (Kozomara and Griffiths-Jones 2014). Among them ssc-miR-378, ssc-miR-1, and ssc-miR-206 were abundantly ex- pressed in skeletal muscles (Hou et al. 2012). Be- sides earlier mentioned roles of miRNAs, they can also control the fibre type of skeletal muscles as shown during experiments with miR-208b and miR-499 double knockout (dKO) mice. These genes show high homology and are co-expressed in m. soleus. Analysis demonstrated that dKO mutants were characterized by substantial loss of type I myofibres in the soleus and increase in the expression of fast type IIx/d and type IIb myosin isoforms (van Rooij et al. 2009). In pigs, miR-208b is expressed from myosin heavy chain 7 gene (MYH7), located on SSC7, however miR-499 from myosin heavy chain 7B gene (MYH7B) on SSC17. Both genes encode closely related isoforms of slow myosins that are present in cardiac, as well as in slow skeletal muscle (van Rooij et al. 2009; Aken et al. 2016). Porcine MYH7 gene consists of 40 exons separated by 39 introns and spans 22 kb compared to 39 exons over 21.5 kb in human MYH7 (NCBI build 37.3) because of an additional untranslated 5'-exon in pigs (Murgiano et al. 2012). Kim et al. (2015) detected a single nucleo- tide p olymorphism (SNP) (rs328743478, NC_010449.4:g.17104G>A) in intron 30 of porcine MYH7 gene, located in pri-miR-208b sequence that has an impact on the secondary structure of pri-miR-208b. Analysis showed that it influenced mature miR-208b expression, which correlates with target (transcription factor SOX-6) and host (MYH7) genes expression. Moreover, the SNP was associated with proportions of types I and IIb fibre numbers (P < 0.010), as well as drip loss
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Influence of diets containing raw or extruded peas instead of soybean meal on meat quality characteristics in growing finishing pigs

Influence of diets containing raw or extruded peas instead of soybean meal on meat quality characteristics in growing finishing pigs

Complete feed mixtures contained soybean meal for the control group and 15% (C1) and 30% (C2) raw and extruded peas (P1, EP1 and P2, EP2, res- pectively) for pigs in experimental groups (Table 1). Extrusion of peas was performed under these condi- tions: continual pressure at 40 bars and temperature of the expander 130°C for 20 s. We used the data on ileal digestibility according to the Optimix pro- gramme to compose the feed mixtures (Table 1). The energy value of feed mixtures was calculated accord- ing to Kirchgessner (cited by Šimeček et al., 1994) for metabolisable energy. Feed mixtures were composed from the aspect of minimal differences in the content of crude protein and all other nut-rients (Table 2).
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HISTOLOGICAL STRUCTURE OF MUSCULUS LONGISSIMUS DORSI IN PIGS WITH THE SAME RYANODINE RECEPTOR GENOTYPE (CC) IN RELATION TO MEAT QUALITY INDICATORS

HISTOLOGICAL STRUCTURE OF MUSCULUS LONGISSIMUS DORSI IN PIGS WITH THE SAME RYANODINE RECEPTOR GENOTYPE (CC) IN RELATION TO MEAT QUALITY INDICATORS

For histological evaluation of pig musculus longissimus dorsi (MLD) a total number of 16 pigs (9 females and 7 castrated males) about 101.28 kg average live weight with the same the same ryanodine receptor genotype (CC) were used. Animals were raised on Fattening and Carcass Value Experimental Station (FCVES) of Slovak University of Agriculture (SUA) in Nitra. Rearing and feeding conditions were equal for all animals.

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Comparative epidemiology of porcine circovirus type 3 in pigs with different clinical presentations

Comparative epidemiology of porcine circovirus type 3 in pigs with different clinical presentations

In 2016, two small-scale fattening pig farms (about 200 or 300 American Landrace pigs in total), locating in Guangdong province (southern China) and Jilin province (northern China) separated by more than 3, 000 km in distance (Fig. 1), suffered from severe respiratory disease (SRD). Pigs (2-3 months old) on both farms have re- ceived immunizations against PCV2, pseudorabies virus (PRV), classical swine fever virus (CSFV) and type 2 por- cine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). However, the morbidity rate of pigs on the two farms was approximately 60%, the mortality in af- fected pigs was about 80%. From autopsy results of 18 individual dead pigs ( n = 8 for farm A, n = 10 for farm B) (Additional file 1: Table S1), the similar macroscopic le- sions were concentrated in the lungs and lymph nodes, which was characterized by PRRSV- or PCV2-like le- sions including pulmonary interstitial widening, conges- tion and lymphadenopathy bleeding. These 18 pig lung samples were defined as the samples with SRD. To com- pare the detection results of PCV3 based on the same
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Detection of a Novel Strain of Porcine Circovirus in Pigs with Postweaning Multisystemic Wasting Syndrome

Detection of a Novel Strain of Porcine Circovirus in Pigs with Postweaning Multisystemic Wasting Syndrome

The infectious agents of swine are receiving increased atten- tion due to the potential use of pig organs for xenotransplan- tation in humans. Some of these agents are poorly studied, and/or their significance to swine health is unknown. Porcine circovirus (PCV) is one such agent and is considered to be widespread in swine (7, 33, 35). PCV is a member of the family Circoviridae, which consists of DNA viruses with a circular, single-stranded genome. Other members include chicken ane- mia virus and psittacine beak and feather disease virus (28, 38) in animals and several plant viruses, including subterranean clover stunt virus, coconut foliar decay virus, and banana bunchy top virus (4, 15, 29). PCV was first isolated in 1974 as a persistent contaminant of the continuous porcine kidney cell line PK-15 (ATCC CCL31) (34, 37), and the PCV strain iso- lated from PK-15 cells (PCV PK-15) has been well character- ized (3, 20, 23). No common antigenic determinants or DNA sequence homologies among animal circoviruses have been detected (39).
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Porcine pararotavirus: detection, differentiation from rotavirus, and pathogenesis in gnotobiotic pigs

Porcine pararotavirus: detection, differentiation from rotavirus, and pathogenesis in gnotobiotic pigs

Comparison of the electrophoretic migration patterns of ds RNA preparations extracted from the intestinal contents of gnotobiotic pigs infected with A porcine rotavirus OSU strain, B PaR[r]

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Isolation and Characterization of Porcine Deltacoronavirus from Pigs with Diarrhea in the United States

Isolation and Characterization of Porcine Deltacoronavirus from Pigs with Diarrhea in the United States

PDCoV OH-FD22 replicated in both ST and LLC-PK cells, with cell enlargement, rounding, and rapid detachment from the cell monolayers at p.i. days 2 to 3. Trypsin was beneficial but not essential for the propagation of PDCoV in LLC-PK cells. PDCoV replicated in LLC-PK cells without trypsin; however, it did not induce visible CPE, and virus titers were low. During CoV infec- tion, the cleavage of the S protein by endogenous or exogenous proteases into two subunits is the important for cell culture adap- tation of CoVs. This cleavage is essential for the induction of cell- to-cell fusion and virus entry into cells (20, 21). Further studies are needed to investigate whether trypsin or pancreatin is essential for the cleavage of the PDCoV S protein or for virus entry, replication, or release. The conditions required for the propagation of PDCoV in ST cells differed from those of LLC-PK cells. OH-FD22-P0 grew well in ST cells with trypsin, but when serially passaged in ST cell cultures without trypsin in the medium, replication ceased. Based on the extensive experience in isolating swine enteric viruses in our laboratory (18), SIC from a noninoculated Gn pig and trypsin were incorporated into the cell culture medium (serum-free ad- vanced MEM) to support PDCoV propagation in ST cells. PDCoV could be serially propagated in ST cells with the addition of SIC from uninoculated Gn pigs. Substances in SIC may be beneficial for PDCoV attachment to its receptor and/or virus entry or for other stages of the viral replication cycle. The SIC of healthy Gn pigs is a complex mixture, and we did not determine which com- ponents exerted growth effects. Thus, commercial pancreatin, re- ported to be an important factor in adapting a porcine group C rotavirus to primary porcine kidney (PPK) cell cultures (18, 22), was used for PDCoV growth by adding it to the cell maintenance medium (no trypsin) postinoculation, and successful serial prop- agation of PDCoV in ST cells was accomplished. Thus, pancreatin or SIC in the maintenance medium was critical for PDCoV prop- agation in ST cells. Even at later passages, when pancreatin or SIC was excluded from the medium, PDCoV infectivity was reduced (data not shown). Since the exact roles of these growth-promoting factors in PDCoV replication remain unknown, and the mecha- nisms used by the virus to enter the host cells are unclear, we could not determine the stages of the virus replication cycle that were affected by the addition of SIC or pancreatin.
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Nucleotide Sequence of Porcine Circovirus Associated with Postweaning Multisystemic Wasting Syndrome in Pigs

Nucleotide Sequence of Porcine Circovirus Associated with Postweaning Multisystemic Wasting Syndrome in Pigs

A variety of circoviruses have been identified in a range of animal species (porcine circovirus [PCV] [23], psittacine beak and feather disease virus [21], and chicken anemia virus [25]) and plant species (subterranean clover stunt virus [SCSV] [4], coconut foliar decay virus [CFDV] [22], and banana bunch top virus [BBTV] [12]). Even though all circoviruses have circular single-stranded DNA genomes and small isometric virions, there are very limited similarities among them. The animal circovi- ruses have insignificant similarity at the nucleotide sequence or protein level with one another and with the plant circoviruses (1, 26, 27). On the other hand, the plant circoviruses have limited similarity with one another at the nucleotide sequence and protein levels (3, 12). Prior to the present study, the only reported nucleotide sequence of porcine circovirus has been for the nonpathogenic (np PCV) strain, which is commonly associated with cultured porcine kidney (PK-15) cells (17). The np PCV was found to have limited protein similarity with only some plant circoviruses (BBTV, CFDV, and SCSV), whereas it has insignificant nucleic acid sequence and protein homology with animal circoviruses (psittacine beak and feather disease virus and chicken anemia virus) (17).
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Prevalence of porcine enterovirus 9 in pigs in Middle and Eastern China

Prevalence of porcine enterovirus 9 in pigs in Middle and Eastern China

transcriptase (RT)-PCR. All 14 sampled farms were positive for PEV-9 and the overall prevalence of infection in the studied pigs was 8.3% (37/447). There was a higher frequency of infection in pigs aged 10 – 15 weeks (12/119, 10.1%) than in pigs aged >20 weeks (5/103, 4.9%). A 313 nucleotide sequence from the 5 0 -UTR region of 37 Chinese PEV-9 positive samples had 96.1-100% sequence homology. On phylogenetic analysis, sequences clustered into two major groups, from which two representative strains were selected to determine the complete RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) gene sequence. Phylogenetic analysis based on the RdRp gene suggested that PEV-9 strains from China formed a new subgroup. Piglets were inoculated orally with the PEV-9 strain identified in this study. Although most experimental pigs showed no clinical signs, almost all carried PEV-9 in one or more tissues after 6 days post-inoculation. The results of tissue histologic examination suggested that PEV9 can cause
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Quality changes of Vacuum Packed meat and meat products:

Quality changes of Vacuum Packed meat and meat products:

Vacuum packaging is accomplished by evacuating all the air within a package and not replacing with another gas, then sealing that package (Davies, A. R. , 1995, Brody, A. L. 1989). In the process of vacuum packaging, a pressure differential exists between the package exterior and interior. This differential can cause package collapse of rigid packages, but is well suited for some types of flexible packaging. The gaseous atmosphere is likely to change during storage due to respiration of the fresh food product (meat or plant) or the metabolism of microorganisms. (Davies, A. R. , 1995) Consequently, vacuum packaging can be considered a variation of controlled atmosphere The absence of oxygen for vacuum-packaged foods may permit conditions suitable for the growth and toxin production by anaerobic pathogens such as Clostridium botulinum .Additionally, the suppression of aerobic spoilage organisms may create conditions favorable for the growth of pathogenic aerobic bacteria such as Listeria monocytogenes, Yersinia enterocolitica, Aeromonas hydrophila, and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. (Brody, A. L. 1989). However, the presence of carbon dioxide in vacuum-packaged products inhibits the growth of Gram-negative spoilage organisms such as Pseudomonas spp., some molds and yeasts; lactic acid spoilage bacteria are less affected by elevated levels of carbon dioxide. Based on this information, vacuum packaging may selectively favor the growth of obligate and facultative anaerobic pathogens on many fresh foods. And modified atmosphere packaging in that the removal of air is an atmospheric modification. D. Narasimha Rao and N. M. Sachindra, (2002) described the Modified atmosphere and Vacuum packaging of meat and poultry products. Extension of the shelf- life of meat and poultry products is one of the technology needs to meet the demands of consumers. In this respect, increasing attention is put on packaging techniques.
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