12 The Department does not fully understand what is causing increases in demand and activity in children’s socialcare. Until recently, the Department had not seen it as a central part of its responsibilities to understand drivers in demand for children’s socialcare across all local authorities. As a result it had little quantified analysis of the drivers of demand or reasons for variation between authorities. The Department has now identified what it considers to be some of the multiple factors influencing demand and activity. Some, such as deprivation, domestic abuse, substance misuse and adult mental health are around ‘need’ and some are around local practice and responses to need. However, the analysis is analytically limited, is not comprehensive and contains no prioritisation of factors or quantification of the contribution of each factor. In late 2017, the Department, Ministry of Housing, Communities & Local Government and HM Treasury commissioned external research which they hope will explain demand pressures and variation by summer 2019. The Department acknowledges that it has not yet completed the work necessary to fully understand the reasons for the increase in demand for children’s socialcare, and the relationship between this and local authority spending (paragraphs 1.4 and 3.3 to 3.5).
Authors state that the Activity Based Intervention: Social Emotional (ABI: SE) Approach in the book responds to the need for early intervention programs focusing on social emotional development. According to the authors; after the passage of NCLBA (No Child Left Behind Act) in United States, many programs based on academic success have been developed, but these programs usually lack components which are necessary for the socio-emotional development. Furthermore, it is a fact that specialists on early intervention have expertise in motor, cognitive, and linguistic development, but they usually lack knowledge on social emotional development. The deficiency of mental health experts presents another challenge for early intervention programs. Early interventionists have difficulty in reaching consultation services for these issues. The model aims to address these problems. ABI: SE Approach has been developed for the use of early intervention specialists, teachers and child care workers. The model does not require theoretical - practical background about developmental or clinical psychology.
The study was sited in a secondary school considered representative in terms of the socio- economic and ethnic make-up of the general population. Two groups of children aged 13- 16 years were selected for the study: The index sample comprised of children who had a parent/s living abroad purposively selected and the control group were children selected randomly (using the random numbers table) who did not have any parent living abroad. Out of the initial sample size of 400, that is, 200 from each sample group, 74 children (index) and 72 (control) and their caregivers responded positively to the invitation to participate. A total of 146 children took part. The ‘Children's Depression Inventory’ was administered across this population, the children were not separated for the CDI tests; as a result they were not aware of the different groupings.
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index (IDACI) from the English indices of deprivation (see, e.g.  and DfE revised GCSE and equivalent re- sults, characteristics national tables, Table CH1 ). Eligibility for free school meals is based on the parents ’ receiving certain income-replacement benefits, and the IDACI is calculated with reference to the proportion of children in the child ’s immediate neighbourhood who are in families that receive essentially the same benefits; the two are therefore measuring the same facet of SEP— income—and it is not clear whether inclusion of both in the model was appropriate. Furthermore, these mea- sures, like each child’s trajectory through CSC services, are time-varying and Sebba et al.’s  analysis does not take this into account. As a technical point, Sebba et al.  treated the IDACI scores as a continuous measure in their descriptive analyses, which is arguably inappro- priate as the scores are not interval scaled . Further, the scores should not be used to examine how deprivation of areas has changed over time. Instead, the ranks should be used to examine changes in area deprivation relative to other areas . Finally, in Sebba et al.’s modelling (Technical Appendix I, p 36 ), the score appears to be categorised as a binary variable but it is not clear on what basis this was done.
For African American children, a number of selection effects may influence their developmental outcomes. For example, disproportionate exposure to poverty (Caughy & O’Campo, 2006) and neighborhood violence (Oravecz, Koblinsky, & Randolph, 2008) have been negatively linked to African American children’s social and academic skills and may account for some of the variance otherwise associated with child care variables. However, given their membership in a historically marginalized population, larger systemic issues such as racism, economic segregation, and limited job opportunities disproportionately affect African American families (García Coll et al., 1996). Yet, these issues are often not effectively explored in prior child care research, despite the possibility that they influence African American families’ child care decisions and the promotion of African American children’s optimal development through high-quality child care experiences. Because associations between child care changes and African American children’s development has not been studied in-depth, an adequate understanding of the selection effects influencing their changes in care has not yet taken place.
Our findings also have implications for engaging LAC and care leavers in trials, in terms of the purpose of the intervention and the value placed on the stated outcomes. Although high rates of teenage pregnancy in LAC were, at the time of developing this programme, a priority issue for Government and arguably for health and socialcare pro- viders, it was not viewed as such by the young people themselves. There is a need to ensure that the voice of young people is sought and heard more loudly when de- signing and delivering interventions such as this. The peer-mentoring intervention itself was informed and shaped by a targetted review of the literature around Looked After Children and Interventions to reduce Teen- age Pregnancy. Moreover there was evidence that a peer- mentoring approach had been effective and acceptable in other populations, including in relation to smoking pre- vention in adolescents  and in sex education . The applicants consulted extensively with agencies, individuals and organisations working with LAC including: The Who Cares Trust and the NCB. We also held a series of meet- ings with the Heads of Children’s services and senior so- cial workers in the three participating Local Authorities, which were used to refine and, in some cases, re-design aspects of the intervention. Further, one of the members of the Advisory Group, which met six times during the course of the 30-month project, had been recruited as a ‘service user’ and was able to use her experience of the care system to contribute to ensuring that the aims, meth- odology and interpretation of results reflected and took into account the views of young people in the care system.
Having plenty of space, and being able to make some of it your own, is also important to children. One simply summed it up as ‘you get your own space’. Others gave us more specific examples, such as: ‘we don’t share bedrooms’; ‘personalise your own room’; ‘I have a big garden to play in’. For children living away from their first home, it is important that they can still contact friends, family, and especially brothers and sisters. A placement might be a good one because you could be placed there with a brother or sister – one person said that where they are living now is good ‘because I live with my sister’. The location of a children’s home or foster home can be important if it makes it easier or harder to stay in touch with your friends and your birth family.
Later that afternoon, there was a group of lads all smoking weed just outside the flats’ front doors. On the opposite side of the road there is a golf course, and I live in the end flats that’s only two storeys high with a block of four flats in each building, so this makes our section a hot spot for small groups of children and teens to gather. My neighbour called me inside her flat to ask if I was able to smell the weed and asked if she should call the police. I thought that they weren’t really causing any trouble and felt that it would be better if I went and asked them kindly to move instead. I did get a little verbal abuse but they did shift to another location. A win-win for me and my neighbours and the lads especially for not getting in trouble with the police. It’s very rare we get many gatherings, it’s only maybe one or two times a month it happens. This, to my knowledge, was the first with weed smoking involved. Since I’ve lived in a young people’s home in this city, I’ve witnessed ways in which young people choose to cope with their problems. I respect that everyone deals with things differently – not everything teens do is to purposely cause trouble, a lot of people confuse this because of their image and the tough demeanour the young people show as a front.
care taking, difficulty of feeding, bathing and dressing and caretaking time(Erickson and Upshur 1989). Many mothers suffer loss of self-esteem when they recognize retardation in their child. A serious defect, and may feel responsible for disappointing her mate and other family members by presenting them with a defective child. Closely allied to loss of self-esteem and with the feeling of shame they may anticipate social rejection, pity or ridicule and related loss of prestige. Some studies shows that mothers have to tend to do more work than their fair share, and their activities are often restricted (Goldman 1962). It also found that more severe handicapping conditions are associated with poorer psychological wellbeing for mother; they have only being able to speculate about the reason for such patterns and one speculation is that the additional daily responsibilities and usual caregiving demands associated with raising a related child may result in maternal psychological dysfunction (Holroyd 1974). The family of children with matal retardation experience burden due to various problems encountered with regard to financial conditions, routine family interaction, leisure, physical and mental health of other members of the family caused by the handicapped family member. The psychological trauma of the family members is generally more profound. One study reported that parental burden in the form of interfaces in their family routine or leisure and recreational, which even resulted in social, partial familial and emotional problems in the home setting of individuals with mental handicap. The mothers of mentally handicapped children reported higher social burden than those of the physically handicapped children. When comparing the burden perceived by mothers of handicapped
The research evidence on educational outcomes makes a strong case for universal provision of early care and education services and supports, as all children benefit provided the quality is sufficiently high. The chart, taken from the EPPE study, shows the positive effect that pre-school has on the reading ability of children from all social backgrounds. It is sometimes assumed that targeted services are more economically efficient than universal services, with lower costs and greater returns. But there are a number of reasons why this may not be the case (see box). Firstly, it is difficult to deliver targeted services that are effective in reaching all those who need them. For example, a large proportion of children from disadvantaged backgrounds do not live in disadvantaged communities that receive targeted supports. 14 Secondly, targeted interventions
In regards to the number of children that also affected the emotional social development of children in this study, according to Hurlock, the jealousy, competition, quarrel between siblings will be felt by all parents who have two or more children, which will affect the child's development (Elizabeth Bergner Hurlock, 1978). Najman et al. stated that the magnitude of the family affects the quality of care of mothes, which also impacts to the social development of children (Najman, Bor, Andersen, O'Callaghan, & Williams, 2000). Previous research results stated there is a meaningful relationship between mother's age with child social maturity (Ismail, 2010), supported by the results of Haryati's research indicate that there is a significant relationship between the number of children with the social development of preschool children (Haryati & Djauhar, 2010).
A combination of face-to-face surveys and in-depth interviews were completed in either English or Canton- ese. All interviews were conducted over six months: February – August 2010. The survey reflected import- ant dimensions of PHC (e.g. strength of affiliation, ac- cessibility, continuity (informational, relationship and management continuity), interpersonal communica- tion, patient activation) based on our previous work [32,35], sociodemographic characteristics, and health status, and confidence in the health care system. The dimensions of PHC were measured using a combin- ation of items and scales. All scales and items meas- uring dimensions of PHC were publicly available, except for “ NP Knowledge of Child ” . If items were part of a scale, internal consistency reliability was examined using Cronbach ’ s alpha coefficient. Con- struct validity was assessed by examining whether the scales correlated as expected with related scales. Scales had adequate internal consistency reliability. The Interpersonal Processes of Care scales , con- sisting of three dimensions (communication, interper- sonal style, and shared decision-making), had a Cronbach alpha ranging from 0.64 to 0.76. The NP Know- ledge of Child scale had a Cronbach ’ s alpha of 0.84. All interpersonal scales have shown adequate construct validity where they were more highly correlated with each other than to other scales . All items and scales have under- gone a rigorous forward-backward translation to ensure se- mantic equivalence [36,37]. A convenience sample of parent/caregivers of children who had attended the clinic completed the surveys.
Data from the ECS add to the growing literature on HIV-infected women’s fe rtility and reproductive decisions follow ing diagnosis, but are lim ited in that, by study definition, all women completed their pregnancies. Nearly half the deliveries in the ECS were to women who already knew that they were H IV-infected, although no inform ation was available regarding whether or not the pregnancy had been planned. Furthermore, some women antenatally identified as HTV-infected were diagnosed early enough to have a termination of pregnancy, but instead continued w ith the pregnancy. These findings are consistent w ith a large European study o f natural history o f H IV in women in which two-thirds o f infected women initiated pregnancy after HTV status was known (De Vincenzi, 1996). Studies comparing H IV -infected women and uninfected controls have suggested that H IV - infected women may not consider their infection or risk o f vertical transmission to be sufficient reasons fo r avoidance or termination o f pregnancy. Instead, psycho-social factors, cultural/religious beliefs, previous obstetric history, partner’ s wishes and age have been suggested as having more impact on decisions to become pregnant or continue w ith a pregnancy (Lester et al, 1995; Selwyn et al, 1989b; K line et al, 1995; Johnstone et al, 1990; Sunderland et al, 1992) and the finding here that women w ith a history o f ID U were more lik e ly to have had a previous pregnancy termination supports this. However, studies looking at fe rtility before and after H IV diagnosis in cohorts o f infected women have reported significant declines in pregnancy incidence and/or live birth rates
In deciding if a return home is in the child’s best interest, social workers face a range of complex decisions. They have to balance how best to return a child and support them in their family, with the risk of the child being in danger of harm if they return home. Social workers interviewed by the NSPCC stressed the need for strong, supportive supervision to enable them to make effective decisions. However, they said that supervision can place a greater emphasis on process than on the quality of evidence- gathering and analysis. As with most aspects of reunification, interviewees reported significant differences in planning, preparation and supervision across local authorities.
Some children with complex difficulties including behavioural problems, whose needs cannot be met in Leeds through continuing care processes, may be referred to the Joint Agency Decision and Review Panel (JADAR). This is a joint panel, which includes representation from the Local Authority Children Services (Children and Young People’s SocialCare and Education) and the local Health Service. The panel offers advice about the health care, socialcare and education of children with the most complex difficulties in Leeds, where two or more of the agencies are having difficulty in placing and managing the child. Further details about the responsibilities of the panel are contained in the JADAR Terms of Reference (Joint Children’s Placement Decision and Review Panel “Joint Panel” Governance arrangements and terms of reference, December 2010)
sessions were rated for several aspects of the study child’s peer social behavior—amount of positive inter- actions, clarity of verbal interaction, positive mood, cooperation, concern for peer, quality of fantasy play, and complexity of social play—using 3- or 5-point scales, with higher scores representing higher skill (see Table 2). Each scale was rated separately for each toy, and the codes were then averaged across the three toy episodes. In addition, two nominally scaled items were later recoded into the following ordinally scaled items: response to provocation: shares (originally scored Yes/No for each toy episode) was recoded as 0 to 3 based on the number of toy episodes out of three in which the child tried to resolve conﬂict by sharing a toy when the peer had tried to take the toy from the study child; and social problem solving: property rights was recoded as 0 to 3 based on the number of toy ep- isodes out of three in which the child tried to gain possession of the peer’s toy by using an approach other than physical force or verbal demands (e.g., rec- ognition of the other’s ownership, negotiation). These eight scores were standardized and summed to form the peer skill composite variable, Cronbach’s .80. Children with high scores on this variable played in more positive, cooperative, complex ways, and more often resolved conﬂict by prosocial means.
Conflict happens when people have opposing needs, ideas, beliefs, values or goals. Conflict can therefore happen when there is a clash of perceptions, goals or values in any organisation where people care about the outcome. Conflict can often be good. It may bring out new ideas and raise new issues. However, because teams contain a variety of people, all with differing opinions and experiences, sometimes this can get out of hand. Comments can become personal and time is spent settling old scores instead of getting on with the task in hand. This can lead to unhealthy conflict, one of the biggest barriers to effective team performance.
unnecessary assessments. Families accessing a local offer are not subject to any additional assessment by the local authority and instead provide existing evidence of a disability. In some local authorities, all disabled children are registered, and all those registered can access the local offer. In others, families already registered with health or other local authority services relating to their disability are able to access a local offer. Statutory assessment: refers to the assessment social workers carry out of children if they are considered to be in need or suffering significant harm. Assessments gather information about a child and their family which will help the practitioner to understand the child’s needs, and assess whether those needs are being met by the family and/or any services already provided; analyse the nature and level of any risks facing the child as well as identify protective factors; decide how to support the family to build on