The arrival of ‘easy to use’ scheduling tools with a graphical interface radically changed the industry. Scheduling migrated to the desktop and the myth that ‘anyone’ can schedule (provided they knew how to switch on a PC) emerged. Many people learned ‘scheduling’ from using tools like Microsoft Project. There was no training or oversight and as a consequence, the average schedule is littered with ‘fixes’ allowed or encouraged by the tool. The trend has been towards a focus on computer processes and getting a schedule ‘looking right’ rather than analysing a project to determine the appropriate duration based on appropriate resource availabilities and designing the schedule to be an effective management tool in the context of each specific project ss .
The complete unpredictability of Nonlinearity is counteracted by the idea of Strange Attractors. Strange Attractors are most easily thought of as recurring patterns that have quasi-predictable features. The behaviour of dynamical systems in nature, such as the weather, has a degree of predictability. However, dynamical systems can follow a number of qualitatively different attractors depending on minute changes in their initial starting condition and the effect of external influences. The idea of a normal degree of predictability underpins modern civilisation 7 and most project processes including estimating, scheduling and risk analysis; however, the actual outcomes are highly dependent on the starting condition and the Strange Attractors encountered along the way (Cooke-Davies, et al. 2007).
Hopefully the advent of scheduling SIGs and Campuses in Australia will serve to educate and inform schedulers on their most useful role supporting the project manager; and the advent of a scheduling certification will encourage schedulers to be trained in more than the nuances of their preferred tool. Whilst it is essential schedulers know how to run their software and understand its capabilities and limitations, knowing why they are working on a schedule is probably more important.
Equally important, in the years since 1935, the Social Security program has been broadened to include sur vivors benefits, disability benefits, health-care benefits and automatic cost-of-living adjustments. It is a dynam ic program that has changed over time to meet chang ing circumstances. And, largely because of this respon siveness to changing needs, the Social Security program has also become the most successful, most popular domestic government program in the nation’s history. The 21st century brings with it new challenges, including an aging nation and a continuing need to provide income security for workers and their families in retirement, or in the event of the disability or death of a wage earner. I believe that this briefhistory of Social Security will help provide perspective and under- standing about the role of social insurance in American life, and help us shape a program that is responsive to the changing needs of a new century.
exhaust the target server resources to the point that it would interrupt normal operation of the server. Politeness was the concept introduced to put a cap on the number of requests sent to a web-server per unit of time. A polite web crawler avoids launch- ing an inadvertent DoS attack on the target server. Another old problem that web crawlers faced are traps. Traps are seemingly large set of websites with arbitrary data that are meant to waste the web crawler resources. Integration of black-lists al- lowed web crawlers to avoid traps. Among the challenges web crawlers faced in the mid 90s was scalability . Throughout the history of web- crawling, the exponential growth of the web and its constantly evolving nature has been hard to match by web crawlers. In addition to these requirements, the web crawler’s model of application should be correct and reflect true content and structure of the application.
In 1929, Michael Davis published his book Hospital Administra- tion, A Career: The Need for Trained Executives for a Billion Dollar Busi- ness, and How They May Be Trained, proposing a two-year graduate degree curriculum in hospital administration. The first year of this curriculum was centered on coursework in accounting, statistics, management, economics and the social sciences, and the history of hospitals and the health professions, with limited practical observa- tion. The second year was mostly spent in practical work with some coursework in business policy, public health, and labor relations.
Abstract: The history of mycology in Iran is presented in five periods. In the first period (until 1860) there is no sign of Iranian fungi in scientific literature. In the second period (1860–1941) the study of Iranian fungi was started by foreign mycologists who did not visit Iran but worked on plant material collected by botanists. In the third period (1941– 1963) the study of Iranian fungi was started by a first generation of Iranian mycologists and also fungal plant pathology was started in Iran. A second generation of Iranian mycologists used pure culture technique in the fourth period (1963–2000). In this period mycology was taught separately from botany and plant pathology at universities, and MSc and PhD courses were initiated at some universities. In the fifth period (from 2000), a third generation of Iranian mycologists used molecular techniques to study Iranian fungi. An Asian Mycological Congress was held in Iran in 2001; the Iranian Mycological Society was founded in 2010; an MSc course of mycology was initiated at Esfahan University; the first Iranian Mycological Congress was held at Gilan University in 2013, and the first Iranian mycological journal (Mycologia Iranica) was launched.
There is still a pre-eminence of educational applications for Serious Games and the research field itself is still driven forward by external partnerships – particularly the military. Moreover, the difficult of pin-pointing the first Serious Game as we under- stand it today, speaks to current debates in their definition. Again, a debate that has existed since the researchers began to study ‘play’. Another key characteristic that is apparent through the history and pre-history of Serious Games is an optimistic sense of expectancy of the potential of games. This sense of expectancy was perhaps best cap- tured by the work of Duke and Jenkins – written 33 years apart. So it can be said then that games and by extension Serious Games are a language and a medium of the future but with a rich and storied past.
Dr. John Willis The various chiropractic colleges which have co-spon- sored the AHC’s annual Conference on Chiropractic His- tory (see Table 1) are noteworthy for their financial aid, especially given that low attendance has sometimes pro- duced a net financial loss. The Association of Chiropractic Colleges deserves mention as a repeated co-sponsor of paper sessions at the AHC conferences and at their own annual convention, and as one of several major financial supporters of the AHC (see Table 16). The National Chiropractic Mutual Insurance Company has been the greatest single contributor to the AHC’s coffers. The AHC is grateful also to Dynamic Chiropractic for its many in kind contributions, most especially its creation and co-management of the Association’s website (www.chirohistory.org). A partnering arrangement with the National Institute of Chiropractic Research (NICR) has provided up to $1,000 in annual prize money for the best student history paper presented at the AHC confer- ences. The NICR also operates a fund for chiropractic historical research and preservation efforts, and has made a number of small grants (less than US$2,000) to several AHC members to assist in their scholarly projects.
A briefhistory of PTSD: An understanding of PTSD has to start by looking back through the history of psychiatry. Unlike many other areas of medicine where scientists have long ago been able to, for example, identify the virus that causes an infection or the genetic mutation that causes a particular syndrome, in psychiatry, we have had to rely mostly on observations and descriptions of abnormal mental states while waiting for the researchers to figure out what is happening in the brain to cause mental illnesses. We have known about the existence of PTSD far longer than we have known about what is happening in the brain to cause PTSD. Historical documents from insane asylums dating back to the 1800s include trauma-related diagnoses 1 that were the forerunners to PTSD such as Exposure in the Army; The War; Shooting of Daughter; Gunshot Wound; Ill Treatment by Husband; and Death of Sons in War as reasons that individuals were admitted for mental health treatment at the time. By the time of the world wars, reports began to emerge from the battlefield of a condition that was termed shell-shock or combat stress disorder. Battlefield doctors recognized a collection of soldiers whom, after encountering the life-threatening horrors of war, developed not only (or not necessarily)
The history of India provides both an inspiration and a challenge to the historian. It inspires by its vast range and scope, its color, its variety, its rich cluster of personalities; it challenges with its complexities, its long periods of obscurity, its unfamiliar movements, and its stark contrasts between luxury and poverty, between gentleness and cruelty, creation and destruction. To the few for gorgeous processions What's more rainbow display there were a significant number with mud huts Also a handful about rice alternately millet a day, for those smoldering paradise for An shade and the smothering tidy to aroma. Indian historical backdrop will be similarly as of age as the history from claiming humankind. Artifacts dating back to as much as 500, 000 years have been found. India's history and society will be ancient administration Also dynamic, spanning once again of the starting about human progress. Starting for a complex society along the Indus stream What's more On cultivating groups in the southern grounds for India. The historical backdrop about India will be one punctuated Eventually Tom's perusing steady integrative for migrating people groups and with those different societies that encompass India. Put in the focal point of Asia, historical backdrop clinched alongside India is a junction for societies from china will Europe, and the mossy cup oak critical Asian association for those societies about Africa. India is a land of religions, languages and customs. Many religions are flourishing here since longback, which have their own traditions and beliefs. Consequently India is a multi-religious and multi-culturalcountry from its identified history. It was never mono-religious or mono- cultural. The number of invasionsand incursions from Aryans to Mughals added to religious, cultural and linguistic pluralism. Britishcolonialism also contributed to its cultural and religious multiplicity. Therefore with every invasion andincursion Indian society became more and more complex and rich. Possibly no other society of the worldis as multi-cultural and multi-religious as Indian society. Indian society is like a mighty river fed with numerous tributaries and themain stream flows on and on. Therefore, Indian society is very rich, and well known for wisdom and great thoughts.
Funding valuation adjustment (FVA) is the funding cost of hedging an uncolla- teralised client trade. It has caused controversy very early in its young history. Its economic value, accounting treatment, and even philosophical meaning were debated for several months by academic and practitioners alike, creating two rather clearly distinct camps. Through the pages of Risk, John Hull and Alan White (Hull and White, 2012a) voiced their opinion, stating: “ FVA should not be considered when determining the value of a derivatives portfolio, and it should not be consi- dered when determining the prices the dealer should charge when buying or selling derivatives. ” To support this conclusion, they assume complete and perfectly effi- cient markets and they rely on the Modigliani-Miller theorem, according to which the price of an asset does not depend on the way it is funded.
sufficient standardization in performing the test. The multiple nature of the test may be the cause: the test is actually a group of six tests peformed in six directions at each intervertebral level. The palpation pressure and the interpretive aspects of the examiner’s tactile perception are other elements to be standardized. In addition, using students without a history of mechanical problems of the spine as subjects is not representative of the usual clinical clientele and could lead to a search for injuries that are too subtle. This pilot-study performed on typical patients, limits the test to the cervical region in only one direction of movement and also standardizes the other parameters of the test. This results in greater reliability between examiners than demonstrated until now. Statistical significance tables established for this type of testing have revealed reliability from moderate to very strong. In the final analysis, the author’s observations clearly illustrate the significant effect of standardization of the test on results obtained outside the study.
Because of the absence of previous research, the ques- tionnaire included 40 questions covering a broad range of issues. The first five questions were fill-in and asked the respondents for age, sex and other general demographic information. This was followed by 28 questions related to the following; the purpose of maintenance care, the types of conditions or body systems that benefit most, which age groups derive the most benefit, and what therapies or treat- ment interventions are included. These 28 questions used a 5 point Likert scale format. The scale permitted a range of responses from ‘strongly agree’ to ‘strongly disagree’. The final 7 questions solicited a brief fill-in response. This con- cluding part of the survey requested information about how frequently maintenance care is recommended, how many comply with the recommendations and the financial impact of providing these services.
tive study of 46 children aged 5 years and under with a history of ear infections were treated using SOT blocking techniques, modified applied kinesiology and adjustments of the atlas and occiput. Based on parental opinion, doctor opinion and the judgement of the child’s pediatrician, 93% of children were reported to have demonstrated improve- ment. Seventy-five percent of the children who displayed improvement did so within 10 days or less of the com- mencement of treatment, and 43% of those children who demonstrated improvement did so after receiving only one or two SOT treatments.