that predators exist naturally in their environment. They realise that it is impossible to expect
predation not to occur (Appendix 3). Farmers were at times angered by losses of their livestock
due to predators, and they sometimes set traps or hunted jackal and caracal with their dogs.
However, this does not solve the ecological problem that caracal and jackal numbers seem to recover and increase rapidly with the increase in hunting efforts (Avenant et al. 2008). Farmers appeared to live with a sense of acceptance that livestock deaths due to predators is inevitable.
human population in SouthAfrica (Statistics SouthAfrica, 2012). With a remarkable 372 889 km 2 or 30.5 percent of landmass making it the biggest province in SouthAfrica, it only houses an estimated 1 145 861 people or 2.2 percent of the entire population (Statistics SouthAfrica, 2012). This phenomenon of sparse population density is consistent with most arid or desert regions of the world. Figure 3.3 shows the distribution of households across the ten villages in Leliefontein CommunalArea. Livestock production remains the most extensive land use in Namaqualand; majority of the household owns livestock mainly small stocks (sheep and goats). Mining was a major source of income before some of the mines were closed down. This development led to emigration of the active population to other parts of SouthAfrica where there are job opportunities while contributing to their household economies via remittances. Government welfare grants and remittances are major sources of income for many households in Namaqualand. Households owning livestock do keep their livestock for various objectives. Livestock are mainly kept as safety net and are considered mainly for sale as a last option during emergency, exchanged for other goods and sometimes for socio-cultural purposes.
Chapter 1: Literature Review and Study Area
1.1. Human-wildlife conflict (HWC): a worldwide problem
Human wildlife conflict (HWC) can be loosely defined as an interaction where humans and wildlife occupy the same area and/or compete for the same resources (Inskip and Zimmerman 2009; Li, Buzzard, Chen and Jiang 2013). In recent times it is not uncommon for humans and wildlife to come into conflict with one another (Treves and Karanth 2003; Li et al. 2013; Campbell et al. 2014). The human population is growing at an exponential rate which results in an increase in agricultural activities, urbanisation, increased disease transmission between wild- and domestic animals and a further decrease in food resources for wildlife and diminishing natural habitat (Pettigrew et al. 2012). Wildlife is either forced out of their historical ranges or continue to live in close proximity to humans (Treves and Karanth 2003; Pettigrew et al. 2012; Kiffner et al. 2014). There is a general misconception that this conflict is restricted to poverty-stricken areas, however HWC is a worldwide problem (Madden and McQuinn 2014). HWC often results in negative impacts towards either humans, wildlife or both parties (Dickman, Macdonald and Macdonald 2011; Pettigrew et al. 2012). While human-wildlife conflict has become synonymous with carnivores (Dickman et al. 2011), there are various other examples of HWC worldwide ranging across various animal species. For example, elephants in Africa are notorious “problem animals” due to the damaging of crops, destruction of artificial water sources such as water tanks and the raiding of food stores (Hoare 1999; Parker and Osborn 2006; Taruvinga and Mushunje 2014). Human-elephant conflict has resulted in retaliatory killings of elephants, however great conservations efforts have been made to mitigate human- elephant conflict in both Africa and India (Parker and Osborn 2006; Jadhav and Barua 2012; Mariki, Svarstad and Benjaminsen 2015). Baboons (Papio ursinus) in the Cape Peninsula, SouthAfrica, are also responsible for property damage and the harassment of people in order to obtain alternate food sources (Hoffman and O’Riain 2012). In North America, grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) and black bears (Ursus americanus) have adapted to the increasing human population and have learnt to gain from anthropogenic food items that are easily accessible (Wilson et al. 2005; Don Carlos, Bright, Teel and Vaske 2009). In Africa, many species are responsible for fatal attacks on humans (Lamarque et
Two new annual species o f Nemesia Vent, are described from southern Africa. Nemesia su aveolens is characterized by magenta and yellow flowers. It differs from the closely related N. euryceras by having a lower lip that is yellow rather than white with pale violet margins, an upper lip with a conspicuous yellow rectangular patch just above the corolla opening, a spur that is ± equal to the length o f the lower lip, not half the length, and a hypochile that is y ello w rather than dark violet. This new species is known only from the arid Tanqua Karoo east o f the Cedarberg Mountains. N. au ran tia is characterized by orange saccate flowers with a brown and orange bearded palate. It is closest to N. versicolor, but differs from that species by its orange corolla, the absence o f a spur, and its bearded palate with brown and orange trichomes. It is known from a single locality adjacent to the Swart Doting River in Namaqualand between Nuwerus and Garies.
In order to obtain representative estimates of livestockimpacts and costs of wild pigs at the state level, the US Department of Agriculture’s (USDA) National Agricultural Statistical Service (NASS) distributed a survey designed by researchers at the USDA’s National Wildlife Research Center. Targeted operations included producers of cattle (beef and dairy operations), swine, sheep, and goats. Following the 2015 survey of crop producers reported in Anderson et al. (2016), livestock producers in the same 11 states (Alabama, Arkansas, California, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, North Carolina, South Car- olina, and Texas) were sampled, as well as Tennessee and Oklahoma, both of which are major producers of the targeted commodities and have wild pigs. States were ultimately selected by a subjective evaluation of economic importance (United States Department of Agriculture, 2014), vulnerability to feral swine (see Fig. 1), and political considerations.
and is home to unique succulent flora and a national priority for protected area expansion (DEA, 2010). Several inselbergs have been identified as “Critical Biodiversity Areas” (CBAs) in the Namakwa Bioregional Plan (Desmet et al 2011), based on fine-scale vegetation mapping (Desmet et al 2005). ERM was commissioned to conduct an Environmental and Social Impact Assessment (ESIA) for the project in parallel with a separate Biodiversity Offset Study (Botha et al 2013). The desirability for concurrent studies was based on prior knowledge of the area’s biodiversity importance and recommendations by the Northern Cape’s Department of Environment and Nature Conservation (DENC). This approach accords with Vedanta’s sustainability framework which is aligned with IFC Performance Standards (2012). The process followed by the ESIA and Offset Study recognised that offsets are a ‘last resort’ and every effort must be made to avoid and minimize impacts. The need to avoid irreplaceable (7) habitat was considered in the early planning phases of the project.
Distribution and habitat: Lachenalia cernua has a restricted distribution in the southwestern Cape where it is currently known from just three populations, one from the western end of the Worcester Valley at Goudini, another to the northwest of Goudini just south of Wolseley, and the third near Simonstown in the south ern Cape Peninsula. The population at Goudini is the closest spatially to the Simonstown population, a dis junction o f more than 100 km (Figure 5). The Wolseley population occurs on an east-facing hill slope in the semi-shade of large sandstone boulders, as well as at a slightly lower altitude in full sun. The plants growing in semi-shade tend to occur in small groups and flower erratically, whereas those in full sun usually occur sin gly and flower reliably every year. At the single known population on the southern Cape Peninsula at Klavervlei near Simonstown, plants grow under similar conditions, mainly between large sandstone boulders on shaded, east- and southeast-facing ridges at 363 m, and also in open aspects at a slightly lower altitude, just above a seasonal stream in which Moraea ramosissima occurs, flowering at the same time o f year. Other notable com panion species at this locality include Protea cynaroides and Watsonia tabularis.
(2005) conducted a multivariate analysis of a sample of children from 11 211 Black households in SA and found that households invested more resources in children who were more closely related. Thus, the heads of these families were inclined to care better for their own children or those who were strongly related, compared to the foster children who were further related or not related at all. In a similar finding in Mali, Konate et al. (2003) found that the children of the head of the household of a foster family usually get favoured to be sent to school while those more distantly related or not related at all are at greater risk of being out of school. Finally, Hunt (2008) contends that there is clear proof that bereavement after the death of family members, especially parents, places children at greater risk of dropping out of school. Fleischer et al.'s (2010) research supports this argument as they found that 32% of South African children who were out of school had lost one or both parents. A key consideration as to what the influence of parental death or orphanhood is on a child's schooling is linked to the household context or the new carers. For example, joining a poor family will add to the financial constraints of the family, which increases the risk for child labour and dropout (Osgood, Foster & Courtney, 2010). In SA, the child support grant is intended to support orphaned children to continue their schooling but these funds are used at the discretion of carers who often use the money for other expenses, to the detriment of the child. Especially in African countries, the effect of AIDS and AIDS-related deaths on children cannot be ignored. For example, in Malawi it was found that 9.1% of children who lost one parent due to AIDS had dropped out of school the year following the death of the parent, but this rose to 17.1% for the death of two parents (Harris & Schubert, 2001, cited in Jukes, 2006). The reasons for this state of affairs could be that children need to care for their ill parent(s) or that there is a loss in income and rise in medical costs because of the illness and death. In conclusion, there is good proof that homelessness, foster care and orphanhood can be influences for school dropout and these factors are of specific importance in the South African context.
Tapping uncommitted outflows (i.e. using outflows or increasing the size of storage facilities). Re-allocating water between user (i.e. crop-livestock combinations are much more productive
than systems only involving crops)
Most existing smallholder irrigation schemes worldwide were developed for the purpose of crop production yet integrating animal and crop production offers potential advantages (FAO, 2003). In SouthAfrica current policies do not support the integration of animal and plant production, where smallholder irrigation development has paid little attention to the potential of integrating animal and crop production (Averbeke and Mohamed, 2004). Growing crops to feed animals represents a value- adding process that reduces bulk costs, which in turn can reduce the contribution of transportation to the cost or marketing products (Averbeke and Mohamed, 2004). The manure produced by animals is also a valuable resource which when returned to the irrigated land can help to replenish soil fertility and improve the physical properties of the soil (Averbeke and Mohamed, 2004). Incorporating animal production enterprises on irrigation schemes can also provide a productive use for organic wastes, such as crop residues and crops for which no market could be secured (Averbeke and Mohamed, 2004). Where slopes require terracing of the irrigation land, which is often necessary when surface irrigation is practiced, the bunds and terrace walls can be planted to tree legumes or tall fodder grasses, which also serve as wind breaks of land, thereby increasing the intensity of production (Averbeke and Mohamed, 2004).
Since the publications of Sonder (1860), Van Huyssteen (1937) and Schreiber (1963), several new spe cies of Zygophyllum have come to light. Most of them were found in the lower Orange River basin forming part of the northern zone of the winter rainfall area of the arid Karoo-Namib region of southern Africa. When dealing with taxa in this area, Nordenstam (1966) suggested the term ‘Gariep element' for these extreme xerophytic species that constitute a significant phytogeographical group. Cowling & Hilton-Taylor (1997) considered the Gariep area, falling within the Succulent Karoo Biome, as one of the centres of exceptional species endemism in southern Africa. El Hadidi (1978) considered the arid zones of Namibia and SouthAfrica, including the Gariep element, to be of importance as a second centre of origin for taxa belonging to Zygophyllaceae, native to the Old World.
Children who previously engaged in minor crimes were often subjected to the harsh realities of formal prosecution, while many received corporal punishment. Section 28(2) of the Constitution (Act 108 of 1996) considers these practices to contravene the best interest of the child; procedures were needed for the humane and age-appropriate treatment of children in conflict with the law. Diversion Programs were some of these measures, which is the channelling of child offenders, in appropriate cases, away from formal justice procedures, although there is sufficient evidence to prosecute them (Davis & Busby 2006; Gallinetti, Muntingh, & Skelton, 2004). This strategy aims to strengthen responsibility in child offenders by holding them accountable for their actions, and by reinforcing respect for the rights and fundamental freedoms of others (Matshego 2001). Diversion has been practiced in SouthAfrica since the early 1990s, although in a selective and disjointed manner due to the absence of formal legislation. Since then, the types and scope of programmes expanded considerably amid the burgeoning of referrals for diversion (Steyn 2005; Wood 2003).
We recognize two new species o f Asteraceae from the winter rainfall belt o f SouthAfrica and reduce a third to synon- omy. Senecio speciosissimus sp. nov. has been confused with S. coleophyllus Turcz. in the past but is distinguished by its taller stature, larger and more finely serrated leaves, and congested synflorescences containing ( 6 - ) l 5 -4 0 flowerheads. The two species are also geographically separated: S. speciosissim us occurs in the Hottentots Holland and Franschhoek Mountains o f the southwestern Cape, whereas 5. coleophyllus is endemic to the Riviersonderend Mountains. Chrysocom a hantam ensis sp. nov. is a distinctive new species endemic to the Bokkeveld and Roggeveld Plateaus. It is distinguished by its resprouting habit. 3-5-fid leaves and large capitula, 12-15 mm in diameter, with lanceolate. 3-veined involucral bracts, the largest 9 - 1 0 x 2 mm. Investigation o f the variation in leaf morphology o f the two radiate species o f Oncosiphon, O. africanum (PJ.Bergius) Kallersjo and O. glabratum (Thunb.) Kallersjo. reveals that only one species can be maintained, and O. glabratum is accordingly reduced to synonomy in O. africanum.
7. Key amongst the divisions that remain, however, is the intersection of race and class. SouthAfrica remains a society with high levels of poverty and pockets of extreme wealth. 9 It is the reality that the lines between rich and poor continue to track the white/black colour-line. 10 Many, but certainly not all, of those who are poor belong to groups who were not classified as white under apartheid whilst many of the wealthy were classified as white. To this, one needs to add the understanding that the impugned Policy is in respect of insolvency and companies’ legislation, which originates in the 1930s (and before). This is, notwithstanding the enactment of a new Companies’ Act in 2008, which specifically seeks to ‘promote compliance with the Bill of Rights’ and an inclusive, multi- stakeholder approach whilst promoting economic development and innovation; affirming the concept of a company and providing for a predictable, effective and efficient regulatory environment for business. 11
It additionally unfolded from information investigation that administration conveyance is described by absence of lucidity on the criteria utilised for making the recipient list. Network or recipient assembly in issue distinguishing proof, arranging procedures and the board of activities help fortify nearby limit with respect to aggregate activity. The biggest problem facing any organisation when it comes to service delivery initiatives that are aimed at public participation is lack of information. There is an argument that some communities complain that South Africa's service delivery has not changed substantially since the demise of apartheid. “For sanitation, it is indicated that almost half of the population of developing regions and some 2.6 billion people globally were not using an improved form of sanitation in 2008” (The Millennium Development Goals Report, 2011:55). Nonetheless, as revealed, the holes in sanitation inclusion among urban and provincial zones are narrowing.
The filiform perianth tube clasping the style for its whole length and the involute-filiform style branches stigmatic only at the extreme apex, place Ixia amethys tina in section Dichone of subgenus Ixia (Goldblatt & Manning 1999). Here it falls among a small group of spe cies that are endemic or near-endemic to the Roggeveld Escarpment, including I. brevituba G.J.Lewis, I. trifolia G.J.Lewis and I. c u n a ta G.J.Lewis. These species share relatively unspecialized, longitudinally dehiscent anthers. 4-5 mm long. The species of section Dichone from the southwestern Cape below the Escarpment, in contrast, fall into two groups defined by their derived stamens, the one characterized by its very short anthers, 2-4 mm long and the other by their curious attachment, resulting in their reclinate orientation.
☯ These authors contributed equally to this work.
Over several decades, human skeletal remains from at least twelve individuals (males, females, children and infants) were recovered from a small area (ca. 10 x 10 m) on the east- ern shore of Table Bay, Cape Town, near the mouth of the Diep River where it empties into the sea. Two groups, each comprising four individuals, appear to have been buried in single graves. Unusually for this region, several skeletons were interred with large numbers of ostrich eggshell (OES) beads. In some cases, careful excavation enabled recovery of seg- ments of beadwork. One collective burial held items including an ostrich egg-shell flask, a tortoise carapace bowl, a fragmentary bone point or linkshaft and various lithic artefacts. This group appears to have died together and been buried expediently. A mid-adult woman from this group sustained perimortem blunt-force trauma to her skull, very likely the cause of her death. This case adds to the developing picture of interpersonal violence associated with a period of subsistence intensification among late Holocene foragers. Radiocarbon dates obtained for nine skeletons may overlap but given the uncertainties associated with marine carbon input, we cannot constrain the date range more tightly than 1900–1340 calBP (at 2 sigma). The locale appears to have been used by a community as a burial ground, perhaps regularly for several generations, or on a single catastrophic occasion, or some combination thereof. The evidence documents regional and temporal variation in burial practices among late Holocene foragers of the south-western Cape.
Clypeus broadly rounded, deeply concave in spoon-like fashion, with a large central round facet, entirely covered by evenly spaced, fi ne, non-setose punctures; sides slightly prolonged backward; fronto-clypeal suture weakly indicated, medially with a defi nite edge and toward frons with a broad-based tricuspid process (Fig. 3); anteromedial termination markedly punctate, non-setose. Labrum reduced, triangular; lobes rounded. Frons deeply rugose, edge of clypeus strongly punctate, each puncture bearing a long, semierect, posteriorly inclined yellow mac- roseta; macrosetae longest at edge of clypeus and around eye canthus. Eyes large, exceeding genae externally in dorsal aspect; distance between eyes in ventral aspect shorter than diameter of eye. Genae rugo-punctate, with group of long macrosetae. Antennae nonamerous, anten- nal club strongly curved, considerably long, and at least 5.1 times longer than antennal shaft (antennomeres 1–6 combined), antennomeres 1–4 with sparse, long macrosetae, club totally densely punctate, without smooth areas. Antennomere 2 bulbous and as long as antennomeres 3–5 combined (Fig. 2). Terminal maxillary palpomere elongate, longer than palpomeres 2 and 3 combined, sub-basally with apically rounded, fl at, oval alutaceous area tapering toward apex.
Objectives include, gathering information with regards to social parameters associated with biofuel production and to also assess the impacts of biofuel production on employees and the society throughout the product life cycle of biodiesel This work is justified mainly by the growing customer/market pressure on the state of the social and economic circumstances of production and services for products like bio-fuel . Issues like corruption, unionization of workforce, policies and laws in the creation of bio-fuels and its by-products are increasingly being recognised as important as they affect production largely . The triple bottom-line of people, planet and profit or prosperity has become the focus of many development projects. As such, the environmental Life Cycle Assessment (E-LCA), Life Cycle Costing (LCC), Social Life Cycle Assessment (S-LCA) and Socioeconomic Life Cycle Assessment (Social-LCA) have become very important aspects in sustainability assessment .