It is evident in several studies [ 13 , 15 – 18 ] that the NigerDelta experiences periodic vulnerability in terms of flooding, rendering millions of people homeless by submerging their houses, schools, and markets and destroying their farmlands, which is often attributed to climatechange. The geographical location of the study area being a low-lying part of Nigeria exacerbates the situation, causing the area to be easily submerged during heavy rainfall events. The condition of such areas have forced people to adapt to the frequent seasonal flooding rather than control or mitigating measures. Hence, studies geared toward extremeweatherevents projections in low-lying areas are necessary. This will create awareness for an urgent collaborative effort between government, stakeholders, and other relevant agencies to support town planning, and in developing strategic plans for mitigating the possible impacts of extremeweatherevents in the NigerDelta to prevent its long-range consequences. Prevention of common practices such as construction in flood-prone zones should be encouraged to ensure an adequate buffer along the river channels.
Climatechange is a significant and lasting change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns over periods ranging from decades to millions of years. The Intergovernmental Panel on ClimateChange (IPCC) describes climatechange as any change overtime, whether due to natural variability or as a result of intense human activi- ties. It describes past, present or future shift in climate on global, regional or local scales . It may be a change in average weather conditions, or in the distribution of weather around the average conditions (i.e., more or few- er extremeweatherevents). Climatechange is a great threat to fish production, as it is responsible for water scarcity globally, due to increase in greenhouse gases and temperature. Climatechange is expected to be the major key player in water scarcity in the nearest future as a result of increase in evaporation from the surface of the sea and this will alter the hydrological processes of water available for fish production. Due to the increase in the level of the pollutants, resulting from water scarcity caused by climatechange, which pose a serious threat to the aquatic environment, production of healthy fish on sustainable basis could be hampered. There are some gases that are associated with climatechange, which is generally referred to as greenhouse gases. These green- house gases are: Carbon dioxide which is released to the atmosphere when solid waste, fossil fuels (oil, natural gas and coal), and wood products are burned; Methane: This is emitted during the production and transport of coal, natural gas, and oil, methane emissions can result from the decomposition of organic wastes in solid waste landfills, and the raising of livestock; Nitrous oxide: This is emitted during agricultural and industrial activities, as well as during combustion of solid waste and fossil fuels.
The Intergovernmental Panel on ClimateChange (IPCC) (2007) defines “Climatechange as a change in the state of the climate that can be identified by changes in the mean and or the variability of its properties that persists for an extended period typically decades or longer”. In the last couple of decades, changes in climatic condition have attracted wide attention from governments and other international development agencies. These attentions draw mainly from the predicted impact of climatechange on indices of development including health, food security, security of lives and property, among others. Evidence of climatechange manifest in various forms ranging from increasing temperature, increasing evapo-transpiration, decreasing rainfall amount in the continental interiors, increasing rainfall in the coastal areas, increasing disruption in climatic patterns and increasing frequencies and intensities of extremeweatherevents (Chidumayo, Okali, Kowero, & Larwanou, 2011; Boon & Ahenkan's, 2012; Dube,Moyo, & Nyathi, 2016). These evidences are already manifesting in both the developed and the developing countries of the world. In Nigeria, evidences of climatechange are manifested in the form of flooding in both the south and northern part of Nigeria, drought and desertification in the northern part of Nigeria, sea level rise and flooding in coastal communities in the Niger-Delta region of Nigeria (Onwuemele, 2013).
Small islands, most especially, would be vulnerable to climatechange due to exposure of population, residential and public infrastructure, potable water supplies, educational and health facilities to destruction and/or contamination by projected extreme climatic variables. Increased risks of extremeweatherevents, e.g., flooding, is often challenging to the poor, especially those dwelling in rapidly expanding communities located near rivers and coasts, and who use or depend on climate sensitive resources, e.g. aquaculture. Ocean acidification and warming have the potential to impact negatively on the aquaculture and fisheries, which constitute their major occupation and main source of nutritional protein. In addition, more intense and/or more frequent extremeweatherevents increases their economic losses and social disruption (Cazenave & Cozannet, 2014; Ighedosa, 2019; IPCC, 2014; McGranahan et al., 2007; Parry, 2007; Smithson, 2002; UNFCCC, 2011).
The impact of disasters on individuals and communities depends on the likelihood of the event, whether it can be predicted or con- trolled, the type of agent (natural or techno- logical), the speed of onset, the scope of impact (focused or diffused), and the destruc- tive potential of the event (79). Many practi- tioners and researchers separate disaster preventive measures into the following cate- gories: structural and unstructural mitigation (e.g., building code regulations, warning response systems, disaster policies, retrofitted buildings); preparedness (e.g., individual evacuation); response (e.g., quick and ade- quate relief efforts); and recovery (e.g., both short- and long-term efforts such as rebuild- ing correctly or helping individuals and busi- nesses survive). These categories are not mutually exclusive; for example, mitigation often takes place during the recovery phase.
Of particular concern in Cambodia is the potential impact of flooding and drought on water-borne diseases, primarily diarrhoeal disease (i.e., viral and bacterial gastroenteritis, dysentery, cholera and other manifestations of gastrointestinal infections) . Diarrhoea is the second most common inpatient and outpatient diagnosis and second leading cause of death for children under five in Cambodia [17,18]. Seventy-five percent of the rural population lack access to improved sanitation means. The majority of the rural population (66%) openly defecates, with a small proportion (9%) having access to pit latrines (without a slab or platform), hanging latrines and bucket latrines . Contrastingly, 82% of the urban population have access to improved sanitation facilities—flush or pour flush to a piped sewer system, septic tank, pit latrine, ventilated improved pit latrine and pit latrine with slab or composting toilet . Furthermore, thirty-four percent of the rural population rely on unimproved water sources—unprotected dug wells or springs, carts with small tanks or drums, bottled water or surface drinking water from rivers, dams, lakes, ponds or streams . Ninety-four percent of the urban population have access to improved water sources—piped water on premises, public taps or standpipes, tube wells or boreholes, protected dug wells or springs and rainwater collections . This disparity highlights the amplified vulnerability of the rural population to water-borne illness.
Adaptation requires some kind of forward looking view, considering what the potential future implications of climatechange could be. This should not lead to a dismissal of the opportunities that arise through action driven by short term concerns. With the exception of the Swiss Re example (case study No 10), which looks specifically at the long term implications of climatechange, all of the case studies are engaged in managing today’s risks, often triggered by the occurrence of an extreme event. This makes the initiatives in a sense reactive – but with a proactive focus on avoiding or reducing future damage. The case studies all make reference to the climatechange context and allow a ‘climatechange’ component in their assessments. In this context resilience to current weatherevents is the first step of future resilience to changes to the climate. At the same time it is widely
Extreme storm events are likely to increase failure of floodplain protection as well as damage urban drainage and sewage systems . Increased heat causes discomfort for the farming family while intense heat wave leads to electricity blackout . While the farming families in the region still engage in agricultural activities like crop farming and fishing, they work more with little in return. Their farming and fishing have been impaired in recent times by the deplorable state of the environment as a result of altered and unfavourable climate . Ac- cording to the author, due to the degradation of their immediate environment, the local farmers can no longer engage in sustainable production leading to risen poverty level in the region among the locals. Change in climate affects crops, livestock, forestry, and fishery in various ways bearing direct impacts on the farmer and his family. Many people in the NigerDelta whose source of livelihood once depended on natural sectors such as, farming and fishing are now changing their means of livelihood. Change in the farming occupation will have adverse ef- fects on agricultural sector in the region and the nation as a whole. Continued degradation of land and water as a result of climatechange in the region will affect the major agricultural produce in the region, thus increasing hardship for the farmer and his family. However, the capacity to adapt can influence how climatechange affects individuals, communities, regions, countries and the global population.
Human society adopts increasingly sophisticated and mechanized lifestyles; consequences are that the amounts of heat-trapping gases in the atmosphere have been increased. By increasing the amount of these gases, humankind has enhanced the warming capability of the natural greenhouse effect. It is the human-induced enhanced greenhouse effect that causes environmental concerns. It has the potential to warm the planet at a rate that has never been experienced in human history. This warming is called climatechange. Climatechange is more than a warming trend. Increasing temperatures will lead to changes in many aspects of weather, such as wind patterns, the amount and type of precipitation, and the types and frequency of severe weatherevents that may be expected to occur in an area. Not all regions of the world will be affected equally by climatechange. Low-lying and coastal areas face the risks associated with rising sea levels. Increasing temperatures will cause oceans to expand (water expands as it warms), and will melt glaciers and ice cover over land – ultimately increasing the volume of water in the world's oceans (IPCC, 2001a).
According to  flood is a general condition of partial or complete inunda- tion of normally dry areas from overflow of inland or tidal waters or from un- usual and rapid accumulation of runoff. Floods as noted by  are the most frequent disaster and widespread natural hazards of the world. In another re- port,  noted that, floods have caused 84% disaster deaths in the world with an average of 20,000 deaths per year, which makes only a few countries immune to floods. Consequently, Nigerian flood damage records show that many people have lost their lives to flooding while hundreds of thousands have been rendered homeless and properties worth billions of Naira have been destroyed as a result of devastating floods across Nigeria  . A state of food insecurity would occur once any of the food security dimensions is truncated by extremeevents such as flooding, drought or any environmental change; hence, there exist a rela- tionship between flooding and food (in) security. In a similar study,   found flooding to have significant negative impacts on food security in India and Niger Republic respectively. Consequently, it is necessary to study the implica- tions of climatechange induced extremeevents in order to adapt to climatechange thereby ensuring food security for the general populace.
The new high resolution EURO-CORDEX reanalysis driven RCM ensemble (Jacob et al., 2014) has been evaluated against the high resolution European E-OBS observational dataset (Kotlarksi et al., 2014) over the period 1989-2008. The RCMs are able to capture the basic features of European climate, including spatial and temporal variability, but there are some deficiencies with respect to certain metrics, regions and seasons. Precipitation biases are in the ±40% range. Common model biases, such as a cold/wet bias over most parts of Europe, and a warm/dry summer bias in southern Europe are seen. The increase in model spatial resolution from 50km to 12.5km indicates no clear benefit in the representation of seasonal means over large subdomain regions. Comparison with simulations from the ENSEMBLES project based on the older SRES emissions scenarios shows similar large-scale patterns of change between the SRES A1B and RCP scenarios. Projections of precipitation from EURO- CORDEX show a less clear difference between RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 than are apparent for temperature changes (Jacob et al., 2014). It was found that the high resolution RCM simulations show higher daily precipitation intensities compared to the coarser GCM simulations. Also, the projected change in daily precipitation intensity differs from GCMs, which results in a smoother shift from weaker to moderate and higher intensities i.e. GCMs simulate more frequent weaker rainfall events and less frequent high intensity events, whereas RCMs simulate a lower frequency of weaker events but a higher frequency of stronger events relative to GCMs. One current deficiency in the EURO-CORDEX ensemble is that the very wet GCMs from CMIP5 are currently not yet downscaled, although the temperature spread is well covered (Figures 22 and 23).
There is, for example, an image of a Pakistani mother standing in deep flood water holding up her two children. 2 Despite the clearly very grim conditions, sig- nalled by the dull and dirty colour of the water and its depth to neck level, the woman and her children appear to be ‘getting on with it’. The two children are both smiling, despite being almost entirely submerged in water, constructing a sense of resilience to or courage in the face of this form of extremeweather, as well as its seeming mundaneness in this particular geographical context. One of the children has visibly wet hair, which, coupled with his cheerful demeanour, gives the impression that he has just enjoyed a swim in the water, rather than tra- versing it helplessly as a flood victim might. The mother, a Pakistani woman with a traditional, religious appearance, retains her headscarf intact, as prescribed by her rural Pakistani Muslim culture. This too seems to suggest that this is not a matter of life and death but rather an aspect of everyday life in this geo-cultural context. In short, the visual representation of the protagonists in the image is not one of victimhood or desperation, but rather of a mundane sense of routine.
In order to accurately classify a soil and make recommendations for utilitarian purposes, soils occupying any particular agro-ecological zone must be properly characterized (Brady 1990; Esu 2005). Information on the kinds of soils in an area is obtained through soil survey activities. Soil survey identifies, characterizes and classifies the soils in the survey areas, showing their extent and distribution on a map (SCS News 1984). Land evaluation is the process of estimating the potential of a land for alternative uses (FAO 1976). Application of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) framework for land evaluation can identify the most limiting land qualities and characteristics and provide a good basis for advising farmers on appropriate management practice for optimum production in a particular agro- ecological zone (Chinene 1992).
Seismic data were integrated with well log to define the subsurface geometry and hydrocarbon trapping potential of Owem field, onshore NigerDelta. The research methodology involved hori- zon and fault interpretation to produce subsurface structural map. Wireline logs signatures were employed to identify hydrocarbon bearing sand and compute reservoir petrophysical parameters for hydrocarbon reservoir analysis. Two horizons HA and HB were identified and mapped and a time structural map was produced. Two reservoirs R1 and R2 were delineated in the wells A and B. The computed petrophysical parameters for well A showed that the thickness of Reservoir R1 and R2 are 11.5 and 12.5 meters respectively while the porosity and hydrocarbon saturation varies between 0.16 - 0.24 and 0.6 - 0.8 respectively. Similarly the average thickness and porosity of R1 and R2 for well B is about 18.0 meters and 0.12 while the hydrocarbon saturation varies between 0.7 - 0.8. The integration of seismic and well logs data has proved to be a useful tool in the reser- voir analysis of hydrocarbon.
We calibrate a simple Ramsey model for the US economy, using the same aggregate data of the CGE simulation. First, we generate a baseline path of economic growth, under the assumption that no damages are produced by extremeevents. Second, we consider the problem of optimal consumption planning when there are expected dam- ages in each year, rising linearly over time, in such a way that the expected damage for the year 2050 is consistent with figures reported in Table 2. We then make the economy initially growing on the basis of the faster capital accumulation process, associated with higher saving rates. However, the economy does not initially suffer any damage.
approach (Racsko et al. 1991), with a detailed descrip- tion given in Semenov et al. (1998) and Semenov & Brooks (1999). LARS-WG is site specific and produces synthetic daily time series of maximum and minimum temperature, precipitation and solar radiation. The weather generator distinguishes dry and wet days, depending on whether the precipitation is greater than zero. Precipitation is modelled using semi-empirical probability distributions for the lengths of wet and dry series and for the amount of precipitation on a wet day. A semi-empirical distribution is a histogram with a fixed number of intervals (10 in the case of LARS-WG). A semi-empirical distribution is sufficiently flexible and allows for the accurate simulation of various weather statistics (Semenov et al. 1998). Minimum temperature, maximum temperature and radiation are related to the amount of cloud cover, and so LARS-WG uses separate distributions for wet and dry days for each of these variables. The shape of the daily temper- ature distributions is approximated by the normal dis- tribution, with the values of mean and standard devia- tion changing daily and calculated by a Fourier series. Time auto-correlations for minimum and maximum temperature are site specific, but constant throughout the year; the cross-correlation of the normalized resid- uals is pre-set at 0.6. Semi-empirical distributions for dry and wet days are used for solar radiation, because the observed distribution for radiation can deviate from the truncated normal distribution traditionally used in weather generators (Semenov et al. 1998, Hansen 1999, Parlange & Katz 2000). LARS-WG has been used in various studies, including assessment of the impact of climatechange (Barrow & Semenov 1995, Barrow et al. 1996, Weiss et al. 2003, Lawless & Semenov 2005, Khan et al. 2006, Scibek & Allen 2006, Semenov 2007, Semenov & Doblas-Reyes 2007).
in police operation in the state. The increased according to the police officers interviewed is as a result of popu- lation increase over the years which precipitate increase in criminality in the state, as well as variation in rainfall and temperature over the years . Their result revealed that crime rate in Warri metropolis, are significantly depended on climate variability, and that the wave of larceny, armed robbery, rape, murder and manslaughter increases with increase in rainfall and temperature. Also there frequent reported cases of armed robbery, murder and kidnapping along Agbor Sapele roads, Abgor-Asaba, Ughelli-Asaba and along DSC express way when it is raining, during festive periods (Christmas, new year celebration), and electioneering period were some politicians commit heinous crimes to secure elective post, as such more police officers are deployed to these roads .
The Velcom ministack is made up of various CDP trace gathers (fig.2). It was composed of high quality reflections and contains the display of seismic traces of the central, uncorrected CDPs (fig.3). Apparent velocity picks were made and are shown on the spectrum and scale semblance profile (fig.4). The picks were made at the sharpest points of events and NMO correction applied using VELCOM application. The display then contains a seismic trace of the central, corrected CDP (fig.5). The NMO correction, which was applied, depends on the type of loaded data. The application (VELCOM) used the principle of constant velocity stack (CVS), which assumed that the seismic velocity has a constant specific value throughout the ray path. The calculation of NMO for each trace as a function of TWT (Two – Way – Time) was then made. The traces of the gather are corrected for NMO using these calculated values. Where NMO was correctly removed, a reflector will line up horizontally across the gather, as shown in fig. 5. If the true stacking velocity is less than that assumed in constructing the CVS, the event will be under corrected and will bend down towards the larger offset traces; if the true velocity is greater than that assumed, the event will be over-corrected and bend up at the larger offsets. Thus, the estimation of the TWT can be made successfully where the assumed velocity is equal to the desired stacking velocity. The principle of CVS was so chosen because it works better for noisy data. The alignments across the gather are always difficult to see if signal to noise ratio is poor.
silty clay sediments belonging to the Pleistocenic Formation. The general geology of the area essentially reflects the influence of movements of rivers, in the Nigerdelta. In broad terms, the area may be considered Dry flat Country. (short and Stauble, 1967). The NigerDelta consists of three distinct Lithological Formation , the Akata formation , Agbada formation and the Benin formation. The Akata Formation consist of Marine shale . The Agbada formation consists of alternate Layers of Sand Stone and Shale. The Benin formation consists of sands, clay , Peat and some Granular materials. The Coastal Plain slopes gradually from an elevation of 240m to 15m above mean sea level and is largely caused by rain forest. The aquifer has a south west gradient towards the Delta and is thickened seawards in the same direction of ground water movement. The Study area is situated in the Coastal Plain region, quaternary in Age. The Zone is made of Coarse to Medium sand, with Silty and Clay Lenses. Within the Project area , groundwater is abstracted from the Benin formation , mainly in its upper section. (<300m).The aquifer at shallow depth(>10m) are unconfined while the deeper aquifers are confined and isolated from the ground surface and the natural recharge comes Northern high Coastal Plain..
In geomorphologic analysis, the best illustra- tions are mere graphic depictions in the form of block diagrams and graphic impressions that were highly erroneous with exaggerated landform expressions. These artistic illustra- tions, though guided in landform representa- tion and interpretation, lack quantification which is key to understanding the geo- morphic processes and probable landforms that could occur as a result of such change (s). As a result, geomorphic studies were lim- ited to in situ sample collections and point- based analysis. The possibilities of topo- graphic mapping involving less erroneous 3- D mapping and geovisualisation possibilities of landforms emerged during the decades sequel to the end of the Second World War. This was the period when aerial photographs became the latest tool in surficial landform mapping through the use of both vertical and oblique aerial photos based on various photogrammetric techniques. The level of quantification greatly improved with the use of thermal photos and stereo-mapping pro- cedure, which permits cartographic model- ling of land surface with 3-D possibilities. Through this procedure, landform slope, angle of inclination, altitude, and aspect be- came measurable. The main drawback of this, however, is that it lacks global coverage with availability limited only to special mis- sions within the localised areas of the devel- oped world (Bishop et al., 2012). At the turn of the 20 th century, advances in earth obser-