Top PDF Poverty Alleviation and Social Protection in Pakistan

Poverty Alleviation and Social Protection in Pakistan

Poverty Alleviation and Social Protection in Pakistan

The coverage of PP AF is currently limited, compared to the needs. That it did not so far had a significant impact on poverty alleviation in the areas of its operation appears to be supported by a study conducted by Gallup. Almost 60% of those surveyed did not experience any increase in their income. PPAF was established because of the encouraging experience of micro- enterprises loan of the World Bank distributed through Banker’s Equity Limited wherein loan was extended to successful ongoing enterprises. The extent to which PPAF can achieve such a primacy is difficult to determine. Micro credit is not generally targeted to the poor. However increased access to credit facilities for those with out collateral can serve as a powerful instrument for income generation and poverty alleviation, if lending rates are not inordinately high and entrepreneurial training is also included in the package. It may be of interest to note that the partner organizations of PPAF have not been able to cover all costs from interest income despite high interest rate charged from the borrowers.
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Riding for Survival: A Worst Form of Human Trafficking

Riding for Survival: A Worst Form of Human Trafficking

Trafficking of the humans is a growing concern at international level. Among all the trafficked ones, children who are misused and continuously mistreated claim the special attention. It is, further, a known fact that these poverty stricken children are trafficked from Pakistan to wealthy Gulf States for camel racing. In order to find out the socioeconomic characteristics of trafficked children this study interviewed the ex-camel jockeys and their families from district Rahim Yar Khan (RYK), Muzafargarh, Multan, D.G. Khan, Bahawalpur and Rajan Pur. Results suggested that the problem of ex-camel jockey children is certainly a social issue and it can only be addressed by taking simultaneous reinforcing actions across all economic and social sectors, including the sectors of education and health. Moreover, it was observed that effective prevention requires family empowerment, basic education, capacity building, awareness raising and social mobilization. Rehabilitation measures should seek to offer different solutions and provide a comprehensive socio-economic package of services encompassing education, health and nutrition, social protection and shelter.
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Fiscal Scenario of South Asian Countries: Implications for Economic Growth and Poverty Alleviation

Fiscal Scenario of South Asian Countries: Implications for Economic Growth and Poverty Alleviation

Table 2 depicts trend of public expenditure as percentage of GDP in South Asian countries. Among the sample countries total expenditure-to-GDP ratio has been the highest in Sri Lanka, where the concern of the government with social welfare---especially with respect to providing education and access to health services---has been most evident. Total expenditure-to- GDP ratio for Sri Lanka was 25.3% per annum in 1975 and it was on the average 32.5% during 1980s. However, after the 1990s, the government came to believe, or was made to believe, more and more in the efficacy of the market (mainly under the influence of market reforms), so that by 2007, the ratio declined to 23.2%. However, in comparison with other countries it still remains the highest. Pakistan had an average expenditure to GDP ratios. India and Bangladesh have the lowest ratios: In India, total expenditure was only 11.3% of GDP in 1970s and was on average 15.3 % during 1980s and in 2007 a mere 15.1%. In Bangladesh, the situation has been even worse: in 1995, public expenditure was 12.4% of GDP. Since then it has slightly increased to 14.3% of GDP in 2007.
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Hill Torrents Potentials and Spate Irrigation Management to Support Agricultural Strategies in Pakistan

Hill Torrents Potentials and Spate Irrigation Management to Support Agricultural Strategies in Pakistan

Abstract: Pakistan has not only been blessed with enriched hydrological cycling phenomenon which generate abandoned quantum of water in the northern part , but also possess 18.68 MAF Water Potential in water scarce areas of Pakistan , known as Rod Kohi. Spate irrigation is in practice in Pakistan, where, flood water, during monsoon season, gets generated and channelized from down-hill countered profiles (catchments area). These hill torrential are diverted to agriculture fields, by constructing earthen embankments or related hydraulic concrete structures. Since, hill sides torrential are unpredictable, temporally and spatially matrix, which poses numerous challenges to the farmers who in return forcibly integrate / pool up individual resources to partially manage this scarce resource. Though the annual rainfall ( ....100...mm/year) in this area is low and uncertain yet at the same time due to terrain lay out , substantial quantum of water gets accumulated due to downhill side terrain profile each rainfall event. The agriculture activities, in these areas are totally dependent on such type of phenomenal rainfalls. Unfortunately, due to lack of scientific water resource management and modern agriculture practices, major quantum of torrential flood water is not only gets wasted , but also causes huge losses to human life and property . This catastrophic situation arises, as there are neither successive layers of check-dams on the down-hill sides of these mountain ranges, nor any kind of water storage facilities exist at the foot hill areas. PARC (Pakistan Agricultural Research Council) and Pakistan Poverty Alleviation Foundation ( PPAF) did funded some localized water storage , water conveyance and water distribution system interventions, but still there is a dire need of holistically adoption of watershed management approaches , based on resource integration concept and practices. This un-managed water resource must be harnessed / converted into lucrative opportunities to oxygenize the life line for millions of people residing in these areas.
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Social Safety Net Programmes for Poverty Alleviation in Bangladesh: An Overview

Social Safety Net Programmes for Poverty Alleviation in Bangladesh: An Overview

at personal, domestic and communal levels; (ii) assisting persons and families shield their resources when different types of shock waves happen; (iii) assisting persons and families to utilize their prevailing means more efficiently, and thus assisting them to survive with different types of threats; and (iv) rightly levitation profitable progression rates by decreasing inequality (Khuda, 2011) The fundamental reason of Social Safety Net Programmes (SSNPs) in Bangladesh is to reduce poverty and vulnerability. The main focus of Social Safety Net Programmes (SSNPs) in Bangladesh is on the basic need of the people, which are food, health, education and shelter. The Programmes of Social Safety Net mainly concerned with social protection and social empowerment. Social protection Programmes cover cash transfer allowances, special cash transfer, food security, etc. Social empowerment encompasses micro-credit, housing, stipends and different development Programmes. All these are implemented through development and non-development budget of Bangladesh government.
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Role of Social Workers in Facilitating of the Poverty Alleviation Program in Indonesia

Role of Social Workers in Facilitating of the Poverty Alleviation Program in Indonesia

The law stipulates that the target of handling the poor is addressed to a. Individual; b. family; c. group; and/or d. Community. The handling of the poor is done by using: a. humanity; b. social justice; c. Nondiscrimination; uninformed. welfare; e. solidarity; and f. Empowerment (Republic of Indonesia, 2011) . This provision would have been in line with the conception of Social Work. Social work works well for individuals, families, groups, and communities. The focus of social work is people in the environment. Similarly, the principle of POOR PEOPLE handling as mentioned above is in line with the values of social work: Human Rights, Dignity, Diversity, Social Justice (Ashley Miller,2016). In RI Law No.13 / 2011, stipulated that the handling of poor people is implemented in 7 forms, namely: a. the development of self-potential; b. food and clothing assistance; c. provision of housing services; d. provision of health services; e. provision of educational services; f. provision of access to employment and endeavor; g. legal aid; and/or h. social services (Article 7). Handling of the poor can be done through the following activities: a. empowerment of community institutions; b. increasing the capacity of the poor to develop basic skills and business capabilities; c. Guarantee and social protection to provide a sense of security for the poor; d. Partnerships and cooperation among stakeholders; and/or e. Coordination between ministries/agencies and local governments.
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Implementing Pro Poor Budgeting in Poverty Reduction: A Case of Local Government in Bone District, South Sulawesi Province, Indonesia

Implementing Pro Poor Budgeting in Poverty Reduction: A Case of Local Government in Bone District, South Sulawesi Province, Indonesia

The research is conducted at Bone District in South Sulawesi. The target groups are six key SKPD-Regional Units: Regional Development Planning Agency-Bappeda Bappeda, Health Office, Education Office, Department of Women Empowerment and Child Protection, and Social Service Office, and Community Empowerment Board. The data used is primary and secondary data which is analyzed through statistic-descriptive and content analysis. Primary data includes the forms of innovative of local government related to poverty reduction and the constraints and obstacles in allocating budgets for poverty reduction. Secondary data includes planning documents such as Strategic Planning- RENSTRA, Annual Planning-RENJA, and Budget Documents- APBD. Contents analysis includes identification of programs and activities contained in planning and budgeting documents related to poverty alleviation, while descriptive analysis includes analyzing budget allocation realization for poverty alleviation programs and activities in Bone District.
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Entrepreneurship Development and Poverty Alleviation: An Empirical Review

Entrepreneurship Development and Poverty Alleviation: An Empirical Review

561 powerlessness [7].On the other hand, the four broad categories of assets have been identified by Rogerson in 1999 for measuring poverty in the context of South African perspective these are; i. human capital, such as labour, education, health, ii. social and institutional assets, such as household relations, trust, access to decision-making, iii. natural resources, such as land, water, common property, and, iv. human made assets, such as housing, productive infrastructure, social infrastructure [8]. The individuals, households and communities have or secure access to and those who are these assets managed, they are less vulnerable, on the other hand, those who are the greater the losses of their assets have more insecurity and they have associated poverty [8]. However, poverty is a state of absolute economic deprivation in which the individual cannot independently have access to the basic human life-sustaining essentials such as food, clothing, protection, and shelter [3]. The Western societies have become less tolerant against poverty over time, on the other hand, Asian societies tolerate high economic inequality or poverty [9].
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Poverty and social transfers in Croatia

Poverty and social transfers in Croatia

Nevertheless, the relatively high efficiency of the total transfer system is overshad- owed by the very ineffective old-age and survivor pension system, which should be par- ticularly stressed, for this system is the largest transfer system, accounting for more than 40% of the expenditures for social security. The poverty rate reduction that can be attrib- uted to old-age and survivor pensions is one of the lowest in the countries compared (on average it is only half the reduction achieved in other countries). Our analysis has shown that poverty is concentrated among the elderly and pensioners. Pension receipts are very dependent on the state of the economy, trends in unemployment, regular payments of pension contributions. This means that important instruments in the fight against pover- ty lie outside the system of social transfers, or in the creation of new jobs and the devel- opment of human capital. Bearing in mind, though, the likely rates of unemployment and economic growth, social transfers will continue to have a key role in the alleviation of poverty. Hence there is the necessity to reform the main social security systems. For several years now Croatia has been carrying out a pension reform that is supposed to be able to obviate poverty among those included in the pensions system. For the moment it is hard to say how much the effect of this pension reform will be consistent with the forecasts derived from simulations. Apart from that, pension reform will not settle the question of poverty among the elderly population, for at least 20% of persons over 60 will not be covered by pension insurance. For this reason targeted programmes of wel- fare assistance need to be provided for this section of the elderly population, because in the foreseeable future it is hard to expect the introduction of any kind of basic pension. Assuredly, the future policy with respect to poverty in Croatia will be powerfully affect- ed by the success, or lack of it, of the pension (and health care) reform.
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Institutional synergy program national urbanself empowerment (pnpm-mp) for poverty reduction (case study inthe city of semarang, central java, indonesia)

Institutional synergy program national urbanself empowerment (pnpm-mp) for poverty reduction (case study inthe city of semarang, central java, indonesia)

PNPM - MP through partnership opportunities and channeling is a necessity in joint movement to combat poverty and into a collective consciousness that is critical in any community to accelerate obtaing poverty reduction targets. But that must be avoided is the interdependence of the various elements of due to process of partnership and co-operation is basically sharing the potential for to equality, to out put the process of problem solving and learning to the needs of the poor, through nudge a hierarchical empowerment, starting from they know - > they get - > they understand. But such situations are often not be the anxiety of the SKPD leaders, so that the partnership be interpreted only as a formal obligation on the orders of the leadership. With the result that the new BKM allowed to initiate institutional partnerships and channeling when they have been able to transform society towards people who are defendeless to be powerless, helpless people conceptually show that the BKM and urban communities have been able to internalize participatory methods of recycling programs (identification, planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation).
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Women Entrepreneurship and Poverty Alleviation in Nigeria

Women Entrepreneurship and Poverty Alleviation in Nigeria

During the last two decades, literature in academics has witnessed a surge of interest on female entrepreneurship in the global arena. According to Carter and Cannon (2011), women entrepreneurship is seen to attract considerable amount of attention as a subject of academic debate in its own right. Verhcuil (2012) posits that such interests are due mainly on the fact that female entrepreneurs are now considered important forces in economic growth and development of their nations which is the crux of poverty alleviation. Women entrepreneurs are women who take part in entrepreneurial activities either in full time, or part time small scale or large scale or even in a multinational environment. In support of the above, Chinonye (2010) affirmed that women entrepreneurs are simply women that participate in total entrepreneurial activities, who take risks involved in combining resources together in a unique way so as to take advantage of the opportunities identified in their immediate environments through the production of goods and services. This no doubt hinges on the fact that women have been and are still agents of poverty alleviation because any meaningful growth and development must address the tenets of poverty alleviation.
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Macroeconomic Policies for Poverty Reduction in Cambodia

Macroeconomic Policies for Poverty Reduction in Cambodia

There are several indices for measuring poverty, the most common of which are the headcount index, the poverty gap, and the more complex Sen and Foster, Greer and Thorbecke (FGT) indices. Data availability dictates that the measure used for quantitative poverty analyses and policy evaluations in Cambodia be the headcount index. The headcount index measure the proportion of the population whose income or consumption expenditures lies below the poverty line, which is defined as the cash equivalent of food consumption providing at least 2,100 calories of energy (plus 58 grams of protein) per person per day, plus a small allowance for non-food consumption to cover basic items like clothing and shelter. Data from household socioeconomic surveys conducted in 1993-94 and 1997 have been used to estimate the headcount index. This index and the aforementioned alternatives measure material deprivation and excludes dimensions of poverty reflected in low achievements in education and health, and vulnerability and exposure to risk addressed most recently by the World Bank’s World Development Report 2000/2001 (World Bank, 2001a).
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DEALING WITH THE PROBLEM OF HUNGER AND POVERTY ALLEVIATION BY SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT OF WATER RESOURCE SYSTEMS IN NIGERIA

DEALING WITH THE PROBLEM OF HUNGER AND POVERTY ALLEVIATION BY SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT OF WATER RESOURCE SYSTEMS IN NIGERIA

151 International Journal in Management and Social Science http://ijmr.net.in, Email: irjmss@gmail.com Unfortunately, the reduction of poverty in Nigeria (the goal of development) is made more difficult because of the extreme idealism and disregard of research support funds on climate change as well as overriding political and economic constraints especially high population growth rate. Based on these research findings, the writer suggests that sustainable management of water resources should be used as a strategy in rehabilitating much of the degenerating land. Improvement of poor Irrigation schemes therefore requires urgent attention. The development of appropriate rain fed agriculture, effective soil moisture conservation techniques, with a sustained population increase to drive agriculture are recommended to solve the present problem of developmental dilemma in food crop production in Nigeria.
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Social Protection of the Poverty: Problems and Solutions

Social Protection of the Poverty: Problems and Solutions

Over the past decade Russia has undergone substantial economic changes that have affected virtually all aspects of our society, including the social protection system (Gaisina et al., 2015). However, many social problems (unemployment, poverty, etc.) are not only outstanding but also greatly exacerbated in times of economic crisis (Sadykova et al., 2015). Attempts to “restore” the system of social protection of the population ongoing at present, unfortunately are not as effective as required by the social transformation processes. New approaches and mechanisms are enable to improve the efficiency of state social support for socially vulnerable population (Ustinova, 2014; Vaulina and Osipova, 2014).
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ROLE OF SELF HELP GROUP IN EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN

ROLE OF SELF HELP GROUP IN EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN

empowering and emboldening women by giving them more control the over assets and increasing their self esteem and knowledge. (Zaman, 2001) Above all, individually, a person tends to be insecure but group membership reduces the insecurity, makes him/her a more reliable borrower and provides access to community assets. Thus, the formation of a group would ensure best participation and the approach towards poverty alleviation should be „self help‟. This brings out the need for organising them into groups by which they get the benefit of collective perception, collective decision making and collective implementation of programmes for common benefit. This collective effort results from the balance between the driving forces that push for change and restraining forces that act against change. In order to make change happen, the balance of these forces must be altered so that the equilibrium moves.
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The Analysis and Countermeasures of the Psychological Problems of Impoverished Undergraduates

The Analysis and Countermeasures of the Psychological Problems of Impoverished Undergraduates

Based on the reasons above, in order to eliminate the psychological problems, we must establish a psychological poverty alleviation system which contains society, school and family. First of all we should promote moral norms, and establish a national struggle, awareness of equality, to stimulate the community to understand and support the poor groups, to build a humane, mutual aid, harmonious social atmosphere. At the same time, we should promote the positive factors, create more opportunities for social success with them to communicate and discuss, to improve their ability to resist frustration and confidence. We also should create atmosphere that" Self-reliance and glory "," economic poverty is not terrible, spiritual poverty is shameful ". To carry out" self-reliance advanced pacesetter "selection, and widely publicized in the poor population. So that they can realize that through their own efforts, everything is possible. School also should obtain accurate information through the multi-understanding for the poor families of the family situation, the economic situation, etc. We can set up the information network which between school and family, to targeted education through communication with parents to understand the growth of poor students’ experience. We can affect the way of education of their family through letters, calls, face to face exchange, home visits. So that they can support, understand the students, to help them healthy growth in all aspects.
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EXAMINING THE IMPACT OF SUSTAINABLE PROCUREMENT ON VALUE FOR MONEY AND POVERTY REDUCTION

EXAMINING THE IMPACT OF SUSTAINABLE PROCUREMENT ON VALUE FOR MONEY AND POVERTY REDUCTION

Licensed under Creative Common Page 185 The estimates give a summary for Panel Dynamic ordinary least squares. The results in Table above indicates that inflation and labour have no significant impact on poverty alleviation from 1990-2017 in the study areas. This result of inflation in this study consistent with a study investigated by Jeanneney and Kpodar (2011). Fischer (1993) stated that inflation is bad for growth and definitely will increase poverty. Cardoso (1992) also confirmed that inflation has no significance on poverty reduction in his study “Inflation and Poverty”. Again, a study by Otsuka, Estudillo, and Yamano (2010) confirm the results that labour has no significant impact on poverty alleviation and also goes contrary to that of (Hung, 2005).
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The church and poverty alleviation in Nigeria

The church and poverty alleviation in Nigeria

There are constraints for effective implementation of poverty reduction programmes in Nigeria, which include corruption and mismanagement, ineffective targeting of the poor leading to leakage of benefits to unintended beneficiaries, poor design and implementation, deficient infrastructural facilities, poor funding of programmes and political and policy instability (Obadan 2002). All these point to bad governance and over-centralisation of power which have become the bane of the country. Because of the different and numerous interests in the country, it is difficult to carry out a holistic and comprehensive poverty reduction programme that would fit and satisfy the six geopolitical zones. Although some pocket successes have been made in areas of agriculture, education and provision of primary health care, poverty still remains high in the country. Each government that comes into power relegates what the previous government has started. The constant change in poverty reduction programmes does not allow the people to completely embrace the policies and for the policies to make the expected impact. The gimmick on poverty eradication has become the campaign slogan and means for government officials to enrich themselves at the expense of the poor. In some cases, the philosophy behind these programmes is of little or no relevance for the people. For example, some states of the federation empowered their unemployed graduates with Keke NAPEP and as road sweepers. Even the federal government vouched to give unemployed youths monthly stipends. Innovative as these may seem, they simply impoverish not only the pockets of these poor people who
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MICRO INSURANCE: GROWTH AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT TOOL FOR GRASS ROOT PEOPLE IN INDIA

MICRO INSURANCE: GROWTH AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT TOOL FOR GRASS ROOT PEOPLE IN INDIA

A paired-samples t-test was used to elucidate whether there was a statistically significant mean difference between the before taking micro insurance (expectations) and after taking micro insurance (Observation).  In the pair 1 to 9 Ho‟s has been rejected (Peace of mind, Financial security, Hedging against manmade & natural risks, Cover the emergency expenditures (risk occurs), Expansion of business, opportunities/Employment/ Earning potential,Expansion of social security & equality, Empowerment of weaker sections of the society, Expansion of Income of underprivileged people & Expansion of general awareness & knowledge of people) because it is assessed from the test a statistically significant difference is come as the value Sig. (2-tailed) of all the parameters is below the p-value of .05.
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Social determinants of inequities in under-nutrition (weight-for-age) among under-5 children: a cross sectional study in Gumla district of Jharkhand, India

Social determinants of inequities in under-nutrition (weight-for-age) among under-5 children: a cross sectional study in Gumla district of Jharkhand, India

Economic condition of a household influences its ac- cess to quality living condition and services needed to maintain good health. It affects material resources at dis- posal of the household, also influencing its esteem and social standing relevant for participation in society [6]. Income and occupation could be a good indicators of economic condition, yet sometime it is difficult to obtain reliable information, when a large section of population is engaged in informal sector; in such cases proxy mea- sures like living standards are used [7]. Principal Compo- nent Analysis is increasingly being used to differentiate socio-economic status (SES) within a population [8, 9].
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