monks ‘turned their eyes from his offenses, and suffered him to disgrace and disturb their house by scandalous excesses, utterly subversive of holy discipline and order’, including drunkenness, sexual perversion and profanity (Vol. 2, pp. 2–3). The problem for the monks is not that they are evil, or agents of the devil, but that they are dependent on Raymond for the continuance of their order. Because the secular arm controls the sacred instrument, the monks are essentially powerless to remove Reginhald. Leland’s evil monk is in fact dependent on secular powers – a far cry from the typical anti-Catholic rhetoric which envisioned the pope attempting to exert control over the state. Where Walter Harris obsesses over the ability of the evil tentacles of Catholic power to reach from the Vatican to overthrow rightful monarchs, Leland highlights the despotic power of petty local lords who conduct a reign of terror over holy men and women whose only wish is to serve God rather than man. Although Reginhald acts extremely imperiously, his schemes very quickly come to nothing. In fact, he is terrified when in the presence of the Countess Ela, before whom ‘he stood abashed and confused; and the consciousness of his own vile purposes served to increase his disorder’, and she is quick to respond when he claims it is her duty under God to marry Raymond, calling him an ‘abandoned and hateful wretch’ who profanes ‘the name of heaven’ (Vol. 2, pp. 10, 14–15).
sources: (1) investigation of dpp expression during embryogenesis and larval development in more cnidarian taxa, those displaying bilateral symmetry as well as those displaying radial, biradial, or tetraradial symmetry; (2) identification and characterization of a sog / chordin homolog in cnidarians; (3) characterization of Hox gene expression and dpp expression in the comb jellies (phylum Ctenophora), another so-called radiate phylum that appears to be an outgroup to the clade containing Cnidaria and Bilateria and that may display biradial or bilateral symmetry. As numerous recent reviews on bilaterian origins have emphasized ( e.g. , Holland, 2000; Erwin and Davidson, 2002), there is an urgent need to study the non-bilaterian phyla for insights into early metazoan evolution. As a complementary approach, functional studies of cnidarian proteins in bilaterian systems may support hypotheses of homology by providing evidence of functional equivalency. However, failure of cnidarian proteins to mimic the function of bilaterian proteins in bilaterian embryos does not contradict a hypothesis of homology.
Finally, the question of the teaching of origins - the origins of the Universe, the origins of life and the origins of human beings - in science lessons raises important issues about the nature of scientific knowledge, the pedagogy of science education and considerations such as parental rights and the relationship between home culture and culture in society more generally. A balance needs to be stuck between omitting such topics from science lessons - for fear of upsetting people or 'causing problems' - and tackling these topics in a cavalier manner which fails to understand their cultural significance.