Top PDF Prevalence and Detection of Leptospirosis among Voluntary Blood Donors

Prevalence and Detection of Leptospirosis among Voluntary Blood Donors

Prevalence and Detection of Leptospirosis among Voluntary Blood Donors

Chandrasekaran et al. found DFM showing greater sensitivity of 93.3% (56/60) than that of ELISA 13.3%. It was observed that positivity of DFM decreased from 100% (15/15) to 90.9% (10/11) with increase in the duration of infection for more than one week. He also inferred that motile leptospira would help early and rapid diagnosis. There was also persistence of leptospira in blood of 92.9% cases on repeat testing of 42 cases. 22 In another study he found 54.5% in PUO cases by DFM. He also reiterated that even though artifacts occur, these can be differentiated from leptospira by looking for the flexous elongated forms of varying length (5µm- 30µm). 50-100 hpf should be examined before reporting as negative for leptospira. False negativity is possible if the concentration of leptospira is very low, but false positivity cannot occur in the hands of experienced persons. 36
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Malaria screening among Voluntary Blood Donors - to find out the prevalence - to evaluate the sensitivity of different techniques.

Malaria screening among Voluntary Blood Donors - to find out the prevalence - to evaluate the sensitivity of different techniques.

In case of transfusions of plasma, plasma components, or derivatives devoid of intact red cells the risk of transmission is extremely low. 39 Most donors implicated in transfusion-transmitted malaria are predominantly semi-immune with very low parasite loads and the infectious dose is estimated to be 1 to 10 parasites in a unit of blood. Hence, it is difficult to identify malarial infection in donated blood specimens. Detection of such low parasitemia is difficult or impossible with the peripheral smear examination or even with more sensitive tests such as the antigen or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays in few occasions. 6,40,41,42
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Hepatitis B surface antigen variants in voluntary blood donors in Nanjing, China

Hepatitis B surface antigen variants in voluntary blood donors in Nanjing, China

HBV is still one of the serious infectious risks for the blood transfusion safety in China [5-8]. One plausible reason is the emergence of the variants in the major anti- genic alpha determinant of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) [9-17], which have been assumed to evade the immune surveillance and pose a challenge to the disease diagnosis [18-21]. It is well documented that some com- mercial ELISA kits could detect the wild-type but not the mutant viruses [5,22]. HBV nucleic acid testing (NAT) are introduced as a mandatory test for the blood supply to reduce such a risk in some developed countries [23-28]. The high prevalence of HBV in China, however, impaired the application of NAT in the improvement of blood security. Moreover, HBV NAT is procedurally cumbersome and incurs high costs [29].
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HIV, HBsAg and HCV prevalences among voluntary blood donors in Mumbai: trends over a decade

HIV, HBsAg and HCV prevalences among voluntary blood donors in Mumbai: trends over a decade

This study has several limitations. The ideal condition to conduct a seroprevalence study is by taking sample of general population. As blood donors are specifically selected based on extensive questionnaire, strict selection criteria and physical examination and only apparently healthy individuals with lowest risk of TTIs were allowed to donate blood, our study sample does not represent general population. Further, the donor pool was predominantly composed of male population. We acknowledge the limitation of not using advanced methods like NAAT (Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques) which are needed for detection of window period in HIV due to non-availability in our blood bank. CONCLUSION
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Seroprevalence and determinants of transfusion transmissible infections among voluntary blood donors in Homabay, Kisumu and Siaya counties in western Kenya

Seroprevalence and determinants of transfusion transmissible infections among voluntary blood donors in Homabay, Kisumu and Siaya counties in western Kenya

Socio-demographic characteristics influence the distri- bution of TTIs among blood donors. In Kenya, national blood transfusion services (NBTS) rely mainly on young voluntary blood donors, particularly secondary schools, colleges and University students, majority in the age range of 15–24 years [13]. Blood donations from school students are preferred over adult donors owing to lower HIV prevalence estimated at 1% compared to 6.6% preva- lence recorded in adults aged 30–34 years [13]. However, a study carried out in Kenya using stimmunology still detected a significant number of early pre-seroconver- sion of HIV carriers both among adults and teenage pop- ulation [14]. This study sought to establish the dominant demographic and other risk factors still playing a role in TTIs seropositivity recorded in the region despite recent safety interventions.
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Prevalence of HIV Infection among Blood Donors at a Tertiary Care Centre in Gwalior, India

Prevalence of HIV Infection among Blood Donors at a Tertiary Care Centre in Gwalior, India

This study was carried out at Blood Bank, Department Of Pathology, Gajra Raja Medical College, Gwalior (Madhya Pradesh), India. Donors were screened by trained personnel after satisfactory completion of the donor’s questionnaire, their physical examination and hemoglobin (Hb %) estimation. A total of 1, 37,767 blood units from the selected donors were collected over a period of eleven years (1st January 2004 to 31 st December 2014). These donors were Voluntary Donors (VD) and Replacement Donors (RD). Replacement donors were those donors who donated blood for ailing patients and were family members, close relatives and friend’s of recipient. The Voluntary donations were obtained from walk in donors and in voluntary blood donation camps organized by different institutions, neighboring colleges, different social and political organizations. Professional and paid donors were carefully eliminated. Written consent from the donor was also taken prior to blood donation. Three ml blood in plain vial and 2 ml blood in EDTA (ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid) vial taken from the satellite bag. All samples were screened for HIV and other Transfusion transmitted diseases. Test for HIV I and II was performed by following commercially available ELISA and card test kits in last 11 years:
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Serosurveillance of HBsAG Positive Patients in Voluntary Blood Donors

Serosurveillance of HBsAG Positive Patients in Voluntary Blood Donors

Vaishali Chaudhuri et al (2003) [31] reported that Transfusion associated-HBV (TAHBV) is estimated at approximately 1.5 percent in post surgical recipients and 50 percent or more in multiple-transfusion recipients in India. The sensitivity of methods for the detection of HBsAg and its anti-HBs was compared in serial 1200 sera samples from 30 patients with VHB-HBsAg-positive by Novi Sad et al (1978) [23] . HBsAg was tested by gel-diffusion (GD), counter-immunoelectrophoresis (CIE), reversed haemogglutination (rHA), radioimmunoassay (RIA), and enzyme immunoassay (EIA).
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Prevalence of transfusion transmissible infections in blood donors of Pakistan

Prevalence of transfusion transmissible infections in blood donors of Pakistan

national program for donor selection, recruitment, reten- tion, and education; this will minimize donations from donors who might transmit diseases to the recipients. Equally important is to evaluate the burden and risk factors for TTIs in the general population [1]. The accurate figures of TTIs in our population are still un- known due to the lack of understanding, un-availability of screening tests, limited access to health facilities and the unavailability of surveillance systems [2]. Furthermore, voluntary donors have been reported to be the safest group of donors because they usually have better health seeking behavior than the replacement blood donors and
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Prevalence of HBV and HCV Infections among Blood Donors in Northeast Libya

Prevalence of HBV and HCV Infections among Blood Donors in Northeast Libya

Blood sample was collected on site and transported within a few hours (less than 3 hours) to the local laboratory in blood bank in the region for separating serum aliquots and stored in a –20°C deep freezer until testing. Sero- positivity to HBV was defined by detection of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and sero- positivity to HCV by detection of anti-HCV antibodies by a third generation enzyme linked immunoassay (ELISA). Samples that initially gave a positive HBsAg and anti-HCV antibodies result were repeatedly (3 times) tested for confirmation. The contributing blood donors were presented separate into four regions of study and then divided into age groups. Data is presented and described by using mean, and table presentations.
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Seroprevalence of Human Parvovirus B19 among Voluntary Blood Donors in Chennai: A Cross Sectional study

Seroprevalence of Human Parvovirus B19 among Voluntary Blood Donors in Chennai: A Cross Sectional study

When a potential pathogen present in the donated blood gets transmitted to a recipient via blood transfusion, it is called as Transfusion Transmitted Infection (TTI). There are many infectious agents like bacteria, viruses, protozoa and prions which can be transmitted through blood transfusion. 6 Majority of the problems are due to the prevalence of asymptomatic carriers as well as blood donations that are carried on during window period of infections. The magnitude of the problem of transfusion transmitted infections varies from country to country depending on the prevalence of that particular disease. 7 Presently it has become essential to establish a risk control system against emerging infectious diseases. 8
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Prevalence of ABO and Rhesus Blood Groups in various blood donors in Kashmir

Prevalence of ABO and Rhesus Blood Groups in various blood donors in Kashmir

The study group included 51,661 individuals of SMHS Hospital during past thirteen years. The blood was drawn by the Phlebotomist by standard procedure of vene-puncture and used for determination of ABO & Rh blood groups by gel technology. The frequency of phenotypes ‘A’, ‘B’, ‘AB’ and ‘O’, Rhesus positive and Rhesus negative were calculated. Blood was collected from both camps as well as from voluntary blood donors, donating blood in SMHS Hospital. The records were scrutinized for native population. The results were compared with other studies available from India and abroad.
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Trends in prevalence of hepatitis B virus infection among Albanian blood donors, 1999 2009

Trends in prevalence of hepatitis B virus infection among Albanian blood donors, 1999 2009

In country with intermittent and low prevalence of HBsAg, anti-HBc prevalence vary from, 0.56% in the Uni- ted Kingdom, 0.84% in United States, 1.4% in Germany, 15.03% in Greece [10,34-38]. In our study the HBsAg negative/anti-HBc positive donor population is carry out in two blood donors groups, regular blood donors and first time blood donors. The prevalence rate of anti-HBc was higher in first time blood donors than regularly donors. So, the establishment of a panel of regular blood donors is very important in providing safe blood and blood products. Anti-HBc screening of blood donations is controversial and variably performed in different coun- tries. Currently it is limited to areas where the seropreva- lence of HBV is low (generally <2%), while it is not performed in areas with a high HBV seroprevalence because the impact of the deferral of anti-HBc-positive donors is considered not sustainable. However, the preva- lence of occult HBV infection is higher in areas in which HBV infection itself is more frequent. The safety of this measure is currently being debated [40-42]. Our study underscores the increasing the HBsAg prevalence in our donor population. This trend, suggest that routine anti- HBc screening of blood donors could possibly prevent some transfusion-transmitted HBV infections from blood donors. However, usefulness of screening for anti-HBc in addition to HBsAg detection and introduction of PCR based screenings like NAT to improve the safety of the blood supply in Albania deserves further analysis.
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Low prevalence of Leishmania donovani infection among the blood donors in kala azar endemic areas of Bangladesh

Low prevalence of Leishmania donovani infection among the blood donors in kala azar endemic areas of Bangladesh

Human visceral leishmaniasis (VL) / kala-azar (KA) is a se- vere chronic disease caused by parasites of the Leishmania donovani complex. The disease is lethal if left untreated and affects approximately half a million new patients annually worldwide, with 60% of new cases on the Indian sub-continent [1]. The disease is highly clustered geographically, and Mymensingh District is the most highly-endemic district out of 45 affected districts in Bangladesh [2,3]. Leishmania donovani is the only species that causes VL on the Indian sub-continent, including Bangladesh. The female sand fly Phlebotomus argentipes is only vector responsible for transmitting the disease in this region, and humans are the only reservoir [1-3]. Recent advances in leishmaniasis research have lead to the disco- very of a very simple way to diagnose VL using an immu- nochromatographic test (ICT), which detects antibody against the rK39 antigen of the Leishmania parasite, and home-based treatment of VL is now possible with the oral drug Miltefosine. The unique epidemiologic characteris- tics of VL on the Indian sub-continent, along with these recent advances in diagnosis and treatment, make it pos- sible to control or even eliminate this disease [4]. These facts inspired the Health Ministers from Bangladesh, India and Nepal to sign a Memorandum of Understanding in 2005 to eliminate VL from the sub-continent by 2015 [5]. The goal of the elimination program was to reduce VL cases below 1 per 10,000 people in the VL en- demic areas [5] through 1) active case detection and proper management of cases with VL and Post-Kala-azar Dermal Leishmaniasis (PKDL); 2) interruption of disease transmission through integrated vector management strategies; and 3) social mobilization [4,5].
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The Prevalence and Trends of Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, and HIV among Voluntary Blood Donors in Kohgiluyeh and  Boyer-Ahmad Transfusion Center, Southwestern Iran

The Prevalence and Trends of Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, and HIV among Voluntary Blood Donors in Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad Transfusion Center, Southwestern Iran

This retrospective study was conducted at the Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad Blood Transfu- sion Center (KBTC). All voluntary, non- remunerated blood donors who donated blood from 2005- 2014 were investigated. The donors were selected based on the standard pre-donation screening process, including a health history questionnaire and physical examination. Donors were divided into three groups: first-time donors who were donating for the first and only time; regular donors who donated more than once dur- ing a year; and repeat donors who had a history of the previous donation, but the interval be- tween two donations was longer than a year. All 180304 donated units were screened for HBsAg, HCV Ab and HIV (Ag/Ab) by ELISA based on IBTO instructions. HBsAg was detect- ed using Behring, Simens, and Biorad kits, anti- HCV was detected by Orto, Biomerieux, Hepanostika, Biomedical, and Murex kits and HIV-Ab was detected by Vironostika, Bi- omerieux, Biorad, and Adaltis kits. The initially reactive samples were evaluated again; the repeat- edly reactive ones were considered seropositive. Hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc) and HBsAg neutralization tests (Behring, Marburg, Germa- ny), HCV recombinant immunoblot assay (RIBA) (Inonogenetic, Ghent, Belgium) and HIV western blots (Inonogenetic, Ghent, Belgium) were undertaken for all repeatedly positive sam- ples. HIV p24 antigen was done for the HIV western blot -negative samples and monoclonal neutralization assay was carried out if the results were repeatedly reactive.
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Prevalence of HBs Ag among blood donors in Transfusion Center, Abidjan (Ivory Coast)

Prevalence of HBs Ag among blood donors in Transfusion Center, Abidjan (Ivory Coast)

The prevalence of HBsAg in our study was also lower than that reported in the study Matee [6] and several oth- ers made in sub-Saharan Africa (Table 3) [7-20]. The difference is, in addition to the elimination of donors with risk factors for hepatitis B virus, the only character voluntary and free blood donation in Côte d’Ivoire. Sev- eral authors have shown that voluntary donors were less often compared with HBsAg positive donors paid or re- placement donors [6,12,19,20]. The existence of risk fac- tors for hepatitis B is associated with a higher prevalence of HBsAg [6,17]. However, our figure is in the propor- tions (2% - 16%) reported in West Africa by Tagny et al. [21]. The prevalence of HBsAg in our study was higher than that reported in a recent study in Madagascar [22], the Maghreb [23-25] or in other regions outside Africa [26,27], in connection with low endemicity of HBV in these regions.
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Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii among Iranian Blood Donors: A Narrative Review Article

Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii among Iranian Blood Donors: A Narrative Review Article

These studies had been carried out in Gona- bad, Zahedan, Fars, Rafsanjan and Tehran. All studies had used ELISA laboratory method by different Toxoplasma detection kits (Pishtaz- Teb Diagnostics, DSI, Trinity Biotech). Only one study has pointed to the sensitivity and specificity of the diagnostic kits, which were 100 and 99 percent respectively. Based on these studies, the prevalence of T. gondii IgG and IgM antibodies in Iranian blood donors varied between 12.3% to 52.8% and 0% to 5.47% respectively (Table 1). Molecular meth- ods were used on two studies (Nested PCR and Real-Time PCR). The prevalence of T. gondii based on DNA and SAG1 mRNA de- tection was 1.9% and 6.97% respectively.
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Prevalence and prevalence trends of transfusion transmissible infections among blood donors at four chinese regional blood centers between 2000 and 2010

Prevalence and prevalence trends of transfusion transmissible infections among blood donors at four chinese regional blood centers between 2000 and 2010

In China, whole blood units for clinical use are collected at blood centers/banks. There are more than 452 blood centers/banks at three levels: provincial (32), regional (321), and county (99). Local government health offices oversee the operation of Chinese blood centers/banks. Since the Blood Donation Law came into effect in 1998, many changes have been made in the field of blood banking. Blood collection has been successfully shifted from paid and employer-organized donations to volun- tary donation. As a result, voluntary donations have increased from 5.5% (50,000 donations) in 1998 to 99% (12,320,000 donations) in 2011. Overall blood collection has increased from fewer than 1000 tons to 4164 tons. Although blood collection volume has increased dramat- ically, the increase in the blood supply has not kept pace with the increasing clinical demand for blood[4]. The blood donation rate is only 9% of the whole population, much lower than that the WHO demands: 10–30%. In the area of donor screening in China, a standardized na- tional donor screening policy has been implemented. It requires that (1) all potential donors undergo a screen- ing process to meet the donor eligibility requirements before donating; (2) after passing the predonation screening process, blood units will be collected and undergo two rounds of routine serological testing for HBsAg, ALT, hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibodies, hu- man immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibodies, and syph- ilis antibodies by two different reagents which are imported as well as domestic testing kits approved and li- censed by the Chinese State Food and Drug Administration. Although the prevalence of these diseases in a general population of selective participants has been addressed, there are limited epidemiological data on TTIs in blood donors in China. As the infection increasingly spreads further into the general population and the number of HIV cases keeps growing rapidly in China, the risk of transfusion-transmitted HIV poses a conspicuous threat to blood safety [5,6]. Previous studies have demonstrated that the prevalence of HBV and HCV is quite high in China, approximately 9.8% of the Chinese population tested positive for hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) before the introduction of the HBV vaccination program in 1992. Fortunately, the HBsAg carrier rate decreased to 7.2% among the general population in 2006 [7,8]. The nationwide prevalence of HCV infection was estimated to be 3.2% in 1992. The regional data indi- cated that the prevalence of HCV rose to 12.87% of blood donors before 1998 and dramatically decreased to 1.71% later on [9]. However, epidemiological studies of HCV are limited compared to those of HBV [10,11]. During the past 20 years, syphilis has made resurgence in China. In 1993, the reported overall rate of cases of syphilis was 0.2 cases per 100,000 persons, whereas pri- mary and secondary syphilis alone represented 5.7 cases
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Human Immunodeficiency Virus Prevalence among Secondary School Student Blood Donors in Nairobi County, Kenya

Human Immunodeficiency Virus Prevalence among Secondary School Student Blood Donors in Nairobi County, Kenya

The Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was isolated in blood as early as 1983. Information about the spread of HIV through blood reached blood banks and manufacturers of blood products in the early 1980’s. This knowledge informed the decision by blood banks to have donated blood screened on a routine basis, in order to exclude the potential risk of HIV transmission through blood transfusion or blood derived products (Changqing et al., 2012). Since 1984 when the first case of HIV appeared in Kenya, over 1.5 million people have succumbed to the disease (NACC, 2015). According to sentinel surveillance report, 2002 the HIV prevalence in adults aged between 15-49, ANC mothers was 10.2 % trends over time. A study done by Moore et al (2001) estimated that about 2 % of transfusions in Kenya transmit HIV. Blood transfusions save millions of lives, but only with guaranteed supply of safe blood. Without proper systems of blood screening, blood transfusions can easily increase the risk of an individual’s infection by HIV (UNDP, 2004). Several past studies have shown that the best and safest type of blood donors is voluntary unpaid donors. They are more desirable and easier to retain than other blood donor groups (MOH and JICA, 2002).
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The current incidence, prevalence, and residual risk of hepatitis B viral infections among voluntary blood donors in China

The current incidence, prevalence, and residual risk of hepatitis B viral infections among voluntary blood donors in China

History questionnaire and rapid pre-donation screening Following the “Technical and Operational Guidelines and Procedures for Blood Centers” issued by the Chinese Ministry of Health on December 31, 2011 [12], all six blood centers had the same approach for blood donor screening, requiring all blood donors to pass a routine pre-donation screening process that consisted of a medical history questionnaire, a brief physical examination, and pre-donation rapid screen- ing. The medical history questionnaire included questions about their histories of sexually transmit- ted diseases, hepatitis, illegal parenteral drug use, sex with multiple partners, and men who had sex with men (MSM). If any of the above items screened positive, the donors were permanently deferred. The physical examination included body temperature, body weight, and blood pressure. Before blood collection, all donors underwent rapid testing at the collection sites for the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg, Rapid Test Kit, Aikang Bio-technology Co., Ltd., Hangzhou, China) as well as rapid testing for Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT) (ALT Rapid Test Kit, Rongsheng Biological Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Shanghai, China) and hemoglobin (Hb) (Hemoglobin Assay Kit, Amyjet Scientific Inc., Wuhan, China). The donors with increased ALT levels or a reactive HBsAg result would be temporarily deferred, the samples and information were saved if donors tested HBsAg positive on the rapid test.
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Objective: To assess the prevalence of HBV,HCV and HIV among replacement donors and voluntary

Objective: To assess the prevalence of HBV,HCV and HIV among replacement donors and voluntary

adequate quantities of essential blood component is to enable a wide range of critical care procedure to be carried out in hospitals. Donated blood can be a saviour for persons who have lost large amounts of blood because of serious accidents, new medical and surgical procedure, civil conflicts and military wars as well as for severely anemic patients because of serious hemolytic diseases or treatment such as cancer therapy. Therefore accessibility of blood is a critical concern to the society.

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