Top PDF PORTRAYAL OF WOMEN IN INDIAN LITERATURE

PORTRAYAL OF WOMEN IN INDIAN LITERATURE

PORTRAYAL OF WOMEN IN INDIAN LITERATURE

Feminism through the awareness of people in general towards the patriarchal treatment an some women‟s organization have insisted on reservation for women. Both reservationists and anti-reservationists for the cause want the right kind of woman in politics but neither group wanted women of all classes, castes and religions to answer the question “What do women want”? For fear the answers would not be the same as theirs. That is perhaps the reason for why the procrastination the proposal for the reservation of one third of the seats in the Lok Sabha and State Legislatures for women in the 81 st Constitutional Amendment to the Indian Constitution. Similar problems to those concerned with class were faced in gender and race. Mohanty, for instance, criticizes.
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Portrayal of women in Bollywood: a focus group approach

Portrayal of women in Bollywood: a focus group approach

Over the last few years, Indian cinema has been trying to present women in effective and rational roles but the situation is less satisfactory and adequate. If we examine the historical facts then we will find there are only a few Bollywood films in which female characters dominated the big screen. Whilst, the characters of films hugely influence the audiences of all ages with regards to gender stereotype Neuendorf et. al 1 . Despite the fact, women in Bollywood are being portrayed from being submissive to hyper sexualized roles. The study was conducted to investigate “what did college girls think about the films portrayal of women and how did this portrayal influence their everyday life”. A convenience sample of 20 girls was chosen to discuss the effect of film in their life. The study found that all the girls agreed that women presentation in films was not positive and women were presented as a sexual product. They argued that due to this stereotyped imposition women were being mistreated, attacked, and rejected in the society. The films were developing an unrealistic image of modern women through the popular images. And they also asserted that this degrade portrayal of women in films putting an extra psychological pressure on them to be slim, honest, careful, virgin, beautiful, sexy, etc. The study is an attempt to investigate the role of films in women lives and how to save the women from this extra pressure.
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The Portrayal of Women in English Films Localized into Persian

The Portrayal of Women in English Films Localized into Persian

hat translation—as a social activity—is operated in a social system is an undisputed fact. Solely because, as Wolf (2007) puts it, the agents—translators here— that perform the task closely observe the rules, regulations, and musts of that system; hereby, the selection and production of translations, together with the translation strategies, are largely determined by these principles. Besides, the media has a great impact on forming public opinions and attitudes and may and can change individuals’ beliefs towards different issues. As Díaz-Cintas (2019) puts it, “mass media is an extraordinarily powerful tool, not only in the original but also in their translation” (p. 186) and this may constitute a new line of research into media translation. The field of audiovisual translation (AVT) has moved on from mainly describing the characteristics and technical constraints of conventional modalities, such as dubbing and subtitling, to the recently thriving larger-scale and multi-dimensional investigations involving society, culture and power-related concepts (Chaume, 2018). For many years, the area of gender analysis was mainly dealt with in the field of social sciences, and the attention has now shifted towards the imbalanced representation of men and women in literature or media (De Marco, 2016). With the development of audiovisual products, researchers have pursued new areas of research where the dialogue between gender and AVT has become the arena where one can understand how this translation type can represent women. These studies bear significance as the representation of gender in the media reflects how women and men are viewed in a certain society. The manipulative power of translation and media has a crucial impact upon gender arrangements and the way in which gender issues are perceived within a social system (De Marco, 2006; von Flotow & Scott, 2016). As for the translation of gender, sensitive texts carry subversive influences into target cultures and may be considered threatening (Díaz-Cintas, 2012). On this ground, this paper is focused on the cinematic portrayal of gender in localized audiovisual fiction in Iran. More specifically, it explores how translation solutions represent women in films dubbed by Iranian professionals who supposedly adhere to the regulations and norms the government has introduced. The study also investigates a sample of fansubbed films to
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PORTRAYAL OF WOMEN IN INDIAN TELEVISION ADVERTISING: A CASE STUDY OF THREE DECADES

PORTRAYAL OF WOMEN IN INDIAN TELEVISION ADVERTISING: A CASE STUDY OF THREE DECADES

The portrayal of women in media has been changing across the globe over the last few decades. Though women empowerment is one of the biggest challenges the nation is facing today, the way women are being presented in the media is an equally important issue that needs to be addressed. Television advertising is one of the powerful mediums that connect masses around the world. Portrayal of women impacts the mindsets and value system of the society, and has been gradually changing over the decades. This research paper presents an overview of women centric television commercials of different decades and traces the transformation in the portrayal of women in television advertisements. It also throws light on the varied perceptions of audiences, impact of such advertisements on their mindsets and the way media representation of women influences the public opinion formation. Thus, representation and participation of women in advertising is a significant concern. Over the years, there has been a shift in the roles played by women in advertisements. The representation has been shifted from being just the “perfect housewives” to career oriented modern women. This paper analyses the various roles played by women in Indian television advertisements over the decades and to what extent it impacts on the audience‟s perception.
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Portrayal of women in Bollywood: a focus group approach

Portrayal of women in Bollywood: a focus group approach

Querying about what they felt when they heard some derogatory dialogues such as ‘Jaa Choodiyan Pehen Ke Beth Jaa, (go wear bangles and sit down). The entire group told these types of dialogues delivered negative messages about a woman that she is incapable, useless and intellectually and socially inferior to men. Now time has changed and most of the women nationally and internationally have become successful. Ahead, the influence of historical and socio-cultural factors on the growth of women's roles in commercial Indian films suggests the stereotypical portrayal of women cinema plays an essential role in shaping views about gender roles and gender identities within the Indian context where women are viewed as playing subordinate roles to men.
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MEDIA PORTRAYAL AND WOMEN: WOMEN, GOD’S CREATION AS ‘AFTERTHOUGHT’

MEDIA PORTRAYAL AND WOMEN: WOMEN, GOD’S CREATION AS ‘AFTERTHOUGHT’

Any talk of the role of media cannot bypass a discussion on movies and TV serials which are an important source of entertainment. With increasing number of cases of violence against women, social scientists, and psychologists tried to understand if there is any relationship between representation of women in media and increasing violence on them. While there may not be any direct causal relationship, people who are exposed to a particular degrading portrayal of women are found to be more acceptable of the violence meted out to them. Most mainstream movies and TV serials portray women in two ways - as meek, docile and vulnerable, in constant need of protection of a male or as cunning and calculative. Family and politics at home seem to be central to these women’s existence. Very few TV serials or movies take up issues that a working woman faces in her life. How we see a woman and her relationships on the TV screen is crucial in Indian society. In a conservative social set up, families do not give the space to engage on issues of relationship. If movies like “Ranjhnaa”(2013)romanticize stalking to such an extent that male aggression comes to be justified as true love, women are denied agency even in such an intimate relationship. It is only when popular culture questions these deep rooted biases; women will be able to deal with society on an equal footing as men (Parvin Sultana: 2014).
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The “True Darkness” of the Slave Woman: Portrayal of women and violence in Marlon James’ The Book of Night Women

The “True Darkness” of the Slave Woman: Portrayal of women and violence in Marlon James’ The Book of Night Women

Violence, in The Book of Night Women is not limited to Lilith, but pervades the entire fabric of the narrative. James does not flinch from portraying violence in all its gory details, to the extent that these portrayals sometimes assume an almost pornographic feel to it. Researchers say that violence occurs in two different ways; “instrumental” violence and “affective” violence. Instrumental violence is used as a means to an end – for example, in a robbery to obtain cash or goods. Affective violence is an end in itself, driven by emotion – as we see in cases of aggravated assault (Salkovskis). The Book of Night Women encompasses both forms of violence between its pages. Violence in the novel is not limited by the boundaries of gender, race, class or nationality. It is all pervasive. The whites, blacks, masters, servants, man and women contribute to, and are affected by, the web of violence. What distinguishes James’ work is that the ferocity of violence is not in the least muted when the perpetrators or the victims of such violence happen to be women. The body is the seat of punishment for the women who indulge in violence and for those who are violent to women. Torture in its myriad forms is used by the male characters in the book and such events are made into a public spectacle. The female characters having no authority to punish could not make a public spectacle of their violence; nonetheless their brutalities were no less spectacular. Foucault, in his book Discipline and Punish explains the ideals that drive such punishments when he says:
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PORTRAYAL OF WOMEN IN THE KAVYAS OF ASVAGHOSA

PORTRAYAL OF WOMEN IN THE KAVYAS OF ASVAGHOSA

Maya resembled the goddess of fortune in beauty and earth in fortitude. xi Yasodhara, wife of Siddhartha, born of a noble family is portrayed as a virtuous and beautiful lady. She is modest, gentle and called as goddess of fortune. xii Pious character of women is described in a beautiful manner. When prince Siddhartha was born, old women purified themselves performed luck-bringing rites and prayed to Gods for good fortune. xiii Character of Maya‟s sister, Gautami, speaks of her selfless sacrificial spirit. Gautami who was equivalent to her sister Maya in affection was a bold and strong willed woman. The queen Gautami owned a great responsibility and exhausted herself in bringing up the prince Siddhartha as her own son. xiv Though this portrayal is restricted to palace but poet was successful in withdrawing the qualities considered to be possessed by a good lady. Respect of elders is another virtue of a woman depicted by the author in his kavyas. When they heard of that the prince is going out they went to see him only after seeking permission from their elders. xv Natural tendency of a woman to adorn herself is very well sketched. Our poet has described the beauty of women in all postures, enhanced by make-up and ornaments. This description agrees with Mahavastu‟s palace scene in the same context. xvi Women wore anklets, xvii earrings, xviii armlets, xix necklaces, xx garlands xxi to make them look beautiful but courtesy is described as their best ornament. xxii Love and affection are other characteristics of a woman which are described beautifully by our poet. Undoubtedly in the Saundarananda Sundari is centre of attraction for her beauty but her feelings of love, attachment to her husband are also focused. She is portrayed as a mischievous, loving and beautiful wife. xxiii She lamented badly when she heard
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Portrayal of Women in Indian Mass Media: An Investigation

Portrayal of Women in Indian Mass Media: An Investigation

Now a day, as a visual media, advertisements play important role in promoting different products. Everyday we are exposed to a number of advertisements through various media vehicles like newspapers, magazines, radio, television, internet and various outdoor media. But there has been much criticisms against advertisements as these are portraying women as sex objects. Women’s physical attraction has been used as a whole, or in parts, to market everything from brassiers, male under garments to automobiles. These ubiquitous images encourage people to think of sex and women as commodity, and these may contribute to violence against women. For example, there is an advertisement of a premium whisky that shows one man is taking first sip of that particular whisky and the lady sitting in front of him appears to be loosing some inches of her dress, after every drink the process is going on up three drinks. After three sips of the drink he finds that the breasts of the previously over clad lady have become quick visible and half clad and his own shirt has slipped from his shoulders. And the voice smurs kuchh bhi ho sakta hain (Anything can happen). The depiction of women in this and other advertisements is actually insult to the women in general which are destroying the real status and dignity of women. According to a United Nations Research Report (1975) on Advertising and the Portrayal of Women, advertisements have been held responsible for projecting women in a derogatory light, and as inferior class of beings (National Advertising Review Board, 1975).Shrivastava’s research on the Indian media has shown that the dominant negative stereotypes in connection to the portrayal of women are:
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Portrayal of the struggle of women against Unjust and Forced Patriarchy in Indian movies and Indian fiction  “There is no chance of the welfare of the world unless The condition of women is improved  It is not possible for a bird to fly on one wing ”

Portrayal of the struggle of women against Unjust and Forced Patriarchy in Indian movies and Indian fiction “There is no chance of the welfare of the world unless The condition of women is improved It is not possible for a bird to fly on one wing ”

life and overwhelming impact of the exposure to the western lifestyle. They are trying to look at life in their own ways. This conflict creates a kind of tension and dilemma in the minds of educated Indian women, who finally emerge as champions of their rights and empowerment. Her works like That Long Silence, The Dark Holds No Terror, Come Up and Be Dead etc. deal with the struggle of women and their feministic approach. Further we can talk about Jhumpa Lahiri , another female writer of Indian literature who gave space to women and their problems in her works. Her selected works like Interpreter of Maladies, The Namesake, Unaccustomed Earth and The Lowland, highlight patriarchal dominance, ideological pressures, gender inequality, gender discrimination, power relations, sexism, stereotyping, emancipation, sexuality, sacrifice, tolerance, acceptance, social and psychic pressures, forgiveness, courage, protection, possessiveness, love, care etc.. last but not the least I would like to give the reference of Arundhati Roy, her novel The God of Small Things portrays the suffering of female characters. In this novel also we find gender discrimination, violence, mental and physical harassment of women, especially of Ammu. We find a struggle against patriarchal society who never allows women to live their life according to their own ways.
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Of Negative Portrayal and the Plight of Women in the Akan Folktales

Of Negative Portrayal and the Plight of Women in the Akan Folktales

In Tale 46 titled, “Why Kraman the Dog Urinates at a Junction”, another woman is, as usual, negatively depicted as stubborn. In this tale also, we note how a maiden who is only identified by her dog’s name, Degre, refuses every suitor who asks for her hand in marriage. She defies all advice from parents and friends to change her behaviour. She eventually selects her own husband but lives to regret her action because she lands squarely in the hands of Sasabonsam, the wicked forest devil. But for the help of her dog, she would have been killed. So, again, the woman who chooses her own husband is considered stubborn. She is seen as one who deserves to die. This story, therefore, paints women derogatorily and reminds one of the plight of Aku-nna, the heroine of Emecheta’s novel, The Bride Price (1995). Aku-nna rejects the man selected for her as husband and suffers greatly for her action. Is it a case of another maiden seeking after independence? It is observed that traditional society finds unacceptable the practice where women choose their own husbands. Akan society believes that only men have the right to select their own spouses. Some men even win their wives as prizes, as found in some of the tales. In fact, there does not seem to be a single tale from the corpus of fifty in the author’s collection which shows that a man suffers for selecting a spouse. There is also no tale in the collection demanding that a boy must accept without question any bride selected for him to marry, and there is none in which the man suffers for refusing a bride. The foregoing emphasizes that Akan society is essentially patriarchal. Hence women who insist on deciding who to marry are derogated as disobedient and even hard-hearted.
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Agnee (The Fire): Portrayal of Women in Bangladeshi Cinema

Agnee (The Fire): Portrayal of Women in Bangladeshi Cinema

These are the demands from the common audience when they enter the cinema hall. The audience pays for the ticket to get entry into the cienma hall hoping for entertainment. And it is important to see if the director is providing the audience with that entertainment or not. Helpless and weak woman characters are often portrayed in cinemas which we are used to see. In the film Agnee, the glamour displayed by the role of Mahi was appreciable. New dimensions need to be implemented in cinema. New drama needs to be included. Here I found in many situation males are defined in relation to females, whether most of the film women are defined in relation to men. In Agnee women identity and status is totally different from other traditional Bangla cinema. Here, women have given impression that women can create them as complete human begins.
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Overcoming Obstacles: Portrayal of Saudi Women through Art

Overcoming Obstacles: Portrayal of Saudi Women through Art

During the 1980s and 1990s Saudi society was influenced by an unofficial reli- gious discourse that evolved from being purely religious to becoming reli- gious-political, especially following the Gulf War in 1991 (Al-Atawneh, 2009). This trend, especially in the absence of counter-discourses, contributed to shap- ing the current social and cultural structure of Saudi society with its underlying complexities and inconsistencies. Social factors were perhaps the most challeng- ing for women because they maintained prevailing norms and perceptions, in- cluding the pretext of “exclusiveness” ( khususiyyah ), which is the perception many Saudis have of their society and culture. It is argued that since the country is the birthplace of Islam and the land of the religion’s two most holy cities, Sau- di Arabia must preserve a unique Islamic identity and the distinct social charac- teristics of Saudi society. Furthermore, the issue of women and their situation is a highly politicised one among the various factions in Saudi society (Aldehailan, 2007).
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The Stereotypical Portrayal of Women in Commercial Indian Cinema

The Stereotypical Portrayal of Women in Commercial Indian Cinema

(Science of Theater). Under tenets set down in that book, entertainment must comprise the nine essences. These are love, hate, sorrow, disgust, joy, compassion, pity, pride and courage. In addition, there is supposed to be a lot of song and dance, as in popular staging of the epic Ramayana, which to this day enthralls Indians. The epics therefore form a great basis for story tellers to take morals from, to adapt stories from and in many ways might be acting as the foundation to building more and more stories, and a stepping stone to forming characters in these stories. According to Sengupta (2010), ―The epics are so embedded that they penetrate everyday speech. A woman may be warned against following the path of Ahalya, the adulteress of the Ramayana. A family feud might be likened to the battle of rival clans in the Mahabharata. There is even a school named after Eklavya, a gifted archer who chopped off his right thumb to prove his devotion to his archery teacher.‖ Sengupta (2010) also says, Neither the Mahabharata nor the Ramayana is considered to be the word of God. But they are powerful fables, and they represent for Hindus what the Bible and the Greek myths together may have historically represented in the West. Pattanaik (2009), a writer who uses the Hindu epics in human resource management, describes them as ‗the template of Indian thought‘. Given that it is understandable as to how and why these epics subconsciously retain themselves in the realm of story-telling and story writing. Not only do epics from a basis for popular story writing and narrative patterns, but they have greatly influenced Indian classical culture and pop culture in various ways.
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The Portrayal of Women in the Fairy Tales

The Portrayal of Women in the Fairy Tales

a feast to which the robber has been invited. ‘The Robber Bridegroom’ exemplifies both the ways in which patriarchal societies attempt to subjugate and silence woman and the way in which women have turned to storytelling to overcome the subjugation. By telling a dream like story on the wedding day, she lets the guests realize the truth and gets the robber arrested. In Rapunzel, the girl in the beginning of the tale is less a character then a head of hair, but by the end of the tale, after she has lost her hair and finds her voice, through which she finds the way to freedom. The two examples show how female use voice as weapons to fight challenges. Women’s speech inside and outside of the fairy tales indicate women’s predicament of being oppressed by the dominant power and their urge to speak out. In her reflection upon the tale, Porter focuses on the process of how the Prince is attracted to Rapunzel. She indicates that it is Rapunzel’s voice that brings the prince to her and it is the beauty of her soul that makes him excited and eager to ascend the tower. It was Rapunzel, who used to kill her solitude by letting her sweet voice resound in the forest, even after the witch separated the couple and would not let them see each other. When the Prince hears the voice that he thought sounded familiar, he went straight towards it, and when he reached her, Rapunzel recognized him. Porter connects the process of finding the beautiful future with the female character’s inner voice and thus she finds that voice has strength to make things better.
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Chetan Bhagat’s novel One Indian Girl ----A Portrayal of a modern Indian Girl ‘s change in attitude towards life

Chetan Bhagat’s novel One Indian Girl ----A Portrayal of a modern Indian Girl ‘s change in attitude towards life

And not only that, Radhika, even though having an affair with Debu and Neel is enjoying smoking joints with Brijesh at a resort in Goa. It shows care free attitude of today’s modern girl. Author depicts the change in the attitude of modern Indian girls. Instead of being subservient to men and culture, Radhika exhibits rebellious attitude. Do Indian girls behave like Radhika? She gets involved with two different men before her marriage and abruptly steps back on her marriage day with Brijesh. Not all Indian girls behave like Radhika, but there is change in the attitude of Modern girls working in corporate houses in India and abroad. They are no more bound by gender inequality, age old traditions and culture which discriminates women from men. Title of the novel is apt calling it One Indian Girl, as all Indian Girls don’t have this attitude.
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Portrayal Of Muslims As Threat To Society By The Media-An Overview In Indian Context

Portrayal Of Muslims As Threat To Society By The Media-An Overview In Indian Context

The media never stops to ponder the rights given to women in Islam. No other major religion has given as many rights to women. Whenever this issue comes up for discussion, however, a very grim picture of women in Islam is presented. The veil which Muslim women use to cover their bodies decently and protect their modesty is seen as a symbol of physical and mental enslavement, forced upon women by men. They cannot accept that behind the veil there might be an enlightened woman who has decided to use the veil voluntarily. For the media, exposure of the female body has somehow come to be construed as a form of women‟s empowerment. As Islam does not subscribe to this simplistic logic, its approach is said to be antithetical to modernist tendencies. Increasingly politically active, educated women are consciously choosing to wear the veil as a source of their Islamic identity. For many of these women the veil has facilitated rather than inhibited a wider social and
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WOMEN IN TV SERIALS  A CONTENT ANALYSIS OF POPULAR TAMIL TV SERIALS

WOMEN IN TV SERIALS A CONTENT ANALYSIS OF POPULAR TAMIL TV SERIALS

Varma (2006) who writes in The Hindu, a daily newspaper, referred to a study of the portrayal of women characters in many popular Tamil serials, where he claims that women were negative stereotypes in most programs and warned that this trend could unleash sociological havoc in the long term. Desai (1996) remarked that women on television entertainment programs were projected as non-thinking, sacrificing, and suffering beings while educated and motivated women were seen as the scourge of the patriarchal order of the society.
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Feminism in Indian Literature

Feminism in Indian Literature

perspectives but the underlying truth remains the same. The question at hand is the existence of women as “other”, which needs to be shattered. Feminism is not just about identity but about equality, about women being treated as equals, as fellow human beings. It is the need of hour in the era of globalization that women be treat as equal counterparts and being recognized for who they are and their capabilities. Hence, the feminist movement has a long way to go. We need to stop theorizing feminism rather bring it to practical use, which in its truest sense will prove some good for the women at large. Indian society is a developing society, which still needs to push its limit because to push the limits is to improve. The feminist writing, like it always has been, should mirror the real life, because that is how it will bring about a change and literature has the potential. Feminism varies from person to person and therefore should be all-inclusive and ever- emerging. Viola Davis, the only actress to have won an Emmy, Tony and an Oscar, truly averted –
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THEME OF HOPE AND DEVELOPMENT IN SHASHI DESHPANDE'S A MATTER OF TIME

THEME OF HOPE AND DEVELOPMENT IN SHASHI DESHPANDE'S A MATTER OF TIME

Through the portrayal of the second generation pair, Kalyani and Shripati, Deshpande depicts the predicament of women who are confined in the framework of traditional marriage and lead a life of self-denial and suffering.Kalyani‟s life is an example of forced incompatible arranged marriage in which a woman has to suffer endlessly. Even if marriage fails in giving happiness of any kind to woman, it is preferred because it gives a security and a sense of dignity to woman in society.Kalyani is the only daughter of her parents. She is not allowed to complete her studies because marriage is the main consideration for her mother. She has to accept her uncle as a husband in order to prevent the property from going away in the hands of others. This is the main reason of “the hopelessness that lay within the relationship, that doomed it from the start” (p. 143).
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