Received: 7 September 2012 / Revised: 30 November 2012 / Accepted: 3 December 2012 / Published online: 13 June 2013 # ISB 2013
Abstract The measurement of corebodytemperature is an efficient method for monitoring heat stress amongst workers in hot conditions. However, invasivemeasurement of corebodytemperature (e.g. rectal, intestinal, oesophageal tem- perature) is impractical for such applications. Therefore, the aim of this study was to define relevant non-invasive mea- sures to predict corebodytemperature under various condi- tions. We conducted two human subject studies with differ- ent experimental protocols, different environmental temper- atures (10 °C, 30 °C) and different subjects. In both studies the same non-invasivemeasurementmethods (skin temper- ature, skin heat flux, heart rate) were applied. A principle component analysis was conducted to extract independent factors, which were then used in a linear regression model. We identified six parameters (three skin temperatures, two skin heat fluxes and heart rate), which were included for the calculation of two factors. The predictive value of these factors for corebodytemperature was evaluated by a multi- ple regression analysis. The calculated root mean square deviation (rmsd) was in the range from 0.28 °C to 0.34 °C for all environmental conditions. These errors are similar to previous models usingnon-invasive measures to predict core
are limited by their intermittent nature. Two continuous methods for respiration rate monitoring are used in multiparameter monitors, thoracic impedance pneumography and capnography monitoring. The thoracic chest wall expands and contracts during the respiratory cycle from which respiration rate can be determined by measuring changes in electrical impedance associated with this movement. Monitoring of respiration rate by thoracic impedance is convenient if the patient is already monitored for ECG, but the method is prone to inaccurate readings due to a number of factors including: ECG electrode placement, motion artifact, and physiologic events non-related to respiration rate that causes chest wall movement (e.g. coughing, eating, vocalization, crying). Another significant limitation is insensitivity to obstructive apnea where chest wall movement is often present in the absence of any actual air exchange (obstructive apnea). These limitations have rendered thoracic impedance monitoring for respiration rate unreliable in most acute care settings. Capnometers that continuously monitor ventilation for non-intubated patients require a nasal airway cannula that draws a continuous gas sample for spectrographic measurements within the capnometer. Capnometry measurement of respiration rate is the most frequent technology used by anesthesiologists. This method is sensitive to central, obstructive, and mixed apneas. The primary limitations of continuous respiration rate monitoring by capnometry are low patient tolerance of the nasal cannula and the added nursing workload to respond to dislodged or clogged cannulas during the patient stay.
Calculating transfer impedance is difficult. An analytical solution is only possible for simple geometries whilst finite element methods can be used to give numerical solution for more complex geometries. Using vector interpretation of Geselowitz’s theory (Geselowitz, 1971) in a semi-infinite homogeneous medium, Brown and co-workers (Brown et al., 2000b) investigated the sensitivity profile for an electrode geometry. In their work with the electrodes placed at the corners of a square, Brown and co-workers (Brown et al., 2000b) showed that the average sensitivity in the plane at the electrode surface was zero, that there were regions of negative sensitivity which extended down beneath the electrodes into the measurement volume to a depth of half of the electrode spacing; and that there was a maxima in the average sensitivity of a plane parallel to the plane of the electrodes at a distance of one-third of the electrode spacing from the plane of the electrodes (Brown et al., 2000b). The first of these findings explains why tetrapolar impedance measurements are not dominated by surface effects and hence why it is possible to investigate the characteristics of tissue within the body. For example, tetrapolar impedance measurements have been used in conjunction with Cole-Cole models to characterise accessible epithelial tissues (Brown et al., 2000a; González-Correa, 1999).
As a part of anthropometric measurements, the proposed system uses an ultrasonic sensor to measure the height of a person to an accuracy of 0.3 cm . When triggered, the sensor produce an ultrasound at 40,000 Hz propagating through the air medium. When subjected to an obstacle on its path, it rebounds back to the receiver as shown in Fig. 6. Calculating the time of travel and the speed of the sound after temperature compensation, this system computes for the height of the person . The ultrasonic sensor used here is US-015. The VCC and the Ground pins of the module are connected to the analog and the Ground pins while the trig and echo pins to any Digital I/O pin on the ATMEGA328 microcontroller respectively. In order to generate the ultrasound, the Trig is set to high state for 10 µs. This sends out an 8 cycle sonic burst which travels at the speed of sound and the reflected wave is received in the Echo pin . The ATMEGA328U microcontroller computes for the total time of travel of the sound wave and there after calculates the height of the person using the given formula
Blood Glucose testing is a cornerstone for effective Diabetes Management. Diabetes is a growing health concern these days..It is a metabolic disorder in which the blood glucose levels tend to fluctuate from its normal range which is 90 to 140 mg/dl. The humanbody regulates the glucose level in the blood by means of a hormone called Insulin. Diabetes is the state in which the body is not able to produce insulin or cannot make use of those being produced; which is classified into Type I and Type II. respectively. According to World Health Organization (WHO), every year 35 million people die because of Diabetes . At present, there are no methods available that can permanently cure Diabetes. Regular glucose monitoring, diet plan, insulin shots and medications are the techniques that can keep diabetes under control, out of which regular glucose monitoring is more efficient. The amount of glucose in the blood provides the information regarding the diabetic condition. A person suffering from diabetes can have either a raised or lower levels of glucose count. Thus the Blood Glucose level helps in making decisions regarding the food and physical activity. The current measurement gadgets are based on the Invasive technique. The commercial available ones are the Glucose meters which requires direct blood samples by means of pricking ;which inevitable brings pain and infection to the patients. In order to avoid the disadvantages of invasive method, a quite number of non- invasive techniques are experimented.
obtained from our formal experiments are very promising. Data from the typical test sets clearly demonstrate that a tmp100 sensor, when accurately positioned, can detect subtle temperature changes corresponding to inspiration and expiration. Given the small size of the sensor and the minimal computation required for non-contact breathing monitoring (as compared to existing methods), this research demonstrates the usefulness of this sensing modality for RR .Preliminary experiments highlighted limitations with the methods used to position the sensor, collect ground truth and automatically compute breathing rates, but it is our expectation that they will be reasonably easy to overcome. Collecting ground truth can be accomplished using a respiratory belt transducer or thermistors. Future experiments will engage the study participant in a light activity that will require minimal movement while breathing is monitored. Additionally, sensitivity analysis of imprecise nose detection and an examination of the possible cross-effect of perspiration in the perinasal region will be considered in future tests.
Mild hyperthermia, in which a tumour but not the surrounding tissue is selectively heated to between 41 and 43 ◦ C, has been shown to give improvements in tumour control and five year survival rate when used in conjunction with radiotherapy or chemotherapy (Triantopoulou et al 2013, Sauer et al 2012, ter Haar 1999). Currently the technique is only applicable to surface tumours and tumours that can be accessed through body cavities due to problems of producing controlled localized heating deep within the body (Lagendijk 2000, van Rhoon and Wust 2005). We have recently reported the design principles for a phased array ultrasound transducer capable of creating localized heating of solid tumours deep within the body (Aitkenhead et al 2008, 2009) but the problems of non-invasivetemperaturemeasurement to achieve control remain unresolved. A variety of temperature dependent physical properties have been investigated to address this problem including ultrasound propagation velocity (Miller et al 2002, 2004, Seip and Ebbini 1995), ultrasound back scattered energy (Staube and Arthur 1994, Arthur et al 2003), electrical impedance imaging (Conway et al 1985, Paulson and Jiang 1997, Ferraioli et al 2009) and relaxation times in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (Rieke and Pauly 2008). Mild hyperthermia treatments can last up to an hour and therefore temperaturemeasurementmethods based on electrical impedance or ultrasound are more appropriate than techniques based on MRI. Work on ultrasound backscattered energy was based on synthetic scatterers introduced into the tissue (Arthur et al 2003) and thus is not truly non-invasive and, in addition, the thermal properties of the tissue containing the scatterers is unknown. Therefore a technique based on ultrasound propagation velocity or electrical impedance, in particular a technique based on ultrasound propagation velocity using the same ultrasound transducer to create mild hyperthermia and to measure temperature, would be particularly attractive.
Abstract— There is a need for a non-invasive and continuous blood pressure monitor. Photoplethysmography (PPG) is one of the techniques that were investigated for this purpose in an in vitro model where the relationship between the PPG and pressure-volume (P-V) changes was investigated. Pressure and red (R) infrared (IR) PPG signals were recorded continuously in an arterial model that simulates fluid flow utilizing a pulsatile pump. Flow rates were controlled through three set- points of pumping frequencies at low and high stroke volumes. Normalized Pulse Volume (NPV) is defined as the light intensity ratio at each wavelength, R (NPV R ) and IR (NPV IR ).
The areas of skin of the subject’s outer forearm where diffusion cell was to be located were prepared by briskly rubbing the areas for 6–8 s with alcohol preparation pads to remove dry skin, oils, and other contaminants. The areas were then allowed to dry thoroughly. Once the diffusion cell and Ag/AgCl electrodes were fixed in position onto the human forearm, 300 µ l phosphate buffer (0.1 M; pH 7.0) was added into each electrode chamber of the diffusion cell. Then, the optimum combination of RI (symmetrical biphasic direct current (dc) with the current density of 0.3 mA/cm 2 and the
This paper provides relief to medical advisory for patient monitoring and also to patients for freedom of movement. Therefore heart rate sensor and temperature sensor are used for patient monitoring. Sensors gives accurate output therefore it rules out the use of traditional medical instruments such as thermometer and other devices. For continuously sending message from patient’s location to medical advisory GSM modem used. This paper deals with solving above problems. The project consist of heart rate sensor and temperature sensor which measures the heart rate and bodytemperature and sends SMS through GSM module to the medical advisory for the preliminary precautions so that patient can be prevented from serious situation before reaching to the hospital. For temporary storage of the data, PIC16F877A controller device used. For display the measured values of heart beat and bodytemperature, LCD is used. 
reflective marker sets and four high-speed cameras to measure static mechanical lower limb alignment but reported only a moderate correlation (R 2 =0.544) with the corresponding long-leg radiographs and a discrepancy of more than 5.3° for 10% of cases. However, the hip, knee and ankle joint centres were determined from anthropometric measurements which are widely accepted as being inaccurate, particularly for the hip joint [29-32]. The experimental set up in terms of anatomical landmark identification, marker placement, multiple camera positioning and data capture analysis also presented several limitations as a clinically adaptable measurement tool. In contrast, the system developed in this study consisted of a single portable camera unit with corresponding IR trackers that should be secure and visible but without the requirement of specific anatomical placement. The kinematic registration process was approximately five minutes with on-screen guidance for performing simple joint movements to determine their rotational centres. The subsequent MFT angle was generated from kinematic data alone without the potential associated errors of anatomical landmark registration . Hip joint centre location errors were minimised by a software algorithm that rejected the points in space acquired during thigh circumduction if their spread was too large or the distribution was non-spherical . The passive movements for kinematic registration were therefore required to be slow and controlled, which contrasts to other studies of functional joint centre determination using active movements or gait [22,23].
Ln U U U м is using and that requires equidistant spacing of wavelengths; wherein the equivalent wavelength is rather big that increase the error of measuring. According  spacing of wavelengths can be arbitrary and not equidistant and that can decrease equivalent wave- length and improve the accuracy of measured temperature.
ABSTRACT: This study used a non-invasive method of ballistocardiography to investigate cardiac work of chick embryos. In this method, an eggshell with electric charges on it is one capacitor plate, the other being a receiving antenna of the measuring equipment. Chick embryo cardiac work induces micro-movements of the whole egg, resulting in changes in the distances between the plates and thus in the difference of potentials between the shell and the receiving antenna. This is registered by the measuring equipment. The first single signals of cardiac work were registered on day 7 of incubation. Starting from day 9, the signal was recorded from all embryos. During the study, the heart rate decreased from 248 to 161 beats per minute and signal amplitude was found to steadily increase from 6.3 to 432.7 mV/m. Great disturbances in ballistocardiograms were observed on days preceding embryonic deaths.
temperature sensor is transmitted to the microcontroller and this data will be sent to the computer using ZigBee Technology . The infrared sensor which includes thermocouple and thermistor is used to measure bodytemperature and transmitting data to the user’s mobile phone using Bluetooth Technology in real time . Another method to measure bodytemperature is a temperature probe consisting of digital temperature sensor thatprovides dual channels to measure the bodytemperature. This sensor operates in the range 16 o C to 42 o and data is transmitted through the Bluetooth module and the software interface used is the serial communicator software embedded into Proton Development Suite . To measure perspiration,the current technology involves a sweat sensor which composes gold and polyamide electrodes. The sensor works on the principle that when the resistance decreases the sweat level increases . A moisture sensor is embedded in a shirt that measures the sweat level. Here the conductive part of the sensor is made from multifilament polyamide silver. Acid sweat solution and base sweat solution are applied to the sensor to test the variations in the measured resistance of the sweat sensor .
15(20%) had a Tanner stage of 2 or 3 (Table 1). The study participants were 49(64%) non-Hispanic white, 16(21%) non-Hispanic black, 7(9%) Asian, 3(4%) Hispanic/Latino, 1(1%) other (Hawaiian Pacific/white) and 1(1%) was missing value (Table 1). The participants median (Q1 – Q3) BMI was 35.3 (32.3 - 39.3), they were all obese and 38(49%) had a BMI ≥99 th percentile (Table 1). Using one
sharply in healthcare system. Since a sensor does not do anything after it measures or evaluate the data, thus it can be said that the IoT is really comes with the connection of the sensor as the cloud-based application is a key of leveraging the data. In order to interpret and transmit the data from the sensors, the cloud-based application is required so that the data is able to analyse. The cloud has the benefits that enables the apps for anytime and anywhere. There are two parameters are measured in this project which are the pulse rate and the bodytemperature. Pulse rate is also knows as heart rate which defined as the number of times of a person’s heart beats per minute (bpm). According to the American Heart Association, a normal heart rate is between 60 to 100 bpm for adults whereas the normal heart rate between 70 to 100 bpm for children ages 6 to 15 . A resting heart rate below 60 bpm is defined as Bradycardia whereas a heart rate exceeds 100bpm is defined as Tachycardia. The bodytemperature varies by many factors such as age, activity, and time of day. Generally, the average normal bodytemperature is accepted as 37°C (98.6°F). A temperature exceeds 38°C (100.4°F) most often means a person have a fever. A normal bodytemperature range is normally between 36.1°C to 37.2 °C (96.98–98.96 °F). The normal bodytemperature also depends on site of the temperaturemeasurement and the reading is taken. For example, a temperature reading from the armpit will be lower than the body's coretemperature.
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reflective marker sets and four high-speed cameras to measure static mechanical lower limb alignment but reported only a moderate correlation (R 2 =0.544) with the
corresponding long-leg radiographs and a discrepancy of more than 5.3° for 10% of cases. However, the hip, knee and ankle joint centres were determined from anthropometric measurements which are widely accepted as being inaccurate, particularly for the hip joint [29-32]. The experimental set up in terms of anatomical landmark identification, marker placement, multiple camera positioning and data capture analysis also presented several limitations as a clinically adaptable measurement tool. In contrast, the system developed in this study consisted of a single portable camera unit with corresponding IR trackers that should be secure and visible but without the requirement of specific anatomical placement. The kinematic registration process was approximately five minutes with on-screen guidance for performing simple joint movements to determine their rotational centres. The subsequent MFT angle was generated from kinematic data alone without the potential associated errors of anatomical landmark registration . Hip joint centre location errors were minimised by a software algorithm that rejected the points in space acquired during thigh circumduction if their spread was too large or the distribution was non-spherical . The passive movements for kinematic registration were therefore required to be slow and controlled, which contrasts to other studies of functional joint centre determination using active movements or gait [22,23].
Most non-invasive BP measuring methods are based on oscillometric method, which are widely accepted and used worldwide but they restrict patients‟ mobility. They require uncomfortable cuffs and are not suitable for home-care and continuous long term monitoring applications. Continuous monitoring of BP can be done hassle free by an accurate and inexpensive device independent of patient's‟ movement and which does not require supervision of a trained person or any physician. . These requirements can be satisfied using a monitoring system that uses an IR light source and a sensor to measure the blood pressure. The optical pulsatile method of blood pressure measurement is used to gather pulse data obtained from various parts of body. This data collected can be used to track one‟s health, prevent illness and can be sent to doctors for analysis using an App. The main advantage of this system is its portability and ease of use after learning some basic instructions. Readings taken by this system are designed to match readings taken by standard instruments with some minimal amount of deviation. By providing this data to both patients and doctors, we hope to facilitate and augment the throughput of doctors‟ efforts.
Four female subjects between the ages of 21 and 24 were tested. Their heights were between 63 inches and 69 inches. Prior to testing, each subject was fitted with a sports bra, spandex shorts, and a swim cap that covered all of their hair. All jewelry and any other objects on the body were removed. The independent variable being manipulated was the amount of water being consumed before the body composition tests. The dependent variable was body composition (percent body fat).