Top PDF Poverty alleviation in Africa: The Impact of China’s Aid

Poverty alleviation in Africa: The Impact of China’s Aid

Poverty alleviation in Africa: The Impact of China’s Aid

first , China’s development co-operation model remains based on the non-interference and mutual benefit principles established in the 1950s and 1960s, and is regarded by the Chinese authorities as part of the South South co-operation framework initiated at Bandung in 1955. Aid, trade, and investment are seen as interconnected in a mutual benefit framework. Meanwhile, the concept of Official Development Assistance (ODA) formulated by the OECD Development Assistance Committee in 1972 and reinforced in 2014 (DAC 2014) has at its heart a one-way transfer of wealth from rich countries to poor countries, with any commercial or financial benefits rigorously excluded by accounting rules and policy regimes. At the same time, national interests and foreign policy objectives are part of the scenery of all development co-operation and changing contexts are bringing significant departures from established principles on all sides. Second , Officially supported market-based loans from DAC countries are excluded from ODA and regulated by OECD export credit rules and IMF/World Bank debt sustainability assessment processes. Meanwhile, as outlined above, China has established a wide range of such financing, funded from financial markets with implicit and explicit Chinese government guarantees, with the CDB and the ExIm Bank playing a ‘public entrepreneurship’ role, supplying vision, action and innovation at a scale and speed that has outstripped OECD and Bretton Woods development institutions. third, While OECD statistical systems, rules, and policy review mechanism processes require and facilitate transparency in development finance flows at least among finance-providers, the transparency of China’s aid and broader development finance is limited, with recent progress confined to the provision of aggregate information in the first two White Papers on China’s Foreign Aid published in 2011 and 2014. Little progress has been made with the establishment of a Chinese government foreign aid statistical system envisaged in a draft set ‘Measures for the Management of Foreign Aid’ issued in 2014 (MofCom 2014). Hence the ongoing difficulties in understanding and quantifying China’s external development financing, concessional and non-concessional (China-Africa Research Initiative 2015).
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Impact of Integrated Urban Housing Development Program on Household Poverty Alleviation: Adama City, Oromia Regional National State, Ethiopia

Impact of Integrated Urban Housing Development Program on Household Poverty Alleviation: Adama City, Oromia Regional National State, Ethiopia

According to the United Nations (UN, 2011) report the world population is expected to increase by 2.3 billion, from 7.0 to 9.3 billion between 2011 and 2050. During the same period, the urban population is expected to have an additional 2.6 billion inhabitants, from 3.6 to 6.3 billion. This imply that, the urban areas of the world are expected to absorb almost all the population growth expected over the next four decades while drawing in some of the rural population. And hence, the world rural population is projected to start decreasing in about a decade and there will likely be 0.3 billion fewer rural inhabitants in 2050 than 2011. In two decades (2010-2030), the percentage of the world urban population will reach 60% representing almost five billion people. This massive rise in the level of urbanization is most visible in the growth of the biggest cities. For instance, in 1950 only New York City was classified as a „mega city‟ with more than ten million inhabitants. In 1975, the number of mega cities increased to three while in 2000 the number reached 17. In the year 2025, the expected number of mega cities will be 26, some of them attaining the status with more than twenty million inhabitants. It is worthwhile to indicate the uneven geographical distribution of mega cities in the world i.e. growth in number and size was concentrated almost entirely in the „global south‟. Accordingly, among 19 mega cities in 2010, 13 are situated in the global south of Africa, Asia and Latin America. Another important fact is that these mega cities are home only to 4% of the world‟s population. While in contrast, the small and intermediate cities, with up to five million inhabitants, will continue to absorb most of the global urban population over the coming decades (UN-HABITAT, 2006, 2007, 2010). It is worthwhile to indicate where the largest share of population increase will occur. Accordingly, most of the population growth expected in urban areas will be concentrated in the cities and towns of the less developed countries. For instance, Asia is projected to have an increase in urban population of 1.4 billion followed by Africa 0.9 billion and Latin America and the Caribbean 0.2 billion, respectively (Satterthwaite, 2007).
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US and China Aid to Africa: Impact on the Donor Recipient Trade Relations

US and China Aid to Africa: Impact on the Donor Recipient Trade Relations

The estimates of the first differenced GMM model are also presented in Table 7. The results reveal that the current flow of foreign aid impedes total trade between China and African recipient countries. An upturn of China’s aid to Africa by 1% decreases bilateral total trade by 0.04%. While the one- period lagged term indicates a significant and positive effect on bilateral trade. The overall effect of foreign aid on bilateral trade is therefore confirmed with the dynamic specification, with an increase of 10% in aid increases bilateral trade by about 0.21% (-0.4% plus 0.61%), which is mainly determined by the one-period lagged term of foreign aid. It implies that the current aid to Africa from China does not promote the bilateral total trade. As time goes by, the preceding foreign aid appears to have a positive impact on bilateral trade. This could be explained by the following three reasons: (1) once a trading relationship has been created by the aid, the relationship may yield additional transactions, e.g., follow-up work, supplies, upgrades, or complementary products; (2) future transactions resulting from reduced costs; and (3) strengthened ability for customers and suppliers to transact with other enterprises in the customer ’ s/supplier ’ s country. Interestingly, the one-period lagged trade shows significant and positive effect on current trade volume between China and African recipients, while the two-period lagged term exhibits significant but negative effect. The former coefficient is larger than the later one in magnitude, which is in line with our expectations.
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Impact of Government Schemes on Poverty Alleviation in Urban Area U.P.

Impact of Government Schemes on Poverty Alleviation in Urban Area U.P.

World Bank has long used a complicated statistical standard–income of $1 per day per person measured at purchasing power parity–to determine the numbers of extreme poor around the world. Another World Bank category, income between $1 per day and $2 per day, can be used to measure moderate poverty. These measures feature prominently in public policy circles. The number of poor estimated on that basis was 1.1 billion people living in extreme poverty in 2001. The overwhelming share of world’s extreme poor, 93 per cent in 2001, lived in three regions viz. East Asia, South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa. In the period of modern economic growth, the global population rose more than 6-folds in just two centuries whereas world’s average per capita income rose even faster. The gulf between today’s rich and poor countries is a new phenomenon. As of 1820, the biggest gap between rich and poor– especially between world’s leading economy of the day, United Kingdom and the world’s poorest region, Africa – was ratio of four to one in per capita income. By 1998, the gap between the richest economy, the United States, and the poorest region, Africa had widened to 20 to one. Thus, all regions experienced economic progress but today’s rich regions experienced by far the greatest economic progress.
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A Mirage or a Rural Life Line? Analysing the impact of Mahatma Gandhi Rural Employment Guarantee Act on Women Beneficiaries of Assam

A Mirage or a Rural Life Line? Analysing the impact of Mahatma Gandhi Rural Employment Guarantee Act on Women Beneficiaries of Assam

feminisation of poverty 9 has become a global phenomenon reflecting upon unequal sexual division of economic resources (such as unequal access to labour market, less access to food, education and health care) together with unequal inheritance rights, unfair treatment under social welfare systems and low status within the family (see, Chant, 2006a; 2006b). Poverty alleviation, however, remains a complex and a difficult challenge (Granzow, 2000). Shaffer (2008) has developed a new concept of poverty and augmented the causal structure of poverty into five variables such as social, political, cultural, coercive and environmental capital, (re)phrasing it together as the ‘forms of capital’ (194) . He goes on to strengthen this structure by highlighting the extent to which individuals either flows into or empowers themselves to reduce chronic poverty. In the World Bank volumes on Moving out of Poverty (Volume 2), Narayan et al. (2009a) draws on a grunt’s eye view of people who live below the poverty line. The research on moving out of poverty was conducted in different communities across 15 countries of Latin America, Africa, East and South Asia. Here, Narayan et al. (2009a) addresses the strategies of rural poverty alleviation through the prism of poor people’s lives. Focusing squarely on 60,000 rural people through qualitative methodology (individual life stories, focus groups, household interviews) alongside quantitative research, Narayan et al. (2009a) examines the subtle realities of local communities and explains how some people are successful in pulling themselves out of poverty, albeit local institutions like local level finance, markets, decent healthcare, roads, electricity, water, telephones, democracies together with social capital 10 (including
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Impact of Microfinance on Poverty Alleviation: A Global Analysis

Impact of Microfinance on Poverty Alleviation: A Global Analysis

The cross-section estimation shows the positive impact of microfinance on poverty alleviation at the macro level. The larger impact of the percentage of female borrowers has been observed in multidimensional poverty. The impact of the number of active borrowers and gross loan portfolios is much higher than that of any other explanatory variable included in the analysis. We also find that the key variables of our analysis remain negative and statistically significant after including the regional dummy. Results for regional dummies show that East Asia and the Pacific, Eastern Europe and Central Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean, and the Middle East and North America have negative and statistically significant coefficients with reference to South Asia at a 5% level of significance. In the meantime, Africa has a positive coefficient although statistically insignificant, suggesting that in Africa, the effect of MFI activities on poverty is not great. Table 8 shows the impact of microfinance on poverty in terms of head count ratio and poverty gap using level data of explanatory variables instead of log variables. The different columns represent the estimation showing the microfinance activities effect with and without regional dummies on poverty. In all specifications, the results are statistically significant but magnitudes are relatively small. Table 9 shows the microfinance effect on three dimensions of poverty: living standard, health and education. We use a log-level model for this estimation. The cross-sectional regression shows a significant impact of microfinance activities on these three dimensions of poverty. Table 10 demonstrates the cross-sectional regression interaction between poverty and legal status of MFIs and region. The estimated coefficient shows that a higher number of female borrowers can decrease the poverty head count ratio. Table 12 shows the cross-sectional regression for instrumental variables used to remove the simultaneous equation problem from our model. Our main objective with the instrumental variable estimation is to remove or solve the problem of endogeneity of the microfinance activities and poverty incidence. The coefficient of the number of active borrowers is negatively and statistically significant at a 5% level, overcoming the heteroscedasticity with and without regional dummies. We conduct three tests: an F test for weak identification, Sargan’s test for over-identification, and an under-identification test. We observe from these tests that we fail to reject the null hypothesis, which is that our instrument has no correlation with the error term. Table 11shows the validity of our instruments; if we use only one instrument - legal origin - we observe that poverty reduces the impact of the number of active borrowers.
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How does Democracy affect Poverty Alleviation? Empirical Evidence from Africa

How does Democracy affect Poverty Alleviation? Empirical Evidence from Africa

The study found that democracy has two dimensional relationship with or impact on poverty alleviation. As the study used two proxy measures of democracy thus the rule of law and voice and accountability, the rule of law showed a positive and statistically significant impact on poverty alleviation but voice and accountability have a negative and statistically significant impact on poverty alleviation. The rule of law which measure the degree of perception of how residents or citizens have confide in and abide by the laws of the country such as contract enforcement, property right, the police and courts effectiveness, also the less likelihood of crime and violence have positive impact on poverty alleviation hence further increase in these functions will lead to poverty alleviation in Africa. However, voice and accountability which measures how citizens are allowed to take part in the selection of their leaders to govern them as well as the freedom granted them in associations, expression of opinions and free media have negative impact on poverty alleviation in Africa hence further increase or widening of the scope of voice and accountability will lead to increase in poverty or results in hindering the progress of poverty alleviation. Corruption control has been a major headache in Africa which has been affecting the development of the continent. Perhaps, corruption has a negative and statistically significant impact on poverty alleviation. Therefore, if governments in Africa do not intensify their efforts in combating this menace then the poverty gap will be widened and the efforts of poverty alleviation will be bogus. Moreover, economic growth has the prospect of reducing poverty when all the sectors of the economy are economically viable to produce goods and services to meet the demands of the economic actors. In this regard, governments’ effectiveness as in the quality of policy formulation and its implementation which will gain trust and credibility from all stakeholders by ensuring quality public services and quality civil services devoid of governments or political interference to ensure the independence of these institutions will positively and significant increase poverty alleviation thereby reducing poverty.
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Investment, Training, Employment and Poverty Alleviation in Africa: A Critical Analysis

Investment, Training, Employment and Poverty Alleviation in Africa: A Critical Analysis

The average growth rate of GDP per capita declined into negative range since the 1980’s and during the first few years of the 1990s. However, in recent years, economic growth rates in Africa have been improving progressively. For example, the real output growth in Africa increased 2.2 per cent in 2016, 3.6 per cent in 2017 and 4.1 per cent in 2018. As a result, the per capita income in Sub-Saharan Africa, excluding Nigeria, increased by 1.1 per cent in 2017 (African Development Bank, 2018). Moreover, it was projected to increase by 1.5 per cent in 2018 and 1.8 per cent in 2019. It could be noted that the improvements in the per capita income is low and consequently not adequate to considerably reduce poverty and substantially improve living standards in the region; Over the last decade in Africa, that is, between 2006 and 2016, tax revenues increased in absolute terms by about 2.3 per cent. The continent now collects about 500 USD billion in tax revenue every year, 50 USD billion in foreign aid, 60 USD billion in remittances, and 60 USD billion in FDI inflows;
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The Impact of Poverty Alleviation Policy on Urban Household Demand

The Impact of Poverty Alleviation Policy on Urban Household Demand

Many policies and measures for poverty alleviation have been undertaken by the Chinese government, but few researchers have explored its experience and lessons. This research focuses on household needs like food, clothing, hous- ing, household equipment and supplies, transportation and communication, education and entertainment, healthcare; and also focuses on food items such as grains, meat, eggs, milk, vegetables, fruits and others in urban China. In poor households, the average disposable income per capita is less than or near per capita expenditure; and the Engels coefficient is often over 40%. The data from 1997-2012 in this research is in the provincial level from the Information Website of Development Research Center of the State Council (or “DRCnet”). The authors used the two stage ELES-AIDS (Almost Ideal Demand System) to estimate the price elasticity and expenditure elasticity of the household’s ex- penditures. According to the results, it is recommended that the government should follow economic law and improves policy efficiency, especially its food policy to alleviate the poverty of low income residents.
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Microfinance and Poverty Alleviation

Microfinance and Poverty Alleviation

The argument for the minimalist approach is that unless the MFI is financially sustainable, it will be unable to grow, and thus, will exclude thousands of potential clients who could be helped by access to microcredit (Murdoch and Haley 2002). Jonathan Murdoch and Barbara Haley, co-authors of Analysis of the Effects of Microfinance on Poverty Reduction argue that “combining financial services with training, education or other components is also viewed as attempting to mix ‘business’ and ‘welfare’. This is seen as compromising the business orientation of microfinance” (Murdoch and Haley 2002). Also, if an MFI is forced to depend on subsidy and the pool of funding suddenly dries up, the entire institution will collapse. Promoters of the minimalist approach point out the widespread failure of MFIs who try to provide multiple services to their clients and are unable to fund charitable ventures (Bhatt and Tang 2001:2). Minimalists insist that it is necessary to achieve financial sustainability first. Then, when sufficient profit has been accumulated, the MFI can look into the possibility of providing training and educational services.
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Social Enterprise Development oriented Poverty Alleviation and Sustainable Development of Relative Poverty Groups in Rural Areas

Social Enterprise Development oriented Poverty Alleviation and Sustainable Development of Relative Poverty Groups in Rural Areas

As the society develops, Chinese government has achieved some major changes in the poverty alleviation. Firstly, the target has shifted from the absolute poverty population only to both the absolute and the relative poverty. The absolute poverty population has reduced by over 200 million since 1978. Based on the two-phase theory of poverty, the major problem was the absolute poverty in China before 2000; yet after 2000, the relative poverty becomes the main concern (Shihong Yin, 1998; Qingxia Zhang, 2008). Secondly, the measures being taken to lift poverty now include not only providing relief but also developing the poor regions. In 2008, the central government set the overall guidance to support the low-income through both development and social relief. Thirdly, non-governmental and governmental organizations now are also contributing to the cause. Some traditional departments gradually transformed to social enterprises and they are now an indispensable part in poverty alleviation.
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AN ASSESSMENT OF THE IMPACT OF GOVERNMENT INTERVENTION PROGRAMS ON POVERTY ALLEVIATION IN NIGERIA

AN ASSESSMENT OF THE IMPACT OF GOVERNMENT INTERVENTION PROGRAMS ON POVERTY ALLEVIATION IN NIGERIA

Poverty reductions have remained the major challenge to all leaders around the globe and the international organizations particularly in African continent were poverty menace have become so pronounce especially in the sub-Saharan African part where Nigerian belongs (Atkinson, 2016). Nigeria is endowed with both natural and human resources like; oil, agriculture and abundant resilient human capital that are capable of transforming the economy and to improve the living condition of its citizens (Chindo, Naibbi, &Abdullahi, 2014). Despite all these resources, statistics indicate that since the attainment of political independence in Nigeria, poverty has been on the increase with the consequent rise in the population. For instance, the report of National Bureau of Statistics reveals the prevalence of poverty which shut up from 42.7 percent in 1992, to 65.6 percent in 1996, while in 2004 it was 54.4 percent later increased to 64.2 percent in 2014. The percentage of Nigerian population living in poverty is rising year in year out (NBS, 2010, 2014).
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Impact of Education on Poverty Alleviation among the Rural Households of Coimbatore

Impact of Education on Poverty Alleviation among the Rural Households of Coimbatore

Education alleviates poverty of many studies supported that many countries put forth human capital as their main focus. It is argued that the country with better human capital achieved almost all kinds of development and there is no question of poverty. If so, whether education plays a vital role in poverty reduction. As one of the most powerful instruments of poverty reduction, education can be a guarantee for development in every society and even every family. In this connection the present study the main objective of aimed to analyze the impact of education on poverty. A primary survey was undertaken by applying multistage random sampling technique. To test the impact Binary logistic regression model was used.
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EXAMINING THE IMPACT OF SUSTAINABLE PROCUREMENT ON VALUE FOR MONEY AND POVERTY REDUCTION

EXAMINING THE IMPACT OF SUSTAINABLE PROCUREMENT ON VALUE FOR MONEY AND POVERTY REDUCTION

To investigate how sustainable procurement can be used as a catalyst for poverty reduction, data sources used for the study is consistent with studies of (Cepparulo, Cuestas, & Intartaglia, 2017; Cherif, 2008; Dhrifi, 2015): (i) the world bank development indicators (ii) the data market variables; (iii) the International Monetary Fund data base. In this study, poverty (POV) is measured by household consumption expenditure in 3 African countries. GDPPC which is always used to measure economic growth as indicated by (Dollar &Kraay, 2002), inflation proxied by the consumer price index which goes consistent with (Jeanneney & Kpodar, 2011). Labor force as the totality of employees available for employment which is in line with that of (Appiah, Amoasi, & Frowne, 2019). Finally, sustainable procurement proxies as government expenditure GOEx as used by (Bugri, Michael, & Arthur, 2019).
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Assessing the sustainability of pension reforms in Europe

Assessing the sustainability of pension reforms in Europe

majority, namely by not helping them maintain their pre-retirement living standards, it could be voted out. Similarly if a system is not seen as able to alleviate poverty, the political pressures that led to the setting up of social assistance to elderly people during the early part of the twentieth century might re-emerge. In the process of achieving these two goals, policymakers need, however, to take into consideration the balance of transfers between different generations. Political pressures for reform can arise either because systems are not achieving the goals that individuals expect of them or because individuals are unhappy about the deal they are getting compared to previous generations. Individuals can be concerned about the level of taxes they pay to finance the system but also by the level of their pension transfers compared to
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Typical Poverty Alleviation Models in Southern China and the Enlightenment to Jiangxi Province

Typical Poverty Alleviation Models in Southern China and the Enlightenment to Jiangxi Province

Abstract: With China’s poverty alleviation work at a crucial stage, poverty alleviation is mainly focused on the 14 concentrated destitute areas. In the Southern areas of China, there are numerous populations of poverty, wide range of poverty and the vast scale of poverty, which is a large proportion in the concentrated destitute areas. Among the Southern provinces of China, there are similarities of natural conditions, compatibility in cultural backgrounds and the complementation in economic structures. Therefore, there is the foundation of mutual learning or mutual cooperation in poverty alleviation work in China. This paper analyses the typical mode and experience of the crucial poverty-alleviation from Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi and Guizhou provinces. Furthermore, based on reality situations, this paper puts forward the enlightenment of poverty alleviation to Jiangxi province. That is the poverty relief focus on spiritual power, the necessity of financial poverty relief facilitating industrial poverty relief, sufficient utilization of countryside tourism resources, targeted poverty relief among provinces or regions and emphasis on the role of big data in poverty alleviation, etc.
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Macroeconomic Policies for Poverty Reduction in Cambodia

Macroeconomic Policies for Poverty Reduction in Cambodia

The issue is central to Cambodia’s trade and exchange rate policies because monetary policy affects only the nominal exchange rate directly, and the effect on the real exchange rate depends on the degree to which movements in the nominal exchange rate translate into domestic price changes. A nominal devaluation, for example, would translate into a real depreciation if wages and prices were less than fully flexible. Otherwise, the devaluation would translate into a proportional rise in domestic prices, which would eliminate any changes in the real exchange rate under the partially dollarized economy. Over the medium to long run, Cambodia could de-dollarize the economy and either let its currency float freely, intervene in the exchange market with or without pre-determined rules, or pursue a fixed exchange rate. Alternatively, it could move to implement a currency board or adopt the dollar as legal tender. But in the near term, the ability to affect changes in exports of agricultural products to alleviate rural poverty depends critically on the extent of the pass-through effects from dollarization, that is, the extent to which changes in the nominal exchange rate translate into domestic prices.
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Social Media Research on the Road to Information Poverty Alleviation in Rural Areas of China

Social Media Research on the Road to Information Poverty Alleviation in Rural Areas of China

China is a large agricultural country. The peasant population accounts for 50.32% of the total population [11]. The rural area is an important practical place for democratic self- government at the grassroots level in China, and it is also a vanguard of many reform policies in China [12]. Although there are obstacles in the development of social media in rural areas, it is not slow due to the huge demand of the farmers. However, the academic community’s application and research on rural social media is only limited to hardware [13] or certain specific groups, rather than rural residents. For example, scholar Fan Yingyi used migrant workers as the research object and analyzed their environmental awareness model under the social media environment [14]; Li Zhi and Yang Zi's survey of women migrant workers using social media [15]; Scholar Han Min conducts research on the influence of social media on rural young people's interpersonal communication [16]; As well as Tian Wei from the perspective of promoting agricultural technology, the current status of the use of social media for agricultural technicians is investigated [17]. The survey of rural residents is still very scarce in the academic community.
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Another important factor in China’s development was the provision or the supply of human resources, more especially those who have businesses (Child & David, 2001). As a result, the country (China) managed to design five hundred and twelve big State-Owned Enterprises (SOEs) through government industrial policy in the 1990s. As a result, there was a time where other East Asian countries were deeply affected by the Asian Financial Crisis of 1997 and 1998. The country (China) was least affected by the Asian Financial Crisis (Baek, 2005). In the year 2000, the Chinese global trade improved from one percent to three percent. After a decade, the country managed to triple its international trade (Wu, 2016). In the past years, the overall growth rate of China’s GDP reached 9.7 percent (Zhang, et al., 2008). The country did not only improve its GDP per capita, but it also experienced structural changes (Rasiah, et al., 2013). From the start of the economic reforms, China managed to make a remarkable impact on poverty reduction. The government established an organization named the State-owned Assets Supervision and Administration Commission of State Council (SASAC) (Baek, 2005). Wu, (2016) reveals that globally, the SASAC is one of the influential economic actors it controls half of the Chinese companies on the Fortune Global 500 list of the world biggest corporation.
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Gender Differences In Technology Adoption And Welfare Impact Among Nigerian Farming Households

Gender Differences In Technology Adoption And Welfare Impact Among Nigerian Farming Households

Cassava is the major source of calories for roughly two out of every five Africans. It serves as an important food source for an estimated 200 million people or averagely one-third of the population of sub-Saharan Africa (IITA et al., 2003). It has the potential to increase farm incomes, close the food gap as well as reduce rural and urban poverty. Cassava is available to low income rural households in form of simple food products such as dried roots, leaves, garri, fufu and lafun which are significantly cheaper than grains (Nweke et al., 2001).
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