Top PDF Preemergence weed control using corn gluten meal

Preemergence weed control using corn gluten meal

Preemergence weed control using corn gluten meal

An effective herbicide must not only con trol undesirable plants, dubbed weeds, but must also 25 ral weed control substance of the present invention is corn gluten meal.. Corn gluten mea[r]

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Alternative Mechanisms for Weed Control and Fertility Management in Organic Canola and Corn Production.

Alternative Mechanisms for Weed Control and Fertility Management in Organic Canola and Corn Production.

Results from this study demonstrate that adequate weed suppression in organic corn production can be obtained by roller-crimping a rye/vetch cover crop mixture when cover crop biomass levels in excess of 9,000 kg ha -1 are achieved. At five of the six environments in this study, starter fertilizer materials were necessary to maximize corn yields. Results from a combined corn grain yield analysis of four moderate fertility environments indicate that producers have flexibility when selecting starter fertilizer materials and application methods, and that subsurface banding feather meal fertilizer is a viable option to obtain high corn grain yield for producers who are limited in their ability to use poultry litter. In the combined corn grain yield analysis, the SBPL fertility treatment did not have significantly higher corn grain yield than the no starter fertility treatment, and both treatments provided for lower corn grain yield than the other fertility treatments. At the lowest fertility environment, providing high PAN through the HBPL fertility treatment was required to ensure corn competiveness to suppress weeds and to reach high corn grain yield. In one environment from this study which had very high cover crop biomass and a long term history of manure and legume use, similar corn grain yields were achieved across all fertility treatments, indicating that maximum corn grain yield can be achieved without starter fertilizer input if cover crop biomass and N carryover are very high. Further research is necessary on the effects of starter fertilizer
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UTILIZATION OF CORN GLUTEN MEAL AS A PROTEIN SOURCE IN DIETS FOR GILTHEAD SEA BREAM (Sparus aurata L.) JUVENILES

UTILIZATION OF CORN GLUTEN MEAL AS A PROTEIN SOURCE IN DIETS FOR GILTHEAD SEA BREAM (Sparus aurata L.) JUVENILES

Even though the experimental diets in the pre- sent study were not fortified with essential amino acids, the required levels of amino acid for sea bream were provided by the experimental diets and met the requirements of sea bream reported by Kaushik (1998). However, there were still im- balances of AA contents among each test diet. Nevertheless, the imbalances in the amino acid composition between experimental groups were explicit. For example, the 20% and 30% CGM diets contained 14% and 20% less lysine, respec- tively than the control diet. Lysine is generally considered the first limiting amino acid in most fish species (Robaina et al. 1997), and both lysine and arginine are the two main limiting amino acids in CGM for aquaculture feeds (Amerio et al., 1998), which was reflected in the amino acid profile of the experimental diets with increasing levels of CGM. In the present study, besides ly- sine, arginine content in the 20% and 30% CGM diets were also less (8% and 13%, respectively) than the control diet. Therefore, the 22 to 26% lower mean final weights in the 20% or 30% CGM groups could be attributed to the lower ly- sine or arginine contents of the test diets com- pared to the control group.
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Evalutation of Weed Management in Glyphosate-Resistant Corn (Zea Mays) as Affected by Preemergence Herbicide, Timing of Postemergence Herbicide Application, and Glyphosate Products

Evalutation of Weed Management in Glyphosate-Resistant Corn (Zea Mays) as Affected by Preemergence Herbicide, Timing of Postemergence Herbicide Application, and Glyphosate Products

Corn hybrids have been developed that are resistant to glufosinate {2-amino-4-(hydroxymethylphosphinyl) butanoic acid}, glyphosate, and imidazolinone herbicides. Some of these hybrids were developed through conventional plant breeding methods while others were transgenically developed. The first herbicide-resistant corn hybrids, which were imidazolinone-resistant, were commercialized in 1992. This tolerance was not produced through genetic modification but through screening of callus tissue arrays. Imazethapyr {2-[4,5- dihydro-4-methyl-4-(1-methylethyl)-5-oxo-1H-imidazol-2-yl]-5-ethyl-3-pyridinecarboxylic acid} and other imidazolinone herbicides inhibit ALS, thus depriving susceptible plants of essential amino acids and interfering with DNA synthesis and cell growth. Resistance is due to the corn having an altered form of ALS, which can metabolize imidazilinone herbicides more efficiently than corn without this trait (Shaner and O’Connor 1991). A prepackeged mixture of imazethapyr plus imazapyr {(±)-2-[4,5-dihydro-4-methyl-4-(1-methylethyl)-5-oxo- 1H-imidazol-2-yl]-3-pyridinecarboxylic acid} applied POST is suggested for use on imidazolinone-resistant corn (York and Culpepper 2003). Imidazilinone-resistant corn has not been readily adopted in part because of problems with ALS-resistant weeds (Foes et al. 1998; Franssen et al. 2001) and because other products are available that can control the same weeds.
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Weed Control, Environmental Impact and Profitability of Weed Management Strategies in Glyphosate Resistant Corn

Weed Control, Environmental Impact and Profitability of Weed Management Strategies in Glyphosate Resistant Corn

Preemergence herbicides fb glyphosate provided greater control of annual grasses than glyphosate applied EPOST at Exeter and RCB in 2006, Exeter and Harrow in 2007, and Harrow, RCA and RCB in 2008; or glyphosate ap- plied LPOST at Exeter in 2007 (Table 6). Residual con- trol from the PRE herbicide in addition to a LPOST cleanup with glyphosate likely contributed to the in- creased annual grass control. Annual grass control was higher when PRE herbicides were followed by gly- phosate compared to sequential glyphosate applications at Exeter in 2008; however this relationship was reversed at Harrow in 2007 and 2008. The only non-glyphosate treatments expected to control annual grasses were S-me- tolachlor/atrazine/benoxacor and isoxaflutole + atrazine. Comparison of these treatments to a sequential gly- phosate application showed no differences at Harrow (2007, 2008) and had higher control at Exeter in 2008. Control of annual grasses increased by 11% - 70% and 6% - 9% with sequential glyphosate applications com- pared to glyphosate applied alone EPOST or LPOST, respectively, depending on location (Table 6). As sug- gested previously, EPOST glyphosate applications alone may result in weed escapes and LPOST glyphosate ap- plications alone may not control larger weeds. Applica- tion of glyphosate LPOST provided 11% - 64% greater control of annual grasses compared to EPOST applica- tion; however, this response was location dependent. Gonzini et al. [20] found that in glyphosate-resistant soy- bean control of giant foxtail improved by 2% - 15% with sequential applications of glyphosate POST or PRE her- bicides followed by a POST application of glyphosate compared to a single-pass application of glyphosate POST.
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Weed Control with Halosulfuron Applied Preplant Incorporated, Preemergence or Postemergence in White Bean

Weed Control with Halosulfuron Applied Preplant Incorporated, Preemergence or Postemergence in White Bean

Ontario is one of the leading provinces in Canada in production of dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), producing 118,000 MT of dry bean on 49,000 hectares with a farm-gate value of approximately $108 million in 2012 [1]. Major market classes of dry bean grown in Ontario include black, cranberry, kidney, and white (navy) bean. Dry beans are very sensitive to weed interference resulting in substantial yield losses [2]-[6]. In research conducted in Ontario the average yield loss due to weed interference in winter wheat was 2%, in spring cereals 12%, in soybean 40%, in corn 52% and in dry beans 58% [7]. More research is needed to identify new weed manage- ment herbicide options that have an adequate margin of crop safety, provide consistent broad spectrum weed control, have low environmental impact and maximize dry bean yield and net returns.
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Use of Distillers Dried Grain as Partial Replacement of Wheat Flour and Corn Gluten Meal in the Diet of Juvenile Black Seabream (Acanthopagrus schlegeli)

Use of Distillers Dried Grain as Partial Replacement of Wheat Flour and Corn Gluten Meal in the Diet of Juvenile Black Seabream (Acanthopagrus schlegeli)

This research was carried out to investigate the effects of dietary inclusion of distillers dried grain (DDG) level on growth performance, feed utilization, body composition and antioxidant enzyme activity of juvenile black seabream (Acanthopagrus schlegeli). Five isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets were formulated that contain 0 (control), 6%, 12%, 18% and 24% DDG designated as DDG0, DDG6, DDG12, DDG18 and DDG24, respectively. Three replicate groups of fish averaging 1.2 ± 0.01 g were fed with one of the experimental diets for visual satiety three times a day for 8 weeks. Weight gain was not affected by dietary DDG level (P>0.05). Feed efficiency and protein efficiency ratio of fish fed with DDG24 diet were lower than those of fish fed DDG0 diet (P<0.05). Proximate and amino acid composition of whole body were not affected by dietary DDG level. The activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase in the liver were not affected by dietary DDG level (P>0.05). The experiment suggested that DDG is a good ingredient to replace plant origin such as wheat flour and gluten meal and could be used up to 24% for the optimum growth performance of juvenile black seabream.
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Influence of Corn Gluten Meal on Growth Parameters and Carcass Composition of Indian Major Carps (Catla catla, Labeo rohita and Cirhinus mrigala)

Influence of Corn Gluten Meal on Growth Parameters and Carcass Composition of Indian Major Carps (Catla catla, Labeo rohita and Cirhinus mrigala)

Corn gluten meal is a highly demandable vegetable protein with no anti nutritional factor. It has high potential for utilization in fish diets due to its high digestibility value. Based on these, a research was conducted using corn gluten meal in three different inclusion levels i.e. 25%, 35% and 45% as CGM I, CGM II and CGM III respectively to replace 80%, 50% and 20% of fish meal in the control diet containing 45% protein. This will proffer appropriate inclusion level of corn gluten meal for carps (Catla catla, Labeo rohita and Cirhinus mrigala) in intensive polyculture. It was resulted that all tested levels of corn gluten meal respond enormously to give significant yield (88.14 Kg, 83.86 Kg and 98.03 Kg respectively) as compare to control diet, however, CGM III with 20% replacement of fish meal produced maximum yield as compare to CGM I and II. In terms of nutrient profile, values of moisture, crude protein, fat, carbohydrate and ash communicated non-significantly among treatments, but incorporation of corn gluten meal enhanced protein and lipid by reducing moisture and ash in body tissues of carps. The results attributed the significance and acceptability of plant based diets by Indian major carps.
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Evaluation Corn Gluten Meal Nutritive Value for Broiler Chicks

Evaluation Corn Gluten Meal Nutritive Value for Broiler Chicks

of lysine as the first limiting amino acid in broiler which in turn, through making some signals in brain, it causes a reduction in feed intake and reduce the broiler chicks performance. However, in the present experiment, CGM containing diets were fortified with synthetic amino acids to reduce the effect of amino acid imbalance. Remarkable improvement for FCR was observed in broilers chicks fed all levels of CGM during all of rearing weeks. These results were in agreement with those of Silva et al. (2003) who observed positive effect of CGM supplementation and reported that FCR improved with increasing CGM (Koreleski 2003). With regard to table 6, the CGM had remarkable effect on carcass efficiency. Basic factors in relation to carcass efficiency in broiler chickens are: abdominal fat, breast weight and empty body weight that, these three cases in nourished chickens with ration contain of CGM have significant difference with control group (p<0.01).
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Study on Classification Corn Seedling and Weed Based on RGB Model and HSV Model

Study on Classification Corn Seedling and Weed Based on RGB Model and HSV Model

Weeds are great harmful to crops especially in seedling stage, they compete with crops for fertilizer, light, water and space. They are easy to cause pest and disease damage, thus reduce crop yield and quality. The currently existing weeding methods include artificial weeding, mechanical weeding, chemical weeding, biological weeding, flame weeding, electricity weeding, and radiation weeding. While mechanical weeding can not only resist effectively the use of pesticides and chemical fertilizer so that meet the requirements of people for food security and environmental protection, but also increase the air permeability and water permeability of soil so that contribute to the growth of crops (Athanasios et al., 2010). The key technology of mechanical weeding is the precise identification of weed, which guarantees intelligence and accuracy.
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Impact of Nitrogen Source, Rate, and Weed Removal Time on Nitrogen Availability to Corn.

Impact of Nitrogen Source, Rate, and Weed Removal Time on Nitrogen Availability to Corn.

greater yield than glufosinate, although this has been variable across years (Lindsey et al. 2012). Yield loss due to weeds has shown to be the same across different nitrogen rates in several studies (Barker et al. 2006; Wortman et al. 2011). In a similar way, an intercropping study by Kurtz et al. (1952) showed that when a crop is growing between a corn crop it will compete with the corn for mobile nutrients such as nitrogen and water. That is, it will compete for these nutrients, water included, if they are limiting to the environment. Overall, yield of intercropped corn resulted in a 10 to 15% deficit compared to corn grown without intercropping (Kurtz et al. 1952). Removing weeds from the equation results in a clear correlation where increasing nitrogen rates results in increasing corn yields. In a study by Wortman et al. (2011), velvetleaf was allowed to grow competitively with corn. In soils with a high mineralization potential velvetleaf was more competitive for nitrogen than in the soils with low mineralization potential (Wortman et al. 2011). Lindquist et al. (2001) found when grown in an environment together, weeds and crops will impact the resources available for one another and will do so differently depending on the amount of these resources, nitrogen included. Blackshaw et al. (2005) observed wheat plots infested with broadleaf weed species showed less of a yield impact than those plots where grass weed species served as the
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Design and Fabrication of a Microwave Weed Killer Device for Weed Control Applications

Design and Fabrication of a Microwave Weed Killer Device for Weed Control Applications

In this work, the design and fabrication of a simple and low cost 2.4 GHz ISM band microwave device, considering the effect of soil parameters , is reported. The system was then tested on various indegnious Iranian weed seeds in order to verify its performance. The system is composed of a microwave magnetron source, the power circuit and at the end a simple pyramidal horn antenna. In section II of the paper, the theory of the system is explained. Section III explains the design of the system followed by the measurement results in section IV. Safety concerns of the system is investigated in section V and finally the paper is concluded in section VI.
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Whole Grain Gluten Free High Protein Vegetable Snacks of Buckwheat Peanut Meal and Kale

Whole Grain Gluten Free High Protein Vegetable Snacks of Buckwheat Peanut Meal and Kale

Whole grain gluten-free high protein vegetable snacks were evaluated. The snacks were Buckwheat-Peanut Meal-Kale (BPK), BPK-Garlic, BPK-Onion and BPK-Ginger. Peanut meal was utilized to increase the protein content of these snacks as well as to add value to this agricultural byproduct. Snack dough was prepared using water nearly 1:1 as other as is ingredients. About 20 g of snack dough was placed on preheated KrumKake Express 839 Baker and cooked for 2 minutes. Sixty-nine in-house volunteers judged Color/Appearance and Texture/Mouth feel to be similar for the snacks tested. Taste/Flavor for BPK, BPK-Garlic and BPK-Onion snacks was similar and significantly higher ( p ≤ 0.05) than for BPK-Ginger snacks. Odor/Aroma for BPK-Garlic snacks was significantly higher than for BPK-Ginger snacks. Acceptance for BPK and BPK-Garlic snacks was significantly higher than for BPK-Ginger snacks. Ex- pansion 3.6 - 4.2, porosity 0.72 - 0.75 and water activity 0.35 - 0.38 suggests that the snacks tested were light, crispy and have good anti-microbial stability. Acceptance was BPK and BPK-Garlic 94%, BPK-Onion 86% and BPK-Ginger 78%. These snacks contained only 3 - 4 ingredients and could be made in any house hold kitchen and/or in commercial production. Acceptance of 78% - 94% is very desirable. These whole grain gluten-free high protein vegetable healthy nutritious tasty snacks offer choice for all consumers, including indi- vidual’s sensitive to gluten.
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Effects of Glyphosate on Weed Management and Reproductive Biology of Glyphosate-Resistant Corn

Effects of Glyphosate on Weed Management and Reproductive Biology of Glyphosate-Resistant Corn

Yield data from glyphosate-resistant corn and soybean indicate no significant yield losses in response to labeled glyphosate treatments (Nolte and Young 2002; Elmore et al. 2001a). When comparing glyphosate-resistant soybean with their corresponding non- transgenic isoline, Elmore et al. (2001b) found a 5% reduction in yield for glyphosate- resistant lines. Elmore et al. (2001b) also found that the seed weight was lower and plants were 20 mm shorter in glyphosate-resistant lines. Glyphosate-resistant cotton has been shown to have boll retention problems after glyphosate treatments (Jones and Snipes 1999). Further investigations into this problem have shown reductions in pollen viability and number of seeds per boll, and reduced filament length in response to glyphosate applications (Pline et al. 2002).
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Cotton Response and Palmer Amaranth Control with Pyroxasulfone Applied Preemergence and Postemergence

Cotton Response and Palmer Amaranth Control with Pyroxasulfone Applied Preemergence and Postemergence

and extensive reliance on glyphosate, resistant bio- types evolved. Resistance to glyphosate has been confirmed in 31 weed species (Heap, 2014). The first confirmation of resistance to glyphosate in an Amaranthus species occurred with Palmer amaranth in Georgia in 2005 (Culpepper et al., 2006). By the end of 2014, GR Palmer amaranth had been confirmed in Alabama, Arizona, Arkansas, Dela - ware, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Michigan, Missis- sippi, Missouri, New Jersey, New Mexico, North Carolina, Ohio, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, and Virginia (Heap, 2014). Mul- tiple resistance to glyphosate and ALS-inhibiting herbicides is also common (Heap, 2014; Poirier et al., 2014; Sosnoskie et al., 2011). Many growers in the southeastern U.S. are now planting glufosinate- resistant cultivars in an effort to control GR Palmer amaranth (USDA-AMS, 2014).
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Effect of Using Enzyme Complex on Productivity and Hatchability of Broiler Breeders Fed a Corn-Soybean Meal Diet

Effect of Using Enzyme Complex on Productivity and Hatchability of Broiler Breeders Fed a Corn-Soybean Meal Diet

Over the past decade, dietary enzymes have been used as a tool to inactivate specific antinutritional factors in monogastric animals, especially in poultry. The use of exogenous enzymes to degrade indigestible dietary components has yielded inconsistent results mainly because of the presence of complex substrates in feedstuffs and the use of enzymes often not suitable for effective hydrolysis of such components (Slominski, 2011). Cleophas et al. (1995) suggested that a combination of different enzymes of different activities is required for complete degradation of complex non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) and improved nutrient utilization. Recent in vitro studies showed that a combination of carbohydrase enzymes is more effective in NSP depolymerization of soybean meal, canola meal, and peas than when the individual carbohydrases were used (Meng and Slominski, 2005; Meng et al., 2005). Enzymes can have a synergistic effect thus, some crude forms might be effective in improving performance. One enzyme coexisting in the crude form might be boosted by the presence of a small amount of another enzyme, resulting in an improvement in poultry performance. The synergistic effect of commercial enzymes was reported by Tahir et al. (2005) and was further discussed in a review by Slominski (2011).
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Seeding forage and weed control

Seeding forage and weed control

Increasing forage productivity in the Sierra foothill rangelands would help sustain the livestock industry as land availability shrinks and lease rates rise, but hardly any studies have been done on forage selections. From 2009 to 2014, in one of the first long-term and replicated studies of seeding Northern California’s Mediterranean annual rangeland, we compared the cover of 22 diverse forages to determine their establishment and survivability over time. Among the annual herbs, forage brassica (Brassica napus L.) and chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) proved viable options. Among the annual grasses, soft brome (Bromus hordeaceus) and annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) performed well. However, these species will likely require frequent reseeding to maintain dominance. Long-term goals of sustained dominant cover (> 3 years) are best achieved with perennial grasses. Perennial grasses that persisted with greater than 50% cover were Berber orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata), Flecha tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) and several varieties of hardinggrass (Phalaris aquatica L., Perla koleagrass, Holdfast, Advanced AT). In 2014, these successful perennials produced over three times more dry matter (pounds per acre) than the unseeded control and also suppressed annual grasses and yellow starthistle (Centaurea solstitialis L.) cover.
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Residual Weed Control in Cotton with Fluridone

Residual Weed Control in Cotton with Fluridone

P rior to glyphosate-resistant cotton, weeds in the crop were controlled using a number of different techniques (Young, 2006). These included tillage, both prior to and after planting, selective herbicides applied preplant incorporated, preemergence (PRE), postemergence (POST), and post-directed, as well as nonselective herbicides applied in shielded or hooded sprayers. Glyphosate- resistant cotton became commercially available in 1997. which greatly changed weed management in cotton. By 2011, glyphosate-resistant cotton was adopted on almost 100% of the Midsouth cotton acreage (USDA-NASS, 2011). Additionally, the use of tillage for weed control steadily declined with increasing adoption of minimum tillage production systems (Young, 2006). Therefore, glyphosate- resistant cotton cultivars allowed producers to safely rely on multiple applications of glyphosate for weed control (Culpepper et al., 2006). As a result of the extensive use of glyphosate, 15 weed species have been confirmed resistant to glyphosate in the U.S., of which eight are found in Arkansas (Heap, 2015).
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Weed Control Methods (Nature Conservancy)

Weed Control Methods (Nature Conservancy)

Use Against Natural Area Weeds: Imazapyr is a broad-spectrum herbicide that controls terrestrial annual and perennial grasses and broadleaved herbs, woody species, and riparian and emergent aquatic species. It can be used where total vegetation control is desired or in spot applications. Imazapyr is relatively slow acting, does not readily break down in the plant, and is therefore particularly good at killing large woody species. Imazapyr can control saltcedar (Tamarix ramossissima), privet (Ligustrum vulgare), blackberries (Rubus spp.), field bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis), bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum), and downy brome (Bromus tectorum) (American Cyanamid 1986). Caution should be used when applying imazapyr, as a few reports to TNC from the field indicate that imazapyr might be exuded from the roots of target species. Some legume species, such as mesquite, may actively exude imazapyr (J. Vollmer pers. comm.). Imazapyr herbicide can be mobile within roots and transferred between intertwined root systems (root grafts) of many different plants and/or to several species. Movement of imazapyr via root grafts or by exudates (which is a defense mechanism of those plants) may therefore adversely affect the surrounding vegetation. This movement of herbicide may also be compounded when imazapyr is incorrectly overapplied. Movement of soil particles that contains imazapyr can also potentially cause unintended damage to desirable species.
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Effect of Soybean Meal Varieties, Phytase Enzyme, and Particle Size of Corn on the Performance of Broilers.

Effect of Soybean Meal Varieties, Phytase Enzyme, and Particle Size of Corn on the Performance of Broilers.

140 conditioned at 85°C for 45 seconds, and then pelleted with a ring die (4.4 mm by 35 mm) pellet mill (Model PM1112-2, California Pellet Mill Co., Crawfordsville, IN). Pellets were cooled with ambient air in a counter-flow cooler (Model VK09 × 09KL, Geelen Counterflow USA Inc., Orlando, FL) and crumbled. The grower diets were fed in mash form diet with the corn ground in a hammermill (Model 1522, Roskamp Champion, Waterloo, IA) with an average particle size of 400 μm. Particle size distribution was determined by ASAE S319.3 (ASAE, 2003). All diets were mixed in a horizontal twin shaft ribbon mixer (Davis and Sons, Bonner Spring, Kansas) and each batch was sampled and analyzed individually. The three phytase treatments were either no phytase (CON), matrix phytase in which phytase was given a matrix value (MX), and on-top (OT) phytase in which phytase was not given a matrix value. When employed, phytase was given a matrix value of 0.15% for both calcium (Ca) and available phosphorus (AvP). These phytase treatments were in 2 × 3 factorial treatment design with either NP or LP SBM.
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