Precastconcrete wall panel which is currently being used as cladding or curtain walls, does not take any advantage of the panel’s structural capabilities. Non-load bearing precastconcrete cladding is noted for its diversity of expression as well as its desirable thermal, acoustic and fire resistant properties. However, it is commonly overlooked that precastconcrete elements normally used as cladding applications, such as sandwich wall panels, solid panels and spandrel panels, possess considerable inherent structural capacity. The mandatory amount of reinforcement required to handle and erect a precast component is often more than necessary for carrying imposed loads in case of low or medium-rise structures. Thus, with relatively few modifications, many cladding panels can function as load bearing elements. As with all precastconcrete applications, further economies can be realized if the panels are repetitive. By making panels as large as possible, numerous economies are realized: the number of panels is reduced and fewer joints (waterproofing requirements), lower erection cost, and fewer connections are required.
Precast prestressed concrete insulated sandwich wall panels have been used over the past 50 years. One of the earliest reported uses of concretesandwich wall panels for building construction was in 1906. With the advancement of the materials and methods of construction over decades, the production of these panels has been improved and become more efficient. Typical sandwich wall panel consist two layers of concrete separated by foam core. The two concrete wythes are typically connected by different type of shear connectors. The materials for production have evolved over the years and higher quality control is achieved in construction of these panels as they are casted in a factory (PCI Committee on PrecastSandwich Wall Panels, 2011). Shear transfer mechanisms have evolved from solid concrete zones to steel truss mechanism. A major criterion in the recent advancements of precastconcretesandwichpanel technology has led the building owners to attain Leadership in Energy & Environmental Design (LEED) certification. LEED maintains requirements and guidelines for thermal performance of building envelopes, focusing the precast industry’s attention toward a more thermally efficient panelsystem.
Precastsandwichpanel presents a series of possibilities for the solution of housing problems especially in low and medium cost housing sector [1-5], Sandwich panels have all the desirable characteristics of a normal precastconcrete wall panel such as durability, economical, fire resistance, large vertical spaces between supports, and can be used as shear walls, bearing walls, and retaining walls. It can be located to accommodate building expansion need. In addition, the insulation property provides superior energy performance compared to other wall systems .
Sustainability in construction industry has become an issue when designing a new building  and the conventional on-site construction methods have long been criticised for imposing rigorous human health and safety risk, as well as causing significant environmental destruction . Meanwhile, PCSP can be perceived as an alternative approaches in creating and maintaining the sustainable built environment. Finsen & Georgia (2011)  said that this wall system can maximise benefits from integrated strategies, which focus on all of the building’s materials and systems, as well as the way they interact.
In Malaysia, industrialized buildingsystem (IBS) had started many decades ago but until now it is still experimenting with various prefabricated method. The governments of Malaysia also encourage the use of IBS and insist that the office building projects shall have at least 70% IBS component. To encounter demands from the growing population and migration of people to urban areas in this country, alternative construction method is required to provide fast and affordable quality housing and environmental efficient. One of the alternatives that already been studied is Precast Lightweight SandwichPanel. Before we can introduce new innovative construction method, the construction details are an important factor in building design. There has not been any study on Precast Lightweight Foamed ConcreteSandwichPanel (PLFP) connection.Connection is important to transfer loads and also for stability. With regard to the structural behaviour, the ability of the connection to transfer forces is the most essential property. Every aspect of the panel behavior must be analysied. This study will only focus on analyzing the performance of two small scale PLFP walls with U-bent bars connection under bending in term of load-displacement relationship, modes of failure and its ultimate load capacity when connected.
IndustrialisedBuildingSystem (IBS) or PrecastConcreteSystem is described as a buildingsystem that requires prefabrication of precast components in factory or at site which are brought together to form a complete structure with minimum in-situ activities. This approach provides sustainable solution to overcome problems such as shortage of workers, increased cost of labour and inadequate concrete quality. It provides shorter construction time coupled with high quality control advantages of high strength, durability, thermal comfort and labour savings. IBS construction can be implemented in two stages, (a) productions of modular parts in a yard/factory, and (b) assemble for erection at the construction site. Therefore, very little finishing works are required at in-situ position saving both delivery time and cost
For the thermal insulation of walls, there is a difference between outside and inside wall and core insulation. For the outside wall insulation the EPS foam is put directly on the stone bearing structure. A fabric reinforced plastering or a ventilated facade protects it from the weather exposure. Using sandwich panels of EPS plasterboards, modern heat insulation standards can be achieved on the walls of older building. For core insulation, the insulation layer is in- between the bearing wall and the external weather resistant wall. Another system of insulation is the use of EPS moulded foam parts (insulated concrete forms) for a combination of outer and inner wall insulation. A wall is built with these moulded foam parts and filled with concrete.
This paper presents the overview on structural behaviour of precast lightweight concretesandwichpanel. In Malaysia, demand of affordable housing is increasing due to increasing number of population. Precastconcretesandwichpanel is an alternative solution to the conventional construction method due to its ease of construction. The question arises on how to develope a precastpanel which is lightweight but with higher strength to sustain the applied load. This paper aims to provide some findings from previous reseach in this field especially on the panel's structural behaviour subjected to eccentric load. It is hoped the overview on this subject matter could be used as guidance for future research on developing a lightweight sandwichpanelsystem in low to medium rise building construction.
The bottom panel was supported by a pure hinge supporting system as shown in Figure 3-13. The hinge was designed to restrain panel movement in the horizontal and vertical directions and allow rotation only. In order to provide an even surface for the panel to sit on, 5 support bases were leveled and post-tensioned to the strong floor. A continuous piece of 2 inch diameter round stock was welded to the center of 12 foot long W10x30 C-Channel. One inch square pieces of bar stock were welded to the support bases 2 inches apart creating a trough for the round bar and connected channel to ride in. The round bar protruded from both ends of the channel, allowing the assembly to be anchored at the ends to prevent sliding or uplift. The precastsandwichpanel was then set between the upward-facing channel flanges and welded in place at the connection points using flexible angle clips at four locations. Fast setting grout was then poured between the panel and the channel section providing uniform reactions in both directions along the entire panel width. This configuration created a robust pined connection at the bottom of the panel.
Jiang  carried out a direct shear push-out test to assess the performance of PrecastConcreteSandwichPanel (PCSP) with W-shaped Glass Fibre-reinforced Polymer shear connectors. The results indicate an elastic-brittle response caused by the pull-out of the connectors before the ultimate strength was reached. This indicates that the SGFRP material did not exhibit ductility behaviour. Many investigations have been carried out on the structural performance of PCSP with the alternative materials as summarized in Table 2(a)-(c). Despite the numerous investigations in this regard available in literature, no corresponding report yet regarding the thermal performance of the PCSP assemblies [40, 57]. Even though, report have shown that there is opposite behavior between the load capacity and thermal efficiency: increasing number of shear connectors increases the load capacity, but decreases thermal performance. However, Salmon  reported that the thermal conductivity of CFRP material is about 14% of steel conductivity, which encourages more research in using FRP as shear connector in PCSP system.
From the previous research, it is noticed that most of the panels developed are made of conventional concrete which made up the outer skins. This does not contribute to strength over weight ratio reduction. Therefore, further research on this type of panel with lightweight materials is very much in need. The author will investigate the structural behavior of Precast Lightweight Foamed ConcreteSandwichPanel, PLFP, with double shear truss connectors under axial Load. The aim of this research is to achieve the intended strength for use in low to medium rise building. Considering its lightweight and precast construction method, it is feasible to be developed further as a competitive IBS buildingsystem. The result from this research could be used as a guideline for future research to develop PLFP panel as a walling unit in the industry and the future development of PLFP as a structural material.
ated from Scandinavia some thirty years ago. Nowadays, foam concrete technology has been widely used in construction industries. It is considered as an attractive material for its lightweight, better thermal properties and ease of construction. In the United States for instance, foamed concrete are used in an increasing number of applications. Cast-in-place foamed concrete are used for insulating roof-deck systems and for engineered fills for geotechnical applications while precast auto-claved products are widely used as load-bearing blocks, reinforced wall, roof and floor units and as non load-bearing cladding panels over a primary structural frame (Tonyan and Gibson, 1992).
concrete. It is lightweight, free-flowing, easy to pump and does not required compaction . It also has good thermal insulation and sound absorption as compared to normal weight concrete . Although the IndustrialisedBuildingSystem (IBS) was introduced in Malaysia in early 1960s but the usage level of IBS in the local construction industry stands at only 15%  due to lack of knowledge about properties of lightweight concrete. Thus, this study was carried out to achieve better understanding of the structural behaviour of PLP subjected to flexural load.
The useful information for this study was gathered through data analysis which known as a process of gathering, modeling and transforming into important information that can be used in this study. The results of the study obtained from the survey of the installers, manufacturers and designers based on the information provided by the website IBS center Malaysia. From the literature study and interviews with other professionals,23 building maintenance factors and 5 major defects had successfully identifiedand a set of questionnaire was prepared for the respondents. In this study, 187 sets of questionnaire were distributed to all designers, installers and manufacturers by post and email and 64 questionnaires were successfully collected in the end of the study. The normal expected useable response rate is ranging from 25% to 35% according to Fellows et al.1997. Thus, this number of feedback questionnaire had provided enough of data for this study.
The matrix in SIFCON has no coarse aggregates, but high cement content. Hooked end fibres of 0.5 mm diameter and aspect ratio of 60 are used to cast SIFCON laminates. Cement, micro silica, fly ash, quartz powder were used for making cement slurry with mix proportion 1:0.1:0.5:0.5. Ordinary portland cement of 53 grade was used. The matrix fineness must be designed so as to properly penetrate (infiltrate) the fibre network placed in the molds, otherwise large pores may form leading to a substantial reduction in properties. In this project we use 0.45 as w\c ratio and the Micro silica (0.1%) of its total volume. Micro silica is used to improves the characteristics of both fresh and harden concrete. Fly ash is 0.5%, used to make substantial contributions to its workability, chemical resistance and the environment. Quartz powder (0.5%) is used to make the concrete denser. The volume of fibre fractions used are 0%, 5% ,7% ,9% ,11%. Fibre volume was calculated according to the volume of the mold for each specimen. Placement of steel fibre to the mould is shown in Fig.4.1.
Fig. 7 High speed video footage of 5 kg TNT blast with horizontal placement showing marked jetting effects The EASP1-C110F specimen registered a maximum deflection of 200 mm (the back of specimen was hitting the sensor holder, hence actual maximum deflection may be more than 200 mm) and residual deflection of 144 mm. The severe damage observed on the EASP1-C110F specimen, significantly larger than that of EASP1-C110, served to confirm the observation made above about the difference between vertically and horizontally oriented cylindrical charges. Not least because EASP1-C110F panel specimen was expected to perform better than the EASP1-C110. The vertically oriented charge, placed at the same distance directly above the center of the panels, clearly resulted higher blast energy upon detonation of the charge, especially within the central p ortion of the incident face of the EASP1-C110F specimen.
Prestressed precastconcretesandwich wall panels have been effectively used for decades to provide the building envelope for a wide variety of structures. Panels provide a host of functions, including providing the building envelope, architectural features, carrying gravity and wind loads, as well as insulating the entire structure. Typical concretesandwich panels consist of two discrete layers of concrete, called wythes, one on either side of an inner layer of rigid foam insulation. The ability to transfer the shear forces between the two separated concrete wythes, across the insulating layer, is essential in attaining composite action and producing structurally efficient panels. Traditionally, a wide variety of steel connectors or solid concrete zones have been used to accomplish this transfer of shear forces. These methods, though shown to function well structurally, create thermal bridges across the insulating layer and severely hinder the insulating value of the entire building, consequently increasing the heating and cooling costs for the structure.
From the graph, the maximum load that applied on the RCSP was 9.79 KN with the displacement at the mid span was 12.76mm. It is obviously that RCSP has the highest maximum load capacity compared to HCSP and TCSP. The curves for all samples showed a non-linear behaviour where they respond to the capacity applied until they reach the maximum load of the panel. However, the curves for each sample show a drop after their maximum point in the last stage of load carrying behaviour. The behaviour is due to the initiation of failure of the panel that was core shear cracks, core tension cracks, flexural cracking of the core and compressive failure of the top skin . Summary of the flexural test results are shown in Table 2.
One of the objectives of the experimental program, discussed in section 3, is to characterize the behavior of the glass fiber reinforced polymer grid/rigid insulation shear transfer mechanism for their use in precast prestressed concretesandwich panels. It was also to provide a comparison between the effectiveness of using glass fibers in comparison to carbon fibers. Typically, an appropriate amount of shear grid connectors are required in order to fully achieve composite action, allowing for the full moment of inertia to resist induced shear forces from the applied loading. The following section provides comparisons between specimens with glass and carbon FRP grid connectors tested in direct shear. The proposed design equation presented in section 5.2 aims at helping design engineers to calculate the shear flow capacity of the GFRP grid connectors and rigid insulation based on the various parameters believed to affect the behavior. This could allow for structural efficiency and the economic savings of these panels to be realized.
Our country is developing day by day so that most of building have compound wall and all building have parapet wall. Currently the construction of compound wall, partition wall, w/c block, road divider and parapet wall is done by using brick work or by precastconcretepanel. There is a lot of scope for utilization of precastconcretepanel for all above building component also in the most of the villages of our country there is a lack of w/c block or unit. Approximately only 40% peoples are use w/c. At present the w/c block are constructed by using precastpanel due to the easy installation and speedy work. So that it is necessary to construct the precastconcretepanel of lower cost with good strength.