To fulfil the roles outlined above, schedulers need to be proactive and constructively inquisitive, continually seeking to understand, clarify and explain the scope of ‘their project’ and the dynamics of the work flow to the project team they support. They have the courage to ‘paint a time picture’ of the project when details are scarce or almost non-existent and then willingly update and modify their starting point as more information becomes available. As the project team members become more familiar with the project, the scheduler is happy to defer to the team member’s opinions and views, acknowledging it is the project manager and project team who are responsible for delivering the project ‘on schedule’.
That’s best explained using a typical change project as an example. It usually starts with creating a change concept. That’s were the goal of the change is defined, such as improved service orientation. Then the different solution variations and time frames are worked out and the concept submitted to leadership for a decision. If leadership does opt for change, a plan of action is defined and communication initiated very quickly – in our experience, a bit too quickly.
PN models can be used to analyze interdependen- cies, criticality, substitution, conflicting resource priorities, availability of resources, and variations in the availability of resources (Kumar & Ganesh, 1998). PNs have been vastly used modeling and analyzing discrete event systems including manu- facturing and communication processes. Although PNs possess very attractive modeling capabilities, their presence is almost nonexistent in the context of project program and event management. The system dynamics are assuming growing interest in project management: Rodrigues and Bowers (1996) report how in complex projects, interrelationships between activities are more complex than that sug- gested by the traditional work breakdown structure of project network. Recently, Cohen and Zwikael (2008) suggest a method for the project schedul- ing through PN. PNs permit the implementation of automatic time constraints assessment, the resched- uling when actual values are available (Del Foyo & Silva, 2008), the “what if” analysis through simula- tions (Kumanan & Raja, 2008), and the graphical representation of progress curves (Delgadillo & Liano, 2007).
All participants confirmed the importance of managing stakeholders in IT projects. Eighty three percent of participants claimed that in IT projects where stakeholders’ expectations had not been appropriately addressed, projects had completely or partially failed resulting in delays, budget overruns, project cancellations, and general discontent among stakeholders and IT PM teams. All participants mentioned that for most projects post-implementation reviews were neglected, which they believed stemmed from leaders’ short-term focus on projects’ results, rather than taking time to improve future project efficiency through a formal learning process. Furthermore, as stakeholders and project sponsors avoided critical reflection and displayed an unwillingness to learn from past experiences, process gaps and misalignment exist between business stakeholders and IT PM teams causing inefficiency, poor relations, and miscommunication. All participants recognized the need for effective stakeholder interactions and proposed that leaders should avoid installing bureaucratic processes and procedures, which stifled flexibility and agility.
The competencies needed by a project manager to successfully manage projects are defined in ‘The Project Manager Competency Development Framework’ (also from PMI). The framework is designed to guide individuals as they build their capabilities, skills and knowledge to effectively manage projects. As their knowledge increases, people working in the project or project support environment (eg, the PMO) can acquire either the Certified Associate in Project Management (CAPM) credential if they are working as team members or Project Management Professional (PMP) credential if they have been ‘directing and leading’ project teams for a minimum period of 36 months. Both credentials require the candidate to demonstrate specific training and/or experience to apply for the exam and then pass a rigorous
Materials management is hence defined as the process of controlling the inventory, planning, handling, receiving, distributing, storing, controlling site usage as well as monitoring [15, 16]. Some authors interpret materials management as a concept that integrates all function of acquiring the construction materials as well as equipment under one management function [1, 17, 18]. Despite the various depiction of the materials management term, it is acknowledged that the ultimate aim of this management is to ensure the availability of construction materials at the most appropriate time, right location, appropriate quantity and that they are obtained at reasonable cost across all stages of construction [3, 19, 20]. As such, it can be concluded that materials management refers to a concept that integrates all function of planning, controlling, receiving, storing, handling, distributing, usage and monitoring all construction materials as well as equipment under one management for the purpose of ensuring their availability on site.
Dunlop described Lean construction based on a literature search including articles of Howell, Tommelein and Koskela: “Lean construction advocates the reduction of waste, whilst using fewer inputs, moving towards zero waste perfection. Lean principles, such as just-in-time delivery has gone some way in addressing this issue. A further "lean" principle is the analysis of all operations as a series of flow and conversion activities. Conversion activities are those operations performed in adding value to the material or information being transformed to a product. Flow processes represent activities such as inspection, moving and waiting.” (Dunlop and Smith 2004) And Conte adds: “The essence of, lean construction emerges from the application of a new form of production management to construction. It advocates that production should be seen as a flow that generates value through conversion processes, characterized by cost, time frame, and the degree of added value. In this context, considering the high uncertainty typical of the construction sector, it is essential to adopt management attitudes that are able to make the operating environment stable, reducing production process variability and significantly increasing the reliability of the production planning phases, including the jobsite's internal logistics.” (Conte and Douglas 2001)
Abstract— Challenge of completing construction projects within estimated time frame is biggest concern amongst the practitioners. Several approaches and tools have been introduced over the past years to enhance the management of the construction projects. This paper has identified commonly used techniques and software packages of timemanagement together with their effectiveness level in large construction projects of Malaysia. Data was gathered through survey technique amongst the practitioners involved in handling large construction projects. Relative Importance Index calculation was employed to assess the level of effectiveness for timemanagement techniques and software packages adopted in the construction project. The results highlighted that most common and effectivetimemanagement technique and software Package are CPM and Microsoft Project respectively. Although, this technique and software package in almost every project is applied, but still the industry practitioners fail in achieving effectivetimemanagement. Hence, this study recommends the further investigation be carried out in uncovering the related issue which hindrance in achieving the benefits of these in construction projects.
When asked to make suggestions for improvement in terms of project management, the key suggestion was that the various persons responsible for funds disbursement should avoid unnecessary delays, which cause variations between actual expenditure and the budgets. In addition, there were complaints of relatively poor remuneration, especially to the unskilled workers, which required urgent attention. Poor coordination contributes to delay from estimated completion time. Poor site management may occur when contractors do not have enough experience and suffer from a lack of knowledge in managing the project team (Kadiretal., 2005). Kalinova (2007) convey that planning and management of a project, irrespective of its complexity require the opinions of a system based on the number of stakeholders involved. Mutual communication between these stakeholders enhances division of labor, development of individual competencies and responsibilities for effective decision making. According to Harris et al (2006), support from senior management is a factor that positively influences the success of a project.
Abstract— Mega construction projects in general require a lot of planning in terms of land acquisition, estimating material cost, human resources, financials, safety and many more. It is a common scenario with delays occurring in such megaprojects attributing to increased project costs, delays in work completion. It leads to creating a negative impact on the prospects of the effective utilization of the project output in terms of space, facility and resources to commence work at that location. This study aims to identify the factors that could potentially contribute to project delays and possible methods of resolving the conflicts that have aroused. A case study on Kuwait International Airport Cargo City was conducted quantitatively as well as qualitatively. It is learnt that management conflicts have a major impact on creating project delays, due to poor management, lack of effective communication and ineffective utilization of resources.
This study appraised the performance of Caring Heart Mega Primary School projects, in terms of budget, time and quality, executed by the Ondo state government, if they were achieved. It also analyzed factors responsible for the budget overrun/under-run recorded on the project; and the causes of delay (if any) on the project delivery. Frequency, Percentage, Mean, Standard Deviation, Relative Importance Index (RII) and Severity Index (SI) were used for the descriptive data, while Chi-Square test was used for the inferential analyses to achieve the stated research objectives and test the hypotheses. The findings show that the majority of the respondents held the view that Ondo State Caring Heart Mega Primary School Project achieved the stakeholder‟s goals and objectives in terms of quality but did not finish on time and were completed at a cost higher than the originally envisaged contract cost. Respondents indicated that wrong method of estimation/inaccurate estimation of original cost (Mean = 4.58); additional work (Mean = 4.05); unforeseen site condition (Mean = 4.02); cost of materials (Mean = 3.91); poor contract management (Mean = 3.89); improper planning (Mean = 3.73); poor site management and supervision (Mean = 3.69); shortage of technical, managerial and supervisory personnel (Mean = 3.60); and unrealistic contract durations imposed by client (Mean = 3.61) contributed largely to the project delay and budget overrun. Furthermore, this study found that effect of weather (p = 0.000; < 0.05), fraudulent practices (p = 0.000; < 0.05), frequent design changes (p = 0.000; < 0.05), high cost of labour (p = 0.000; < 0.05), inadequate production of raw materials locally (p = 0.000; < 0.05), lack of communication (p = 0.000; < 0.05) among others contributed in one way or the other to budget overrun of the Caring Heart Mega Primary School Project except government policies (p
Managing deadlines - Setting a deadline for the completion of the works. For each job or project that we plan and think to accomplish, to be effective, we must set a deadline for the end of the project to be completed. Because if we extend our jobs more than the time limit is planned, there will come a lot of other jobs in the queue and we will remain unresolved. Completion of jobs or projects after a certain deadline will negatively affect the leader or manager personality, the employee and the institution will lose confidence. Often times it happens that there is a lot of work and planning that does not have time for their completion but to be more organized and successful at work it is good that we always set ourselves a deadline for completing a task. Setting a self-limiting time to complete the day-to-day tasks affects the best concentration on a job and achieving a productivity to fulfill the task we have given ourselves that all tasks should be accomplished within a day or time Set and that time is approaching, is ending. The best way to plan success is by creating a table, starting from the table of the day plan, as in the table below:
When a development is planed, minimizing the project‟s initial impact should be a priority. The practice of sustainable development is strongly linked to the conservation of natural resources. The ability to care for the environment resides in the successful management of resources that can be refilled or reused, as well as the effective use of those that are nonrenewable. A key performance indictor of a good decision- making for a sustainable system is its ability to sustain itself throughout its lifecycle. A holistic sustainable approach to construction can add considerable value to a building project. The use of modern methods of construction, such as off-site building systems and prefabricated components, can help architects and developers achieve their sustainability objectives with the benefits of cost, speed, quality and efficiency. Off-site construction offers developers the unique opportunity to improve both efficiency and sustainability. The use of lower cost products made of recycled materials may help address environmental concerns but may also give a developer a price advantage over competitors and benefit the project financially. Mechanisms must be initiated from the start of an urban development project to include social development and several social aspects should be studied early on and considered while generating sustainable strategy. Awareness must be raised among inhabitance of Jeddah to value and conduct efficient management of natural resources, especially water. Developing strategies for urban development in Jeddah should start with studying local zoning to identify old bylaws that do not allow much needed social and physical changes.
developments (Fromherz, 2012). The new ruler ini- tiated various strategies to position Doha in inter- national and regional networks as an iconic metropolis. Three major projects emerged as a result of these initiatives in Doha’s old centre. Firstly, he and his Emiri Diwan engaged Mohammed Ali Abdullah and his Private Engineering office to redesign the traditional Souq Waqif on the basis of historic photography. The 164,000 square metres site was developed between 2004 and 2008 (AKDN, 2013). Traditional construction techniques were used to re-establish the old market as authen- tic as possible in the heart of the old centre. Due to the previous land reclamation the market has no immediate access to the sea and the still existing fishing harbour. Large parking sites in the north and south-west were established in order to make the souq accessible for visitors. In spite the attempt of one-to-one restoration it has never been intended to reduce the function of the traditional souq to an open-air heritage museum. In addition to the roofed market a pedestrian zone was developed along the wadi housing various restaurants and souvenir shops (Figure 4). The project can be regarded as a unique experiment to combine cul- tural heritage, tourist attraction, public realm and leisure space with the still remaining function as tra- ditional market place.
This research is applicable that research literature has been used to explore successful factors of knowledge managementprojects from Rehman and Mahmood (2010) model with factors of excellent management supports (1), proper knowledgeable culture (2), financial resources (3), technologic infrastructure (4), intersections relationship (5), human resources development (6), scholar people employment (7), knowledge management strategy (8), knowledge performance motives and rewards (9), knowledge management systematic activities and processes (10), business principal values (11) and organizational infrastructure (12). Notice that these factors are numbered according to their mental and relative important not to make any problem in interpretative structural modeling, then it is made using experts ideas structural self-interactive matrix and in the next step reachability matrix is made, by its help we can make all inputs and outputs matrix and finally, research interactive model comes out. Self-interactive matrix sign includes:
After inserting the above inputs, the forecasting tool will provide the monthly expenditures for the project. For example, if the design estimate for a project R-XXXXAB, a fictitious project, is $55M and the typical duration of such a project size is 40 months, the tool will generate the cumulative monthly payout for the project based on its characteristics (type, location, seasonality). If the estimating department provides a new estimate in the preliminary stage for the same project, $70M, and the correlated duration is 50 months, a new cumulative curve can be produced. Figure 7.6 shows the design estimate and the preliminary estimate cumulative payout curves for the same project assuming the 3rd order model applies for the project. The forecasting tool will also have the ability to adjust the curve when a time extension or a supplemental is granted. Also, the curve can be adjusted for user specified scenarios. For example, if the user wants to produce the monthly expenditures for a bridge project a user expects that it will be 15% behind schedule in terms of cost or duration, the tool will be able to generate the monthly expenditure of the adjusted time for the project by adjusting the standardized curve for the typical bridge project. Furthermore, the forecasting tool will generate the cumulative monthly expenditures for the included portfolio of projects. The contribution of this tool will enable the NCDOT to forecast the DBB construction payout curve after the project is programmed during the preconstruction phase.