Top PDF Prediction of site-specific ground motion parameters by a non-parametric approach

Prediction of site-specific ground motion parameters by a non-parametric approach

Prediction of site-specific ground motion parameters by a non-parametric approach

Seismic ground motion at a specific site depends on the local site characteristics. In the case of usual structures, the so-called soil factors, representing the ratio between relevant ground motion parameters (typically accelerations) at a soil and a rock site, are used for determining design ground motion parameters. In the case of important structures, like nuclear power plants, ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs) are used for the prediction of the ground motion parameters. GMPEs include soil characteristics, which are typically defined as the shear velocity at the upper 30m of the soil profile, V s30 .
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Prediction intervals for future BMI values of individual children - a non-parametric approach by quantile boosting

Prediction intervals for future BMI values of individual children - a non-parametric approach by quantile boosting

Table 2 contains the estimated covariate effects for quantile boosting. It can be observed that not all covari- ates are selected during the boosting process, which again reflects the variable selection property of quantile boosting. For the 2.5% BMI quan-tile, cSex, cBreast and mEdu are excluded from the model, whereas for the 97.5% BMI quantile cBMI0, mDiffBMI and cBreast are excluded. For both quantiles, mBMI and cArea are chosen with similar effects. This can be interpreted as follows with respect to the PIs: Both PI borders for a child from a urban area, for example, are shifted by -0.029 kg/m 2 and -0.075 kg/m 2 compared to the PI bor- ders for a child from an rural area. Interestingly, the effect of mSmoke has different signs for different quan- tiles, meaning that the effect of maternal smoking dur- ing pregnancy seems to be negative for lower BMI quantiles and positive for upper BMI quantiles. This results in a wider PI for a child whose mother smoked during pregnancy. The estimated non-linear effects of cBMI2 are presented in the Additional file 1, Figure S1.
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How Reliable are the Ground Motion Prediction Equations?

How Reliable are the Ground Motion Prediction Equations?

Recently, several new ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs) have been developed in USA (NGA project) and elsewhere. Unfortunately, the predictions obtained by different models still differ considerably, even if a common database was used, as in the case of the NGA models. In this paper, a non-parametric approach (CAE method) has been used in order to obtain some information about the influence of different databases and different functional forms on the predictions. The results suggest that the predictions depend substantially on the selection of the effective database and on the adopted functional form. Both decisions rely to some extent on judgement. The influences of both subjective decisions are especially important at short distances from the source. The regional differences seem to be of the same or even smaller magnitude than the differences observed between different models proposed for the same region, at least at short and moderate distances. Aftershocks in the database generally decrease the median values and increase the scatter.
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Site-Specific Ground Motion Prediction Equations on the basis of instrumentally verified subsoil classes of strong-motion recording sites and their application to NPP sites in Germany

Site-Specific Ground Motion Prediction Equations on the basis of instrumentally verified subsoil classes of strong-motion recording sites and their application to NPP sites in Germany

On the basis of a database composed of uniformly elaborated sub-datasets and records which are site-specific with respect to the depth profile and their site classification, different GMPEs can be derived depending on the conditions of the target site. The instrumental site classification and corresponding characterization of the recordings enables a site-dependent selection of those data which are most appropriate for the hazard level (and the deaggregation of magnitude and distance parameters) as well as for the refinement of site characterization. The dataset for the required site-specific GMPEs can be qualified by records from the target site. The advantage of the approach is quite evident: The equations can be used as input parameters for PSHA, directly. Additional uncertainties resulting from the site response analysis can be avoided. The data reflects the local amplification particularities for the depth profile and ground conditions. Results are realistic and more reliable than those from hypothetical site response studies. Next steps of the presented (still ongoing) studies are focused on the implementation to Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment (including lower bound motion filter) and further site amplification considerations .
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Selection of ground motion prediction equations for the global earthquake model

Selection of ground motion prediction equations for the global earthquake model

For ACRs, the most often tested models are the NGA models of AS08, BA08 (which is the single most-tested model), CB08, and CY08. Many of the studies seek to evaluate the applicability of the global NGA models to specific regions, including Europe, Japan, Iran, and New Zealand. The overall goodness-of-fit approaches find varying levels of fit for these and other models. Sometimes when poor fits are encountered, relatively-local GMPEs that fit the data better are recommended, but such models are likely to not extrapolate well to larger magnitude events. None of the NGA models or other pre-selected models stands out as clearly superior from these studies. Somewhat more useful are the second type of model-data comparisons in which specific GMPE attributes are tested. These studies find some instances of misfits in distance attenuation trends. In some cases when the data driving the misfit are from small magnitude events outside the range of applicability of the original models, a model by Chiou et al. (2010) performs well, although this was not a GEM pre-selected model from Task 2 because it only provides coefficients for a few structural periods.
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Peak ground motion predictions with empirical site factors using Taiwan Strong Motion Network recordings

Peak ground motion predictions with empirical site factors using Taiwan Strong Motion Network recordings

Liu and Tsai (2005) derived new ground motion predic- tion equations for crustal earthquakes in Taiwan using a tra- ditional regression method. The earthquake magnitude and hypocentral distance are the only two parameters during re- gressions for deriving their attenuation relationships. How- ever, another popular approach to predicting the ground mo- tion requires a source model and a predictive relationship which allows the estimation of a specific ground motion pa- rameter as a function of magnitude, distance, source param- eters, and frequency. The predictive relationship is char- acterized by a geometric spreading function, a frequency- dependent crustal Q function, and a function describing the effective duration of the ground motion. Following the ap- proaches described in the papers of Raoof et al. (1999) and Malagnini et al. (2000), the regional attenuation of seismic waves in Taiwan is firstly investigated in this study. The predictive relationships here were built up by a great num- ber of strong motion data collected by the Taiwan Strong Motion Network (TSMN) operated by the Central Weather Bureau (CWB) under the Taiwan Strong Motion Instrumen- tation Program (Shin, 1993). Essentially, the advantage of their method over the classical regression analysis is to take into account the duration parameter as a function of fre- quency and distance, which is more effective in structural engineering applications.
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Benefits of site specific seismic hazard analyses for seismic design in New Zealand

Benefits of site specific seismic hazard analyses for seismic design in New Zealand

response provide an improved estimate of surficial site effects over the NZS1170.5 site classes, they still represent an average representation of near surface site effects. Sites which have atypical soil profiles (e.g. velocity inversions), and/or very soft soil deposits where significant cyclic softening or liquefaction is likely under strong shaking will benefit greatly from the direct modelling of near surface site effects through wave propagation analyses. In NZGS [4] this is referred to as the “Method 3” approach to determine design ground motion amplitudes. Such analyses can be 1D/2D/3D in nature and consider the constitutive (stress-strain) response of the soils using equivalent-linear, nonlinear total stress, or nonlinear effective stress approaches. While a detailed discussion of
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Ground-Motion Prediction Equations for Central and Eastern North America, with Emphasis on Site Effects

Ground-Motion Prediction Equations for Central and Eastern North America, with Emphasis on Site Effects

In general, three different approaches have been proposed to develop GMPEs in ENA. The most widely-used approach is the stochastic simulation-based method, in which a seismological model is used to model source, path, and site effects (e.g. Atkinson and Boore, 1995, 2006, 2011; Toro et al., 1997; Silva et al., 2002). Simulation-based GMPEs usually rely on a simple seismological model in which the underlying source, path and site parameters are determined from small-to-moderate magnitude events, then used to model expected motions over a wider range of magnitudes and distances. Another popular approach is the hybrid empirical method (Campbell, 2003; Tavakoli and Pezeshk, 2005; Pezeshk et al., 2011). In this method, GMPEs from host regions (active regions with robust empirical GMPEs) are adjusted to produce GMPE models for target regions (regions with poor ground-motion databases). This method also makes use of stochastic simulations: specifically, the adjustment factors are defined as the ratio of the simulated ground-motion amplitudes for the target region divided by the simulated ground-motion amplitudes for the host region. A third method for development of
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Site-specific ground motion models for soil sites with thick sedimentary layers

Site-specific ground motion models for soil sites with thick sedimentary layers

On the basis of a database composed of uniformly elaborated sub-datasets and records which are site-specific with respect to the depth profile and their site classification different GMPE can be derived depending on the conditions of the target site. The instrumental site classification and corresponding characterization of the recordings enables a site-dependent selection of those data which are most appropriate for the hazard level (and the deaggregation of magnitude and distance parameters) as well as for the refinement of site characterization. The dataset for the required site-specific GMPE can be qualified by records from the target (reference) site. The advantage of the approach is quite evident: The equations can be used as input parameters for PSHA, directly. Additional uncertainties resulting from the site response analysis can be avoided. The data reflect the local amplification particularities for the spatial ground conditions. Results are realistic and more reliable than those from hypothetically site response studies.
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Evaluating the Relative Efficiency of Iran's Tourism Industry: A Non-Parametric Approach

Evaluating the Relative Efficiency of Iran's Tourism Industry: A Non-Parametric Approach

One of the important sources of income and the creation of job opportunities is attention to the tourism industry, known as one of the main economic pillars and one of the engines of economic growth. Considering the global growth of this industry and the existence of diverse tourist attractions in Iran, there is a potential to pay more global attention. In this regard, tourism efficiency of Iran provinces was evaluated. After collecting data, the most important factors influencing the tourism industry including government budget, number of residences, number of inbound and outbound flights, the infrastructure of roads and total places were identified and weighted in according to their importance. To evaluate the efficiency of the tourism industry in the provinces of Iran, we applied a nonparametric approach i.e., data envelopment analysis. They were ranked based on the assumption of constant returns to scale. The possibility of non- controllability of some mentioned factors was also considered.
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Assessing the accuracy of volunteered geographic information arising from multiple contributors to an internet based collaborative project

Assessing the accuracy of volunteered geographic information arising from multiple contributors to an internet based collaborative project

There is great potential for crowdsourcing to contribute constructively to land cover map validation activities (Iwao et al. 2006, Fritz et al. 2012). Indeed, contemporary mapping activ- ity benefits greatly from recent advances in geoinformation technologies beyond remote sensing, notably through citizen sensors fostered by the proliferation of inexpensive and highly mobile location-aware devices able to provide spatial data of value to the mapping community. Mapping, therefore, can draw upon not only the work of authoritative agencies but also the broader, amateur, community, often through contributions to Internet hosted collaborative activities (e.g. Iwao et al. 2006). A key problem with the volunteered geographic information (VGI) provided by the amateur community is that it can be of variable, and typically unknown, quality. The volunteers providing the data may vary greatly, from enthusiastic but naïve and untrained hobbyists to highly skilled professionals of considerable expertise. While the latter group of people may often volunteer (Brabham 2012) the quality of the data pro- vided may still be a concern given the known concerns with expert labelers (Foody 2002, 2010). There is also a danger that VGI may sometimes be corrupted by errors deliberately introduced with malicious intent. It is often valuable, therefore, to have data provided by mul- tiple observers, especially as this enables a consensus-based approach to be used in labeling cases (Haklay et al. 2010, Tang and Lease 2011). Even with such approaches there are con- cerns about the variation in quality of data acquired by different contributors as well as varia- tions within the set of data provided by a single contributor. If VGI are to be used it is important that information on the quality of the data and of the data sources be made available.
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Intergenerational Long Term Effects of Preschool   Structural Estimates from a Discrete Dynamic Programming Model

Intergenerational Long Term Effects of Preschool Structural Estimates from a Discrete Dynamic Programming Model

We show in the next two subsections that non-cognitive skills are important determinants of earnings and learning. In this section we consider the production process of these skills. The literature in sociology, psychology, early childhood development and physiology suggest that early childhood investment is the most crucial input for development of cog- nitive and non-cognitive skills. The studies in these literatures link school success to home environment, child rearing practices, neighborhood type in which the kid is raised. For in- stance, the Coleman report (1966) and many subsequent studies find that family capital, which captures family tradition and values towards economic success and education, and social capital, which captures the benefits of social bonds, social norms, social networks, the social bonds between adults and children and among children in a neighborhood are of immense value during a child's growing up. These factors affect parental choices of preschool investment and child rearing methods which in turn determine a child's cognitive and non-cognitive abilities that affect their learning and earning. Physiology literature pro- duces ample evidence that the human brain develops extremely rapidly during age [2-4], and the type of stimulations regarding health and learning that the child experience during this period is a critical determinant of a child's cognitive, social and motor developments. Child psychology literature also points out that a structured preschool stimulation also boosts a child's self-confidence, school preparedness, parents' and teachers' assessment of the child's ability. These in turn create a conducive learning environment for the child over many more years of schooling, beginning with the elementary school. See Entwisle (1995), and Barnett (1995) for more on these issues.
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A Non Parametric Approach to Spatial Causality

A Non Parametric Approach to Spatial Causality

The purpose of this paper is to show the capacity of a new non-parametric test based on symbolic entropy and symbolic dynamics to deal with the detection of linear and non-linear spatial causality. The good performance of the new test in detecting spatial causality and causal weighting matrix is notable and gives rise to an expectation that it may form a adequate tool for constructive specification searches.

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Gnostics in Valuation: Non Parametric Approach to Multiples Estimation

Gnostics in Valuation: Non Parametric Approach to Multiples Estimation

The deduction is used for research question formulation. From general knowledge about capital markets is articulated research problem of the most fitting method for estimation valuation multiples for the forestry industry. Induction derived the theoretical solution of the most accurate estimation of location parameter for the multiples value in comparison with the value of publicly traded stock on capital markets. For deriving the method is used the comparison of standard statistical approaches of mean value and probability and methods of mathematical Gnostics. Firstly, are summarized mostly used multiples in relative valuation approach recommended by extensive literature research for commodity companies. The multiples are decomposed ale analytically explained with the attention on the usage of location parameters. Secondly, Gnostics’ location parameters and functions are decomposed and explained and adjusted for multiples valuation. Further, the theoretical comparison is done and results are discussed and formulas were derived for empirical verification of the accuracy of application of mathematical Gnostics in the valuation of forestry companies via relative approach.
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Technical Efficiency of Maize Production in Nigeria: Parametric and Non-Parametric Approach

Technical Efficiency of Maize Production in Nigeria: Parametric and Non-Parametric Approach

The Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) was developed by Charnes, Cooper, and Rhodes (1978). It involved the estimation of non- parametric frontiers. Other than comparing efficiency across Decision Making Units (DMUs) within an organization, DEA has also been used to compare efficiency across firms. This approach does not require price data, and if price data are available, then allocative efficiency can be calculated. Charnes et al. (1978) used this approach in their study to estimate an empirical production technology frontier. DEA with the most basic being CCR based on Charnes et al. (1978) address varying returns to scale, either CRS (constant returns to scale) or VRS (variable return to scale). In the DEA methodology, formally developed by Charnes et al. (1978), efficiency is defined as a ratio of weighted sum of outputs to a weighted sum of inputs, where the weights structure is calculated by means of mathematical programming and constant return to scale (CRS) are assumed.
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Using Deductions from Assessment Studies towards Furtherance of the Academic Program: An Empirical Appraisal of Institutional Student Course Evaluation

Using Deductions from Assessment Studies towards Furtherance of the Academic Program: An Empirical Appraisal of Institutional Student Course Evaluation

The authors have sought to present and reflect on a pro- cess of analysis of, and inference from student evaluation data. We aim to maximize appropriateness in dealing with analysis of such data and its usefulness in deriving clues for future improvement. Our primary intention was to develop an analytical strategy which would be uni- formly adopted by university colleges as well as admin- istrative units. It aimed to discourage the use of theoreti- cally inappropriate approach, and, also to encourage use of comparatively appropriate approach regarding item- by-item analysis of evaluation data collected on Likert type item. We emphasize that analytical approach to deal with data on Likert type item will not remain same as used in case of dealing with data on Likert scales (simul- taneous considerations of a group of Likert type items). To ensure its positive impact for further improvement,
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On the Selection of Time Series Representative of Site Specific  Seismic Motion

On the Selection of Time Series Representative of Site Specific Seismic Motion

supposing that the distributions of these parameters are lognormal, an aleatory research is performed in the [-xσ,+xσ] around the mean, with x values being given in table 1 last line. We then reproduce the (M,distance) distribution data of the SMDB [730 data], as we did to test the signals generated using SIMQUAKE code. In this case, 3 of the 4 studied parameters are directly used in the code to construct the synthetics (CAV is not retained). Figure 6 illustrates the improvement of seismic variability on PGA parameter using the Pousse et al., 2006 [10] modified code. This improvement is also valid for other studied parameters. The synthesis of the work is given on Figure 7, for the response spectrum parameter, considering a (M=5,5 at 20 km, rock site) target triplet: the selection is performed using the procedure described on Figure 4.
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Optimization of Parametric Periodograms for the Study of Density Fluctuations in a Supersonic Jet

Optimization of Parametric Periodograms for the Study of Density Fluctuations in a Supersonic Jet

In our research on the density fluctuations of a supersonic jet we were confronted with a quite difficult problem. In the power spectrum obtained either with a spectrum analyzer, the peaks of the two of the modes that we wanted to identify overlapped. We needed to find a signal processing method that would resolve the two main frequencies. We made a thorough investigation of several methods and thought that parametric periodograms were the appropriate tool. The use of parametric periodograms in signal processing requires constant training. The proper application of this tool depends on the determination of the number of parameters that has to be used to best model a real signal. The methods generally used to determine this number are subjective, depending on trial and error and on the experience of the user. Some of these methods rely on the minimization of the estimated variance of the linear prediction error , as a function of the number of parameters n. In many cases, the graph vs n doesn’t have a minimum, and the methods cannot be used. In this paper, we show that there is a strong relationship between and the frequency resolution
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Challenges faced during the modelling, dynamic analysis, and vulnerability study with SOFiSTiK in the context of the SMART 2013 Benchmark Project

Challenges faced during the modelling, dynamic analysis, and vulnerability study with SOFiSTiK in the context of the SMART 2013 Benchmark Project

There are clear correlations between the ground motion parameters PGA, CAV, ASA40 and the response parameter storey drift. But, for the frequency drop as a response parameter, a clear correlation could not be observed. It should be mentioned that the frequency drops were estimated from the decrease of peaks of Fourier spectra of displacements, which likely is not a very stable procedure.

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Prioritising site-specific micropollutants in surface water from LC-HRMS non-target screening data using a rarity score

Prioritising site-specific micropollutants in surface water from LC-HRMS non-target screening data using a rarity score

Water pollution due to household effluents treated in and emitted via municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is expected to be composed of a more or less consistent, typical set of substances from major human activities including laundry care, home care, health care, personal care and food [10]. Concentrations are mainly impacted by the type of wastewater treatment used, the number of inhabitants served by the WWTP, and the effluent dilution in the receiving water [29, 37]. Addition- ally, micropollutants from agricultural use (dominated by pesticides) reach surface water via diffuse inputs from leaching, and in particular by surface runoff during rain events [18, 33]. Surface waters may also be contaminated by local inputs from industrial production sites, landfills, or accidental releases, either directly or via WWTPs. These inputs might contain highly specific substances or substances in much higher concentrations as compared to municipal wastewater (e.g. [14, 41, 43]).
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