This work considers the potential reduction in the carbondioxideemissionsassociated with the operation of Air Source Heat Pump which could be achieved by using demandsidemanagement. In order to achieve significant reductions in carbondioxideemissions, it is widely envisioned that electrification of the heating sector will need to be combined with decarbonisation of the electrical supply. By influencing the times at when electric heatpumps operate such that they coincide more with electricity generation which has a low marginal carbonemissions factor, it has been suggested that these emissions could be reduced further. In order to investigate this possibility, models of the UK electrical grid based on scenarios for 2020 to 2050 have been combined with a dynamic model of an air source heat pump unit and thermal models of a population of dwellings. The performance and carbondioxideemissionsassociated with the heatpumps are compared both with and without demandsidemanagement interventions intended to give preference to operation when the marginal emissions factor of the electricity being generated is low. It is found that these interventions are unlikely to be effective at achieving further reductions in emissions. A reduction of around 3% was observed in scenarios based around 2035 but in other scenarios the reduction was insignificant. In the scenarios with high wind generation (2050), the DSM scheme considered here tends to improve thermal comfort (with minimal increases in emissions) rather than achieving a decrease in emissions. The reasons for this are discussed and further recommendations are made.
power quality problems such as voltage dips and cable overloading at times of peak heating demand; this could eventually result in the need for significant and expensive network reinforcement. One means to avoid such a scenario is to provide sufficient thermal buffering such that heat pump operating times can be shifted outside periods of peak electrical demand. However, this shift in operating time has the potential to cause problems for the end- user such as low space temperatures during occupied periods or low hot water temperatures. A previous study by Hong et al. , explored the flexible operation of air source heatpumps (ASHP) retro-fitted into to a variety of UK dwellings. In their study, the limits of operational flexibility were dictated by the impact on the end user, such that any shift in heat pump operating times should have a minimal effect on delivered space or hot water temperatures. Using these criteria, the study indicated that without thermal buffering, the flexibility of heat pump operating times was limited to between 1 and 2 hours. A 1-to-2 hour load shifting time-window would not allow heat the pump demand to be wholly moved to off-peak periods. However, Hong et al.  also indicated that more substantial shifts in heat pump operating times of up to 6-hours were feasible, but only with the addition of substantial quantities of thermal buffering (up to 500L) and only with significant improvements to the building fabric (i.e. insulation to passive house standards). The authors themselves pointed out that upgrading all houses to high insulation standards may not be possible and that accommodating buffering of this size could be problematic, particularly in a country such as the UK where there is a trend for reduced floor space in newer housing .
Demandside response to flexibility requirements in the power sector are seen as very important for incorporating large amounts of fluctuating generation from wind and PV. The flexibility however seems very limited when examining household electricity demand, contrary to the flexibility in large scale heatpumps, boilers and some parts of industrial demand. Large heatpumps and boilers in district heat production in Denmark can be expected to contribute much more to flexibility in the future, but these are part of the energy supply system and not the demandside. The demandside has potential to contribute to flexibility, but the evidence and economic incentive for households to switch to active short term adjustment of demand following price changes is very limited (Andersen et. al., 2014). In other countries with lower residential electricity price and similar income levels the electricity consumption is higher and partly because of this in some countries heating is based to a higher degree on electric heating (or air-conditioning) or heatpumps. Here the value of active adjustment of consumption and incentive is higher since the amount of switchable consumption is higher than in most DK households.
It follows from these applications that not all energy saving potentials in the existing building mass are eco- nomically feasible in the shorter or longer term. If as- suming that the potential to carry out heat savings of 50% in average is fully utilised in the municipality, this represents substantial savings also for the DH grid infrastructure and for the supply system in particular. The DH grid can be carried out using smaller dimen- sions, and even the temperature levels can be lower. If the problem with legionella in domestic hot water instal- lations can be dealt with, the temperatures can be as low as 50 degrees C forward and 30 degrees C return. These low temperature levels mean that the heat loss- es in the DH grids can be substantially reduced, and, more importantly, the low forward temperatures allow for much higher efficiencies of heat supply units, e.g. if the heat supply is being based on large-scale heatpumps, or on organic Rankine cycle plants. Even with present technologies such as back-pressure steam turbines in waste incineration plants the electric effi- ciencies of such plants can be raised several per cent- points, allowing for much better utilisation of the waste resource. Hence substantial end-use savings are es- sential to future district heating grids, if present prob- lems such as the tariff structures of DH, where high fixed connection prices lever few incitements for heat savings, are overcome.
in which equation (3) makes sure that at each time step, the total electricity generation gen j covers the traditional electricity demanddemand j and the additional electricity demand P j hp,tot . These studies tend to oversimplify the building: a heat pump is often considered to have a constant coefficient of performance (COP) while solar heat gains and thermal energy storage in the building structure are often neglected. Regarding the COP, only two studies could be found that have a more complicated representation of the COP, namely by considering the COP either linearly (Good, Navarro-espinosa, Mancarella, & Karangelos, 2013) or non-linearly (Wang et al., 2012) dependent on ambient air temperature. Solar heat gains are sometimes indirectly included by considering these as part of the model’s white noise (Callaway, 2009; Kamgarpour et al., 2013). In order to shift a heat pump’s electricity demand in time without compromising the users’ comfort, some thermal energy storage must be present in the system. This can be either in storage tanks (active thermal storage) or in the building structure itself (passive thermal storage). Some authors focussing on active thermal energy storage in domestic hot water tanks (Barton et al., 2013; Kondoh, Lu, Member, & Hammerstrom, 2011) or high capacity space heating systems (Long, Xu, & He, 2011; Meibom et al., 2007) consider buildings as providers of a fixed thermal energy demand profile, hereby neglecting the energy storage potential of the building structure.
2.2 Dumping of nuclear waste on African soil Anyinam (1991) investigates transfer of nuclear toxic waste between industrialised nations and developing countries; the evidence suggests that the global community face environmental crisis, arising from the planet being choked by the waste by-products of development. The industrialized countries face the problem of what to do with the millions of tons of waste materials produced every year. The works of Anyinam (1991) reports that the industrialised countries are now closely watched regarding activities of waste management agents by pressures groups such as the concerned individuals, environmental groups, etc. with the slogan not-in-my-backyard movement. However, the search for dumping sites for waste disposal has intensified and extended beyond regional and national boundaries. The study argues that attempts to dump hazardous wastes on developing countries were made in the 1980s, with the African continent as the prime hunting ground. The increasingly intense public opposition to the toxic waste disposal in the US and Europe, the waste management companies (WMC) and illegal waste traders (IWT) leads to Africa and other developing countries in Asia and Latin America becoming alternative dump sites. According to Alston and Brown (1993, p.185), the target is “the politically and economically less powerful nations of the world, who have benefited the least from industrialization”. The continent of Africa is seen as an extension of the “pattern of targeted dumping on communities of colour” (Alston and Brown 1993, p. 185). However, the governments of developing countries: Africa, Asia and Latin America are resisting the WMC and IWT which they sometimes describe as toxic terrorism and economic extortion. In addition, the African Union labelled this a crime against Africa and African people. Vir (1989, p.1) points out that toxic
More and more industrial factories have been built around the globe to cater for society’s needs. To power these factories tonnes and tonnes of fossil fuels are burnt every day, which releases Green House Gases (GHG). GHG are comprised of many gases such as carbondioxide, nitrous oxide, carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide, and methane. According to the Inter-governmental Panel for Climate (IPCC, 2015), GHG is responsible for global warming. Charles David Keeling was the American scientist who first alerted the world to the possibility of anthropogenic contribution to the greenhouse effect and global warming from the recordings of carbondioxide at the Mauna Loa Observatory. The greenhouse effect is when gases go up in the atmosphere and form a layer in the stratosphere that traps the heat inside as shown in Figure 1.1. This increases the temperature of the planet which in turn changes the weather pattern around the globe. Severe drought or rain at different places around the world can be experienced due to this.
This paper by using nonparametric methods analyzes for the first time the carbondioxideemissions-governance relationship. With the help of several visualization methods the carbondioxideemissions curves are produced investigating the relationship for the G-20 countries for the time period 1996-2010. The local constant estimator has been applied in our analysis alongside with least-squares cross validation approach for bandwidth selection. Moreover, nonparametric tests based on bootstrap procedures have been applied in order to reveal the statistical significance levels of countries governance measures on explaining CO 2 emissions variations.
Figures 1-4 illustrate the historical patterns of GDP, and carbondioxideemissions in Italy, for the period 1861-2003. Figure 1 depicts the time series of per capita GDP for the whole period. In the middle of the nineteenth century the Italian economy was largely agricultural, precisely it was not until the 1890s that Italy began to industrialize. Following World War II and the economic reconstruction, Italy experienced an unprecedented economic growth (miracolo economico ). In the years from 1950 to 1973, per capita GDP rose by an average of 5.06% per annum, reaching a peak of 7.72% in 1961. After the 1973 increase in oil prices, there was a signiﬁcant downturn of the economy. In the second half of the 1980s, Italian economy was again prospering until the recession of the earlier 1990s.
This paper focuses on one country, the Philippines, and one air pollutant, carbondioxide. The Philippines is currently one of the fast growing economies in Asia, and the environmental consequences, if any, of this long- desired growth must be investigated and accordingly addressed. Carbondioxide is said to account for about 64% of the greenhouse gasses that cause global warming. The need to be watchful of increased carbondioxide emis- sions that may accompany income growth is dictated by both internal and external factors. Due to its geograph- ical location, topography and current socio-economic structure, the Philippines is considered highly vulnerable to climate change impact . Its more than 7000 small islands and long coastline expose much of its land and people to the dangers of stronger tropical storms and flooding. Increased occurrence of extreme weather distur- bances will significantly lower productivity in agriculture and fisheries, sectors on which majority of the Filipi- nos depend for livelihood. The incidence of below-subsistence living may increase and gaps among socio-eco- nomic classes may widen as those in the lower strata are more susceptible to the damages that climate change can bring and are less able to cope with it than those in the upper strata. With added pressure to adhere to global environmental initiatives on carbon emission reductions (such as that of the Kyoto Protocol), Philippine policy makers are faced with difficult decisions regarding long-run economic growth and environment paths that the country must thread. In order to make sound policy choices, there is a need for empirical evidence on the rela- tionship of key economic variables with carbondioxideemissions.
climate change is of course beset with uncertainty regarding its magnitude and timing. Moreover, it is global in nature, encompassing many factors; ideally, there should be only one global price for carbon affecting all supply and demand decisions worldwide. We simplify the issue by focusing only on one country and by targeting a given level of emission reduction for all taxes in question, making the taxes comparable. We set aside what may be an optimal tax rate inclusive of the social gains from emission reduction. If the welfare cost of the tax per se is small, the overall welfare impact will likely be positive if the social gains in reducing carbonemissions can be measured and added. Doing so also means that standard public finance theory regarding the optimal taxation of commodities will apply to the results. The ratio of the deadweight loss to the revenue that the tax collects would be the product of the tax rate and the relevant elasticity. Because the elasticity for energy/fuel related activities which emit the most CO 2 are generally low,
emissions would be 172 and 116 Mt, for tax levels of $10 and $20, respectively. The corresponding net economic costs would be $47 (0.74 per cent of GDP) and $84 (1.34 per cent of GDP) billion, respectively, with significant burden felt by the commercial sector – large consumers of indirect energy and materials whose production would contributetoCO 2 emissions.
The computational model developed was shown to be adequate to partially reproduce the behavior of the diesel engine operating with diesel oil and ethanol varying different parameters. The results indicated that the engine operates in best combination of results when configured with equivalence ratio of 0.7 and compression ratio of 19:1, in the range investigated. The direct injection of ethanol in the cylinder showed better results regarding pollutant emissions, in comparison with indirect injection of ethanol in the intake manifold, slightly penalizing the net cycle work and increasing fuel consumption. Ethanol injection in the intake manifold allows for the use of higher concentrations of this fuel; however, it decreases the amount of air charge into the engine and, consecutively, reduces engine power output. If ethanol is injected separately from the pilot fuel (B5 in this case) it will require a second fuel tank and fuel injection system. Several experimental works by other authors reported similar results to the ones obtained by simulation, presented in this work.
cost are, but there are a number of differences between emissions and trip time and costs in terms of individuals’ ability to relate this information. Both time and cost information come in the form of metrics that individuals encounter multiple times during the course of a normal day: namely currency such as Euro and cent, and units such as hours and minutes. Given the ubiquitous nature of time and cost information across nearly all activities, individuals have developed internal references which they can use to compare information they are presented with. Not only can they relate the time and cost information associated with one alternative to that for another, they can also compare this information with time and costs associated with other activities or products they frequently encounter. Emissions information, on the other hand, often appears in a knowledge vacuum (Whitmarsh et al, 2011), where individuals have no previous experience with the metrics being used. If this is the case the provision of information alone may not have much value and therefore may soon be discarded. If individuals are to be expected to make transport decisions based on emissions estimates, they must first understand this information. One way to achieve this is to pay specific attention to the form in which such information is presented. This section will focus on effectiveness of some of the framing approaches that can be used to give individuals a clearer understanding of the emissions information relating to their transport options. The results presented in this section were also presented in Brazil et al. (2013b).
warming to the use of fossil fuels, we can also display graphs and plots with oil production and import for some industrialized countries. One example is given in the Figure 4, where we see them for the United States (data are coming from Ref.12). Note how the recurrence plot is enhancing the trend: it seems that, today, this system is becoming oscillating about a stationary level. For what concerns the CO 2 emissions
393 dioxide and growth. Economic growth and carbondioxideemissions in Malaysia were analyzed by Saboori et al. (2012). This study considers the period 1980 to 2009. Using the theoretical hypothesis of Environmental Kuznets Curve and using ARDL approach and VECM, they found causality between dioxidecarbonemissions and growth. However, Anderss-on and Karpestam (2013) demonstrate that the economic growth promotes a reduction of energy and dioxideemissions. This research considers the short and long-term determinants for developed and emerging economies for the period 1973- 2007. The empirical work of Shahbaz and Leitão (2013) consider the relationship between economic growth and energy consumption for Portuguese case, applying the foundations of the existence of EKC. The authors utilize as econometric strategy the time series analysis (OLS estimator, and ARMA model). Shahbaz and Leitão (2013) found that the growth is positively correlated with energy consumption. Dagher and Yacoubian (2012) studied the causal relationship between energy consumption and growth in Lebanon for the period 1980-2009. The authors pretend to analyze the dynamic causal relationship between the variables. The results of Dagher and Yacoubian (2012) permit to conclude that energy consumption restring the economic growth in Lebanon.
Environmental issues have taken leading discussions in our contemporary times in both developing and developed economies due to environmental deterioration. This further raises concerns about climate change and global warming, which arises mainly from the emission of greenhouse gases . These changes are often linked to natural causes (i.e., continental drifts, volcanic activities, solar radiation and ocean currents) and direct and indirect human activities, which affect the global atmospheric composition and variability of the natural climate. However, scholars have argued that the increase in human activities due to the emergence of industrialization, the increase in the growth of the global population and the need to meet up with such transformations are the main causes of climate change [2,3]. Also, human activities such as deforestation for agricultural and commercial purposes, burning of fossil fuel and changes in the use of land due to population growth are contributing significantly to a surge in greenhouse gas emissions. Despite the contribution of industrialization in promoting economic growth by increasing the amount of goods and services produced, shaping lives and making the society a better place, it left us with an issue of increasing greenhouse emissions.
Indeed, there are numerous empirical studies that evaluate the relationship between energy consumption and growth (e.g. Altunbas and Kapusuzolu, 2011; Shahbaz et al., 2013; Leitão, 2015; Leitão, 2014; Balogh and Jambor, 2017). These stud- ies considered the arguments of the Environmental Kuznets Curve (ECK). Our research follows a different line, aiming to evaluate the impact of agricultural activity on CO 2 emissions. The literature is not unanimous in this field. Some authors, such as Asumadu-Sarkodie (2016), Filiz and Omer (2012) and Baktiari el al. (2015), have concluded that agricultural pro- duction increases the rate of environmental pollution, thereby intensifying climate change. However, there are other studies (e.g. Pant, 2009; Edoja et al., 2016) concluding that agricul- tural productivity has a negative impact on CO 2 emissions.