was weak evidence that low income students from minority ethnic backgrounds became more likely to apply after the change. 97
Turning to the impact losing maintenance grants has had on those in higher education with respect to non-completion; data is not yet available to enable an assessment. It is worth noting that when maintenance grants were withdrawn the total amount of maintenance support available to students from low income backgrounds rose by 8 per cent (£660 pa) in real terms due to a more generous cap on total loan values. 98 Therefore students should not have come under greater financial pressure, providing that loan take-up rates did not fall. There is not student survey data available yet to ascertain whether the likelihood of disadvantaged background students taking out loans has declined. xiii Moreover, with over 98 per cent of those with household incomes that would have previously qualified for grants taking out the maximum amount on offer in 2017/18, those that do apply for loans now have more cash-in-hand than they previously would. 99 Unless subsequent research shows the odds of applying for maintenance loans have declined among this group, we can conclude that cost of living pressures have not risen due to the abolition of maintenance grants.
More than 540 long day care services in Victoria participate in this scheme.
Why can’t all children be funded equitably for their education whether in Long Day Care, Preschool or School?
Providing a subsidy for quality early childhood education in long day care would have many benefits. It would make best use of existing service infrastructure, improve quality and make access more affordable. Encouraging early childhood education in long day care is also important because investment by the State Government is bringing fees for many low-income and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander families using community preschools well below what they could expect to pay in long day care (even after Commonwealth subsidies). 29 The higher levels of investment available to NSW under the National Partnership should be used to ensure that early childhood education is more affordable for low-income families across a range of settings. The Partnership requires governments to deliver services ‘in a way that actively engages families and communities, and meets the workforce participation needs of parents.’ 30
• CAP Delicatessen: 2,244 € (£1,870) / 10,935 € (£9,112)
Other research found that many establishments were unable to work out their costs in relation to training apprentices with any precision because of funding allocated centrally which is distributed according to the institution’s priorities. A recent report recommended that a system should be introduced to enable the costs of apprentice training to be calculated more robustly to enable a better assessment of value for money. 35 One issue that it highlighted was that the current model is a ‘deficit’ one, with institutions seeking to plug funding gaps through taking on apprentices rather than operating an accounting model which represents the true cost of their training. It also pointed to some wider issues in the current model, in particular the quota system which places caps on the number of apprentices at different levels and the problem that smaller organisations do not contribute to the levy despite having apprentices.
The challenge for policymakers is twofold. Firstly there is a need to identify the range of potential examples from which they might learn and from those select those approaches which appear most promising given the specific circumstances and policy priorities they face. The fact that the twelve examples used in this paper represent only some of the innovations developed in one country illustrates the scale of such a task. The second challenge is how to evaluate the potential efficacy of the selected approaches, bearing in mind that contexts and objectives differ both between jurisdictions and over time. There is therefore a need for a systematic approach to collecting, describing, evaluating and sharing information on successful (and unsuccessful) attempts to introduce innovative approaches to funding and financing post-compulsory education.
Handbook on the Economics of Education 5 3 February 2017 who has imperfect information about his aptitudes for higher education and about future labour market outcomes. In addition, unlike home loans, there is no collateral: if someone does not earn as much as expected, there is no option to sell the degree to repay the loan. The absence of collateral makes such loans risky also for lenders. There is also potential adverse selection: if I take out a loan, I may conceal that I want to become an actor rather than an accountant. Or (moral hazard), I may work less hard, analogous to the sharecropper problem. Without insurance, borrowing and lending would be lower than efficient.
Since 1913, Ohio school districts have had the responsibility of operating special education programs to serve children with a variety of disabilities. The current system of funding special education – unit funding – has been in place since 1945. While Ohio’s funding system has remained unchanged for over 50 years, other states have dramatically altered their systems. Many of these changes have led to increased funding to lower wealth districts. Within the past year, Ohio also has initiated changes in its funding that attempt to provide greater equalization. This paper contrasts Ohio’s current system with recent reforms in other states and suggests a variety of options for reforming Ohio’s system. Included in the options are reforms that retain the unit mehtod of funding, but provide for increased equalization.
Workplace delivery is an example of how mode of delivery needs to be considered in a more nuanced manner when determining funding models and making purchasing decisions. Workplace delivery is a valuable training strategy – its greater prominence in accredited training is welcomed. TDA notes, however, that an RTO which elects to provide only workplace-based training and assessment incurs lower fixed and capital costs because employer facilities are used for training delivery – an RTO delivering training solely in workplaces may maintain only a small business centre or office. While Institutes are active in workplace delivery they cannot escape the higher fixed and capital costs associated with their responsibility to provide training (both face-to-face and online) to learners outside the workplace. These learners include school leavers, those returning to work, retrenched workers, and those seeking to build a skills base for entry into another occupation or industry. These higher costs must be factored into TAFE Institute pricing for workplace delivery, consequently putting Institutes at a competitive disadvantage.
In January this year, the Economist ran a couple of articles on the sorry state of higher education. One of the articles was called “Pay or Decay” (Economist, 2004). It painted a very bleak picture of universities in Britain and elsewhere in continental Europe. The message of the article was twofold: (1) students should bear more of the costs of bringing them to a university degree, (2) universities should be freed from the burden of state planning and regulation. The model propagated by the magazine to fulfill both goals at the same time was one in which universities would be free to decide on the level of the tuition fees and the number of students admitted to their programs. This message was put across very firmly, even aggressively, and some will disagree with part of the evidence used to underpin it. However, one can not deny that there is a lot of truth in the observations that most graduates earn significantly more than non-graduates and most students are from families that may be regarded as more advantaged than others. It is also very true that while most European universities are overcrowded and underfunded, they cannot expect to get any substantial financial relief from the state. Private funding then will have to increase because governments face increasing claims on their purse from sectors like health care, security, and care for the elderly.
“Most likely [I’ll go to] university however I may take an extra year out working as a teaching assistant abroad to gain experience before studying teaching full time. However this can be costly so I am unsure, it all depends on my AS results to be honest.” – Young woman, aged 17, State School
Young people tend to say that the various education and training options they mention (specifically university, college or apprenticeships) are available to them, indicating that they feel that the education and training options they are aware of are those that are within their reach. This could indicate that they have an awareness of barriers to participation in post-18education and training – either financial, or achievement thus far – and therefore make choices about their post-18options based on what they perceive to be feasible for them.
engagement with employers, while the employer contribution would recognise the benefits to employers of having a course tailored to their training needs. This change would require an amendment to the Higher Education Support Act 2003.
However, even in the absence of a specific funding program, employers still make a contribution towards higher education. This is primarily delivered through the higher incomes that are paid to graduates. Both undergraduates and postgraduates are targeted specifically through graduate recruitment programs, which operate in both private and public sectors. Many industry bodies, corporate foundations and private organisations provide scholarships and grants to both students and institutions. These are available at both undergraduate and postgraduate levels of education, for study in specific fields or generally for disadvantaged or high-performing students. Some sectors identify hosting students engaged in work experience or work-integrated learning as an investment rather than a cost. Additionally, in many cases, employers will also make direct contributions to student costs of tuition through employer-sponsored study, particularly for professional postgraduate qualifications.
International education is an important example of such an opportunity – and one in which the VET sector plays a critical role. International education is Victoria’s largest service export industry, with significant potential for further growth, and Victoria’s VET system currently enrols 160,000 international students per year. If we are to remain successful in this increasingly internationally competitive market, having a VET sector with a reputation for delivering high quality training that is relevant to industry needs is essential. As we reform the system, Government will take into account the needs of providers, including TAFEs, to be able to continue to develop their international business. Businesses are increasingly seeking a workforce that can work with technology, think critically and creatively, and is able to adapt, and work flexibly and collaboratively to solve problems.
Schools cannot be allowed to improve the level of pupils' achievement at the expense of inclusion and equality; if they do not progress hand in hand there is no improvement. The challenge for schools to change to fit the needs of pupils rather than changing the pupil to fit the school must be met in imaginative ways and followed by a development of the understanding that DfEE has reached about the needs of Traveller pupils. The next step must be for DfEE to talk to Traveller families, to find out what are their expectations of education and their aspirations for their children. Until the education system can change and grow in response to the needs of all pupils, including those who are highly mobile and from cultures other than white and middle class, there will be children with limited or no access to education and no chance of achieving within it. This policy mismatch demonstrates starkly the truth of Brady's (2000) assertion:
We will trade together, spreading opportunity and prosperity ever more widely.
And we will stand together in support of the shared values which unite Britain with so many other like minded countries – in Europe yes, but across the world too.
To become that Britain where a thriving economy drives up living standards and creates greater security and opportunity for everyone and where the prosperity which economic growth generates is more fairly shared in our society we need education to be the key that unlocks the door to a better future.
• If the applicant is under the age of 18 in West Virginia and living independently (outside the home & providing for him/herself
financially; homeless; etc.) he or she may be eligible for emancipation under WV Law. If so, an exception to the age criteria for dependency may apply.
■ incentives to save for retirement – by ensuring that most workers are – through adequate contributory years – guaranteed a decent, adequate state pension in retirement, the single tier pension significantly improves incentives to save for retirement, compared with the current regime. To fund this higher state pension, the government is closing the state second pension, and contracting out of the state second pension for defined benefit schemes will come to an end. The single-tier pension will actually cost less in the medium to long term, and the government has already allocated some of these savings to fund some of the additional costs imposed by the ‘capped cost’ reforms to care funding in April 2016.
If you have a health expense account (flex expense, medical expense) where you set aside funds for medical and health expenses across the year - many families have been able to use that to pay for services or to get
reimbursed. Many families opt to have their physician write a prescription for social skills groups as special education tutoring services which is specifically funded under the HSA guidelines. There should be a phone number on the back of your card to call to confirm eligibility. Because Spectrum is only set up to accept credit card payments via Paypal, some families are unable to use their flexcard to pay up front and must get
The equivalent full time student load model of funding does not take into account the real costs to universities of providing mandatory clinical practicum (work based learning), nor does it recognise that clinical placements are undertaken by an individual and not an ‘EFTSL’. Funding for clinical practicum should be provided as an additional grant to universities offering pre‐registration nursing programs and the grant amount should be calculated on a ‘per head’ basis not EFTSL. The CDNM has given consideration to what might be an appropriate amount to be included in Commonwealth funding in recognition of the cost of providing clinical practicum in pre‐registration nursing programs. Taking into account the results of the University of Wollongong project; the work undertaken by HWA to determine a subsidy amount for clinical placement growth; and the average charge by health care providers to provide clinical placement supervision, the CDNM believe that the amount should be 10/hr/student for 800 hours of clinical placement, in line with the minimum hours required by the Australian Nursing & Midwifery Accreditation Council.