Top PDF Poverty Alleviation in Indonesia (An Empirical Review)

Poverty Alleviation in Indonesia (An Empirical Review)

Poverty Alleviation in Indonesia (An Empirical Review)

(KIS) and other programs related to poverty reduction (Irwan and Romdiati 2000 ; Yusdja et al: 2003). Such efforts have been recognized, especially by the World Food Organization (Food and Agricultural Organization / FAO) which Indonesia managed to reduce poverty from 54.2 million people in 1976 and only 22.5 million people in 1996 (Hendayana and Darmawan, 1995; Irawan and Romdiati, 2000). Factors that contribute to poverty reduction go round development of large-scale agriculture and non agriculture based construction and finance industries and services during the 1970s until 1990's. While this development is done by using foreign debt, but it has created a lot of employment opportunities. Social progress, economic and political stability as well as the potential of the domestic market has prompted many domestic and foreign investors to invest in Indonesia.
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Institutional of local public sector: poverty alleviation in semarang city, central java, indonesia

Institutional of local public sector: poverty alleviation in semarang city, central java, indonesia

An institutional is a process and interaction of a community which is involving an organization as implementor in achieving its goals. Purpose of Urban Community Empowerment National Program (UCENP/PNPM-MP) Institutional is for effectiveness in impementing poverty alleviation by local Institutional (Community Self-Reliance Board/BKM). The research problem is “how Institutional Of Local Public Sector In Semarang City, Central Java, Indonesiarelating poverty alleviation. The Research approach deploying is qualitative phenomenological; that is in-depth interview, observation, FGD, and documentation. Analysis technical has been used by interactive model, the technical analysis is as integral cyclus among data collecting, data reduction, data display and conclusing. The main variable in this study is leadership, doctrine, resources, internal structural. Research findings included institutional of local public sector in village and basic (BKM) was ineffectively making bounded horizontally and vertically, and it was assumed as a programmed product and yet institutionalized in poverty reduction.
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Role of Social Workers in Facilitating of the Poverty Alleviation Program in Indonesia

Role of Social Workers in Facilitating of the Poverty Alleviation Program in Indonesia

The vulnerable population in and out of poverty. The data shows that the number of poor people has ups and downs. At the beginning of the five-year development, the number/percentage of poor people reached 40.01 percent (in 1976). Within 20 years, it dropped to 11.7 percent in 1996. But in 1997 it increased again to 17.7 percent and in 1998 to 24.2 percent. Since 1998 until now 2016 has gradually decreased but often fluctuated. In the downward trend, the surge occurred in 2006 to 17.75 from 15.97 in the previous year, 2005. The smaller percentage of poor people on a smaller scale again occurred in 2013 in March 11.37 to 11.47 in September. In absolute numbers from 28.01 million people to 28.55 million people. That is, there are as many as 540,000 people who in March were not poor to poor in September (https://www.bps.go.id/link TabelStatis /view/id/1494 accessed on July 12, 2017). Overall, the rise and fall of the percentage of poor people imply that there are vulnerable groups of people falling back below the poverty line. The conditions of vulnerability need to be given attention. They cannot be considered "safe". Without protection, this vulnerable population group may fall back on time. Furthermore, if the poverty line margin is slightly shifted higher than the number/percentage of the poor will immediately jump.
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Contribution Of Human Development Index On Per Capita Income Growth And Poverty Alleviation In Indonesia

Contribution Of Human Development Index On Per Capita Income Growth And Poverty Alleviation In Indonesia

3. Third, Gelaw (2010) used the data panel covers 18 towns in Ethiopia and time-series from 1994 until 2004, with the result that the decline in poverty has been ruled out by the objective of development policies. The result was that overall poverty decreased 12.6% in 10 years. But instead, this decline was the result of a one time decreased drastically (40%) in the observation in 1995-1997. In addition to the increased poverty and inequality were also quite high. Variation between areas of inequality and poverty were not only great but also there was no tendency to decrease. 3/4 of the entire inequality occurred in rural inequalities and the remaining 1/4 between rural imbalances occured. The consequences of the allocation of the pure and inequality largely due to changes in inequality, while due to the distribution of income are highly marginal.
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Zakah Management for Poverty Alleviation in Indonesia and Brunei Darussalam

Zakah Management for Poverty Alleviation in Indonesia and Brunei Darussalam

Ziauddin Ahmad (1991, 59) presents a description of the pattern of zakat as an instrument of social security which is part of the broader Islamic system and integrated poverty reduction and income distribution. Sadeq (1994, 29) wrote alms giving an overview of the economic, legal, and administrative instruments charity. Shirazi (1996, 22-23) conduct an intensive economic analysis of the contribution of zakat system for poverty alleviation in Pakistan. He also conducted a critical assessment of zakat collection and disbursement mechanism in Pakistan. Some work Umar Chapra (1993 & 2000, 207) also provide an important contribution to the development of Islamic economics which contains entries on the subject of charity. Nejatullah M. Siddiqi (1996, 24-25) also provide an important attribute for the role of charity in the context of the country's obligations to provide the fulfillment of basic needs in Islamic economics.
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Entrepreneurship Development and Poverty Alleviation: An Empirical Review

Entrepreneurship Development and Poverty Alleviation: An Empirical Review

G. Singh and R. Belwal in 2008 tried to identify the problem areas and developmental issues involved with women‟s entrepreneurship particularly in Addis Ababa, the capital city of Ethiopia. They attempted to identify the problem areas in terms of nature, needs, desire, motivations and problems of women entrepreneurs in Ethiopia by an extensive review of the existing literature. And, then they incorporated a ground survey and focused interviews with groups of female entrepreneurs for assessing the factors related to entrepreneurship. The focused interview identified problems in the areas of securing finances for establishing and running small and medium enterprises, lack of entrepreneurial and management competence and exposure, problems in finding the markets and distribution networks; limited opportunities for promotion and participation; limited amount of government and institutional support; absence of technological know-how and integration mechanism; and rampant corruption in an undisguised or disguised form, as major bottlenecks [26].
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Institutional synergy program national urbanself empowerment (pnpm-mp) for poverty reduction (case study inthe city of semarang, central java, indonesia)

Institutional synergy program national urbanself empowerment (pnpm-mp) for poverty reduction (case study inthe city of semarang, central java, indonesia)

MP by the government, the city of put poverty alleviation as the main priority of development policy-based on the data in Semarang poverty show that poverty target not in line with quantitative results obtained verification Bappeda Semarang poverty rate The problem in this study were: 1). In what Institutional Synergy of MP In Semarang on poverty reduction? 2). What aspects of the institutional synergy implementation of PNPM-MP in of institutional synergy PNPM-MP in Semarang this study is: 1). descripting, analysising and of PNPM-MP in Semarang on poverty reduction, 2). descripting, analysising and interpretating aspects of the enabling and constraining institutional synergy implementation of PNPM-MP in Semarang on poverty reduction. 3). Formulating proposed institutional synergy model of PNPM-MP in This study result shows: the implementation of PNPM-MP city is not optimal, especially not synergic integration synergies between actors), institutional programs, coordination among programs, partnerships and institutional cooperation (government, business, community), because of factors of institutional coordination, policy and budgeting, human resources as the driving and inhibiting factors in poverty reduction. Recommendations based on these results is, to build a model of institutional synergy MP by giving more authority to the role of the Community Self- reliance (BKM) at Power in synergy with various stakeholders and coordinated by the Regional Poverty Reduction Coordination Team (TKPK-D)
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Microfinance and Rural Poverty Alleviation: A Reality?

Microfinance and Rural Poverty Alleviation: A Reality?

Therefore, the overall results revealed that the microfinance beneficiaries have higher level of education, greater increase in household size, greater level of sales, greater level of income and moderate improvement in health standard than the non-beneficiaries from the loan programme. This indicates that microfinance loans extended to the rural poor have transformed their wellbeing. These assertions can be justified by the success glory ascribed to microfinance institutions in some parts of the world. For instance, Amanah Ikhtiar Malaysia (AIM) in Malaysia, Bank of Rakyat in Indonesia and Grameen Bank in Bangladesh (to mention three) have performed creditably towards the poverty reduction and increase in income of the rural poor households in their respective domains. In addition, the notion that microfinance can contribute towards the poverty reduction by increase in income, improved health standard, increase in the level of education and others have been confirmed by various studies (for example, Asghar (2012); Green et.al. (2006); Jha and Dang, (2010); Bashir, et.al., (2010); Muller and Bibi, (2010), Otu and Eko, (2011); Smith, (2010); Arun, et.al (2006); Khalily, (2004).
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The Role Of Forestry In Poverty Alleviation In Kenya

The Role Of Forestry In Poverty Alleviation In Kenya

Decomposition of income in the region shows that forestry had the least contribution to average income per person. However, this scenario was due to non-monetization of non-timber forest products (NTFPs), most of which were consumed locally. The effect of forest income on poverty indices is critical in understanding the contribution of forests in alleviating poverty in the area. The findings showed a marked difference in poverty indices between those respondents with forestry income and those without. 62.2% of those households dependent on forestry income fall below the poverty line compared to 86.2% in those households not relying on it as reflected by the head count indices. Similarly, the poverty gap indices for the two categories of households were 0.571 and 0.701 respectively. There was also marked differences in FGT indices, which were 0.292 and 0.453 for respondents with forestry income and those without it. This fact demonstrated that forests accorded poor people an extra opportunity to generate income. The analysis tended to suggest that income from forestry has a positive effect on selected poverty indices, and therefore was a useful resource in alleviating poverty. When household incomes were disaggregated, it was observed that most of the respondents with high income from regular sources (dairy, agriculture) were the same ones earning some income from forestry. This scenario implied that in order to generate income from forestry, it required one to have adequate capital to be able to invest in this sub-sector. This may be explained by the fact that timber, which was the product traded in the area, needed sufficient starting capital which was supplied from other regular sources. There, therefore, existed some relationship between the various sources of income and forestry. Forest income was only useful in supplementing household income. This may be justified further by the fact that among the surveyed respondents, none was solely relying on forestry income for livelihood. It is however important to note that the above indices might have
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Poverty and Crime: Impact of socioeconomic factors on crime in India

Poverty and Crime: Impact of socioeconomic factors on crime in India

High crime rate plagues several countries and has detrimental multi dimensional effects. Most importantly, it tends to hamper standard of living and the overall quality of life. Also, there is a potential vicious cycle between crime, unemployment and poverty. Prevalent criminal activities erode employment opportunities and are exacerbated by high unemployment rates. This further leads to increase in poverty rates through lack of accumulation of assets. On another dimension, crime can increase the cost of doing business thereby affecting entrepreneurial activities and overall business climate of a country. In worst circumstances, it might even ‘ drive out foreign as well as domestic investments and decrease availability of productive labour and skilled manpower’ (Dutta and Husain, 2009). Due to an absence of safety nets and lack of resources for poor in developing countries, crime also has additional costs for these people. Consequently, the poor are unable to mitigate the resulting loss of productivity which further affects their livelihood options (UN, 2005). World Bank (2006) estimated that a 10 percent reduction in the homicide rate may raise per capita income of Brazil by 0.2 - 0.8 per cent over the next five years. Thus, crime might undermine development goals and strategies of developing countries.
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Poverty alleviation in India and Kerala: An overview

Poverty alleviation in India and Kerala: An overview

Since the 1990s, the Indian government has been focussed on including indices of deprivation other than income poverty and in this regard, carried out ‘below poverty line’ census since 1992 (then in 1997 and in 2002). The 1992 BPL Census used the national income poverty line of Rupees 11000 per household to identify BPL households. The focus of this Census was to identify poor households and not poor individuals. A door-to-door enumeration collecting self-reported income data of the household was carried out by the Ministry of Rural Development of all the rural households in the country. Detailed guidelines were provided to enumerators to assess the annual income of the rural households. The 1992 BPL Census reported that around 52.5% of the rural population was estimated to be living in poverty. The 1997 BPL Census however, was different from the 1992 BPL Census in two ways: firstly, it excluded the visibly non-poor (by excluding e.g., households which possessed certain consumer durables such as television, refrigerator, whether households owned more than 2 hectares of land) and secondly, in addition to income data, it used a range of criteria to determine the total consumption expenditure from the remaining, visibly poor households. Then based on the poverty line set by the Planning Commission on the basis of per capita consumption expenditure, households were identified as BPL or not (Alkire and Seth 2009; Saxena 2009)
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Research on the Rationality of Precision Poverty Alleviation

Research on the Rationality of Precision Poverty Alleviation

As an innovative poverty alleviation theory, Precision poverty alleviation is far from enough in terms of research breadth and depth, and there is a big gap be- tween theoretical research and practical operation. At present, some scholars analyze and study the dialectical thinking logic of Precision poverty alleviation from the perspective of philosophy. For example, Xie Pingan’s Philosophical Thinking On “ Precision Poverty Alleviation ” describes the specific meaning, characteristics, methods and practical significance of “Precision poverty allevia- tion” from a philosophical perspective [2]. The author also thinks that accurately grasp internal cause and external cause for poverty alleviation, the poor people and the poor areas is the internal cause, support units, cadres and policy is the external cause, “only to catch the regional poverty internal cause, both the ex- ternal cause at the same time, by flexible and reasonable measures, suit the re- medy to the case, can really make in the phase of poverty population out of po- verty.” [2] It from the particularity of contradiction and all from the reality to discuss the precision of poverty alleviation philosophical method. Some scholars think about Precision poverty alleviation from the perspective of theory and re- ality. For example, Wang Sitie believes that Precision poverty alleviation is a po- verty alleviation method that USES scientific and effective procedures to pre- cisely identify, precisely assist and precisely manage poverty-stricken objects ac- cording to different environments and conditions of poverty-stricken farmers in different poverty-stricken areas [3]. Li Kun, Ye XingJian in Precision Poverty Alleviation in Rural Areas: Theoretical Basis and Practical Situation Analysis claim that accurate poverty alleviation of poverty reduction concept such as is both a pro-poor type means of poverty reduction from traces the rights poverty of theory and inclusive growth poverty concept, the concept of participatory po- verty alleviation, and collaborative anti-poverty theory, trickle-down theory and pro-poor theory, and pay attention to the cooperative poverty alleviation mul- ti-party participation, coordination [4]. Wang Sangui and Guo ZiHao believe that the most basic definition of Precision poverty alleviation is that poverty al- leviation policies and measures should be Precision at the truly poor families and population, and various factors and obstacles leading to poverty should be fun- damentally eliminated through Precision assistance to the poor population, so as to achieve the goal of sustainable poverty alleviation [5].
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Poverty Alleviation and Social Protection in Pakistan

Poverty Alleviation and Social Protection in Pakistan

social protection as well as an hindrance to introducing one by the state. A general perception that families, tribes and communities take care of the poor members was also used to justify limited initiatives by state. At the same time one fails to find a sustained mass movement of poor or labourers demanding exclusive pro-poor development strategy. This was presumably because of accommodative value system of the people, an interactive outcome of culture, religion and centuries old domination by foreign powers, and tight grip of those at the helm of affairs. Finally it is also believed that the coalition of policy and decision makers in Pakistan prefers to retain paternalism and dependency which explains their reluctance to introduce any measures which was right based such as, the generalized social security or social protection. Social protection is often used interchangeably with social security and social safety nets, though all three differ both analytically and in terns of implications. The existing Social security is attributable to ILOs convention of 1952, addresses three essential features – income protection, health provision and child related benefits. But it is confined to public sector employees and to part of the formal sector workers while the remaining majority is excluded. It is however right based. Social safety nets on the other hand entail instruments to alleviate poverty. Besides through the implementation of SSN acceptability of market reforms and changes are supposed to be enhanced as these are envisaged to address the casualties of growth under the globalization .Social protection is a right based approach and carries the notion of public provisioning and guarantees a societally acceptable standards of living to all.
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Poverty and it's Alleviation: Lessons for Nigeria

Poverty and it's Alleviation: Lessons for Nigeria

Actually, the above are the part and parcel of the ailments and features of what is obtainable in Nigeria. There is denial of opportunity and choice of work, education, place of settlement andregular violation of human right by the leaders and the people. The average populace is not fully empowered to have a say on issues and policies affecting them. Inability to secure enough to feed self and family members have resulted to upsurge of different forms of crimes such as obtaining by tricks, robbery, corruption, ritual killing, kidnapping, prostitution amongst others. The situation compelled few Nigerians to accept being refugees in another country even when there is no war.In addition, the land ownership system cut-off many Nigerians from access to land for farming or erecting a living batcher and embargo on public sector employment in some establishments, poor infrastructure, non-conducive environment for business activity, epileptic power supply, lack of portable water, low investment in the country gave rise to inability to secure a job or delve into business so as to generate income to improve living standard. Besides, no bank credit facilities to assist indigent students or local entrepreneurs who want to improve education or business venture. Hence, the people of the country are caught up in the vicious circle of poverty.
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Women Entrepreneurship and Poverty Alleviation in Nigeria

Women Entrepreneurship and Poverty Alleviation in Nigeria

The contribution of women is highly needed in Nigeria now that many poverty alleviation programs introduced by successive governments failed to achieve their objectives. Agbionu (2013) stated that one of the major reasons for the failure was because many of the programs were usually politically motivated with selfish interests. For instance Eyuiche (2010) stated that Obasanjo led PDP government announced a ten billion naira poverty alleviation program sometime in May 2000. The program was criticized according to the report for its political undertone. The critics confirmed that the money was used to attract voters to PDP. Specifically, the report stated that ₦3, 500 of the money was given to each of the relations of party members while the poor people were left out. Many other programs aimed at alleviating poverty in Nigeria have all failed as well because of insincerity of the policy makers and policy implementers. Some of the policies for poverty alleviation would have yielded fantastic results but selfishness, insincerity, and other social ills crippled them. This is why poverty in Nigeria has persisted and if drastic measures are not put in place to address it, it will definitely drag the name and reputation of Nigeria to the mud hence this study. In addition to the view above, McConnel (2007) is of the opinion that women have enormous potential to bring prosperity in the world and therefore encouraging women entrepreneurship is very important.
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A Move towards Rural Development in India: An Overview

A Move towards Rural Development in India: An Overview

intended to reach the poorest household first in order to strengthen the weakest segments of the society. It was a multi-level, multi-sector and multi-section program which was started at all levels i.e. Village, Block and District. In term of multi sector concept it included development of various sector of rural economy such as agriculture, industry, economic infrastructure and many social services. Finally in the perspective of multi-sections program it aimed at to combat the rural poverty including the small and marginal farmers, artisans, landless labourers, schedule caste and schedule tribes in rural India.  Indira Awas Yojana (IAY): This
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Drivers of Poverty Alleviation Process: Empirical Study of Community Based Organizations from India

Drivers of Poverty Alleviation Process: Empirical Study of Community Based Organizations from India

Poverty is a disease across the world and a chronic disease in the developing countries like India. Just less than 3 years away from Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) deadline of 2015, 38% people of the total population of 1020 million are below poverty line in 2013. India reduced multidimensional poverty significantly between 1999 and 2006, but the poverty reduction was uneven across the states and social groups. India will take another 41 years to reduce poverty to level zero if the poverty reduction rate and other compelling factors remain constant 3 . Participation and inclusion are central to a new approach to poverty reduction. Participation in economic activities coupled with inclusive growth is paramount to the process of poverty reduction programs. Rather than merely cash transfer schemes and unemployment allowances, the governments are emphasizing on framing policies to create institutions, systems and processes to bring poor people in economic participation. Policies are enabling civil societies and small & medium size enterprises to become participative in poverty reduction programs through empowering communities. Community based organizations like cooperatives, special companies, societies, trust, Self Help Group (SHG) are ideal instruments in such strategy. Such organizations have proven to be key organizational form in building new models to combat social exclusion and poverty. Community based organizations may be self initiated or supported through NGOs, business and government. The organizations may be formally registered as cooperative society or public trust or society under Society Registration Act 1860 or company under Companies Act 1956 or may be informal like Self-Help-Group (SHG). Cooperatives, as a socio-economic business enterprise empower people by enabling even the poorest segments of
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Poverty Alleviation and Unemployment Scenario in India

Poverty Alleviation and Unemployment Scenario in India

SGSY, launched in April 1999, aims at bringing the assisted poor families (Swarozgaris) above the poverty line by organizing them into Self Help Groups (SHGs) through a mix of Bank credit and Government subsidy. In this scheme IRDP and other programmes have been included. Under this scheme, poor are granted bank loans and subsidies to establish small enterprises. This scheme is centrally sponsored on 75: 25 basis, by centre and states. From this programme about 121 lakh self-employed persons were benefited upto 2009. Rs. 27183 crore was spent on this plan in 2008-09.
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ROLE OF SELF HELP GROUP IN EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN

ROLE OF SELF HELP GROUP IN EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN

empowering and emboldening women by giving them more control the over assets and increasing their self esteem and knowledge. (Zaman, 2001) Above all, individually, a person tends to be insecure but group membership reduces the insecurity, makes him/her a more reliable borrower and provides access to community assets. Thus, the formation of a group would ensure best participation and the approach towards poverty alleviation should be „self help‟. This brings out the need for organising them into groups by which they get the benefit of collective perception, collective decision making and collective implementation of programmes for common benefit. This collective effort results from the balance between the driving forces that push for change and restraining forces that act against change. In order to make change happen, the balance of these forces must be altered so that the equilibrium moves.
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Microfinance and Poverty Alleviation

Microfinance and Poverty Alleviation

The argument for the minimalist approach is that unless the MFI is financially sustainable, it will be unable to grow, and thus, will exclude thousands of potential clients who could be helped by access to microcredit (Murdoch and Haley 2002). Jonathan Murdoch and Barbara Haley, co-authors of Analysis of the Effects of Microfinance on Poverty Reduction argue that “combining financial services with training, education or other components is also viewed as attempting to mix ‘business’ and ‘welfare’. This is seen as compromising the business orientation of microfinance” (Murdoch and Haley 2002). Also, if an MFI is forced to depend on subsidy and the pool of funding suddenly dries up, the entire institution will collapse. Promoters of the minimalist approach point out the widespread failure of MFIs who try to provide multiple services to their clients and are unable to fund charitable ventures (Bhatt and Tang 2001:2). Minimalists insist that it is necessary to achieve financial sustainability first. Then, when sufficient profit has been accumulated, the MFI can look into the possibility of providing training and educational services.
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