Top PDF Prevalence of HBV and HCV among blood donors in Kosovo

Prevalence of HBV and HCV among blood donors in Kosovo

Prevalence of HBV and HCV among blood donors in Kosovo

The aim of a study was to analyze the prevalence of the HBsAg and anti-HCV antibodies in Kosovo during the period 2000–2003. The possible influence of the various factors on the prevalence was analyzed too. The preva- lence was compared with the data available on European and World level.

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Prevalence of HIV, HCV, HBV in Blood Donors of Golestan Province, Iran, 2012 - 2013

Prevalence of HIV, HCV, HBV in Blood Donors of Golestan Province, Iran, 2012 - 2013

Results: The blood donors were 47,830 and 45,811 in 2012 and 2013, respectively. The Prevalence of HBV in 2012 was%0. 299 and in 2013 %0. 284; of HCV % 0. 06 in 2012 and % 0.05 in 2013, and the prevalence of both HCV and HIV totally was 0. 001percent in two years of study. The highest rate of positive case was among the first time donors, married and in those with less than high school education (P<0.05).

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Prevalence of anelloviruses (TTV, TTMDV, and TTMV) in healthy blood donors and in patients infected with HBV or HCV in Qatar

Prevalence of anelloviruses (TTV, TTMDV, and TTMV) in healthy blood donors and in patients infected with HBV or HCV in Qatar

Since their discovery, the three anelloviruses TTV, TTMV, and TTMDV shared some common features such as their detection in the blood of healthy donors and in HBV/HCV pationts. The presence of the viruses in non- A to G hepatitis patients, linked them to hepa- titis. This probably justifies the number of studies, spe- cially on TTV, that evaluated the prevalence of the virus in HBV and HCV blood samples compared to the lim- ited number of studies in healthy individuals especially in the Middle East region. In a previous study [8] we re- ported our finding concerning the prevalence of TTV in healthy blood donors and HBV/HBC patients in Qatar. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the
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Prevalence of HBV and HCV Infections among Blood Donors in Northeast Libya

Prevalence of HBV and HCV Infections among Blood Donors in Northeast Libya

In conclusion, the study revealed a low prevalence of HBV and HCV infectious agents among the prospective blood donors in Northeast of Libya were found 0.21% and 0.24% respectively. HCV infection is more prevalent than HBV infection in blood donors at age 41>50 years. A better understanding of the epidemiology of hepatitis B and C infection will allow health authorities to revise and plan new strategies within the health care system. Lastly, strategies should be put in place to take care of infected blood donors. Moreover, it uses enough sample size, thus, the result produced from this study reflect the real situation in the Libyan populations living in the Northeast of Libya but cannot be generalized among the whole general blood donors of Libya.
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Prevalence of Hepatitis B Virus (HBV), Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infections and their Co-infection among Blood Donors in Minia Governorate, Egypt

Prevalence of Hepatitis B Virus (HBV), Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infections and their Co-infection among Blood Donors in Minia Governorate, Egypt

The co-infection of both HBV and HCV is common due to shared modes of transmission. The natural history of HBV and HCV co-infection was difficult to categorize due to heterogeneous populations; however, a classification based on five categories of clinical features and immune profiles is now available. HBV and HCV co- infection is classified into: a) acute co-infection (acute hepatitis with simultaneous HBV and HCV infection), b) HCV superinfection (acute HCV on top of chronic hepatitis b infection), c) HBV superinfection (acute HBV on top of chronic hepatitis C), d) chronic HCV with occult HBV: (positive HCV RNA, negative hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and anti- HBs and positive HBV DNA), e) chronic co-infection: (chronic hepatitis with positive HBV DNA and positive HCV RNA) [13].
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The Prevalence of HCV, HBV, HIV in Blood Donors of Golestan Province, (2006-2008)

The Prevalence of HCV, HBV, HIV in Blood Donors of Golestan Province, (2006-2008)

9_ Uneke CJ, Ogbu O, Lnyama P, Anyanwa GL, Njoku MO, Iobok IH, Prevalence Of hepatitis-B Surface antigen among blood donors and human immunodeficiency Virus- infected Patients in jos,Nigeria .Men inst oswaldo cruz,Riode Janeiro , 2005;100(1):13_16.

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Investigation of Hepatitis Functioning through Bilurbin at Blood Donors with HBV and HCV Positive

Investigation of Hepatitis Functioning through Bilurbin at Blood Donors with HBV and HCV Positive

[9] Elzouki, A.N., Smeo, M.N., Sammud, M., Elahmer, O., Daw, M., Furarah, A., Ab- udher, A. and Mohamed, M.K. (2013) Prevalence of Hepatitis B and C Virus Infec- tions and Associated Risk Factors in Libya: National Sero-Epidemiological Survey. The Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal , 19, 589-599.

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Seroprevalence of transfusion transmissible viral infections (HIV, HBV and HCV) among voluntary blood donors at University of Gondar Comprehensive Specialized Hospital, Gondar; Northwest Ethiopia

Seroprevalence of transfusion transmissible viral infections (HIV, HBV and HCV) among voluntary blood donors at University of Gondar Comprehensive Specialized Hospital, Gondar; Northwest Ethiopia

A large percentage of the blood donors harbor transfusion- transmissible infections, 8.2% with at least one screened pathogen and 0.96% with multiple infections. The preva- lence of TTI infection high for all blood donors especially for age groups such as 20 – 29 and 30 – 39 years. Therefore, strict selection of blood donors with the emphasis on get- ting voluntary donors and highly sensitive and specific tests for screening of donorsblood for HIV, HBV, and HCV using standard methods are highly recommended to ensure the safety of blood for the recipient. The prevalence of HIV-HBV, HIV-HCV, and HBV-HCV co-infection need to be studied on a larger scale for a better understanding of the impact on clinical condition and treatment response.
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Blood Donors Status of HIV, HBV and HCV in Central Blood Bank in Tripoli, Libya

Blood Donors Status of HIV, HBV and HCV in Central Blood Bank in Tripoli, Libya

In general, the prevalence rates of hepatitis B and C were lower among young donors than older donors. This confirms the results reported earlier by other investigators [13]. In contrast, most of the blood donors in this study are young men (25-34 years of age). It is recognized that this age group is generally involved in misusing of drug, insecure sex, and other misbehavior habits for the transmission of the virus. Furthermore, The comparisons of the prevalence of transfusion viruses among different sex blood donors may not be applicable because of high proportion of male donors; this is due to low hemoglobulin in females and the fact that Libyan women are less willing to donate blood as the most of the donors (99.3%) were male, which is in consistency with preceding studies [14,15].
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The risk of transfusion –transmissible hepatitis c infection among blood donors in sokoto, north western Nigeria

The risk of transfusion –transmissible hepatitis c infection among blood donors in sokoto, north western Nigeria

The majority of donors tested in this study were family replacement donors rather than voluntary non-remunerated blood donors. All the cases of HCV infection was concentrated among family replacement donors. Our finding is in agreement with previous report which observed a higher prevalence of HCV among family donors compared to voluntary donors 52 . Our finding is also in agreement with report by Durro and Qyra1 53 in Albania, which indicated that the prevalence of HBV was significantly higher in family replacement donors than in voluntary donors. In addition, in a report from Pakistan by Asif and colleagues 54 , a significantly higher prevalence of HCV was observed among family replacement donors than in voluntary donors. Difference in infection rates between voluntary and replacement donors have been observed in many previous studies 55-57 . Our finding is also in agreement with recommendation by the WHO that voluntary non-remunerated blood donors who give blood out of altruism are the safest source of blood. Family replacement donors are often under pressure to donate blood when their relations are admitted in hospital and in need of blood transfusion even when they know that they are potentially at risk for HCV from high risk behaviours. They are more likely to conceal medical history and be involved in high risk behaviour that can potentially predispose them to infection with HCV and thus pose a great threat to the safety of blood supply. The number of voluntarily donated blood has continue to fall over years in Nigeria due to logistic and organizational problem associated with the Nigerian National Blood Transfusion Service 13 . The net result of this failure in the stewardship of blood and blood products is that the commercial and family replacement donors continues to predominate.
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HIV, HBV, HCV and T. palliduminfections among blood donors and Transfusion-related complications among recipients at the Laquintinie hospital in Douala, Cameroon

HIV, HBV, HCV and T. palliduminfections among blood donors and Transfusion-related complications among recipients at the Laquintinie hospital in Douala, Cameroon

Blood transfusion therapy is used among patients with se- vere anemia due to various medical, surgical or obstetric conditions, and in patients undergoing transplantation of an organ. Blood transfusion is beneficial and safe for the recipient when it is performed in strict compliance with immunological and hygienic standards, and following a strict screening of donors. In Cameroon, the current blood safety guidelines necessitate blood banks to routinely per- form serological testing for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and Treponema pallidum ( T. pallidum ). These guidelines progressively followed the exponential rise in blood donors from 75,000 in 1992 to 130,000 in 2002 [1], however, necessitate regular monitoring and adaptation to frequently changing epidemiological and demographic pa- rameters that include urbanization, migration flows, and increased demand for blood transfusion in the country. Although blood safety has greatly improved over the past 15 years, TTIs still represent a major public health pro- blem in Cameroon given the high prevalence of HIV infections, hepatitis, malaria, and several sexually trans- missible diseases (STD) [2,3]. Data recorded in 2006 show that 26,079 units of blood were collected in health faci- lities in Cameroon with over 2,477 infected cases, thus a TTIs prevalence of 9.5% among blood donors. Of these in- fectious risks, viral infections (HIV, HBV and HCV) are the most feared by patients and prescribers [4-7]. In Cameroon, screening for hepatitis B and C virus was not part of routine tests performed in blood donors until the year 2005. The reduction of the residual risk of contami- nation is currently based on a strict selection of donors and the introduction of new tests such as genomic testing for HIV, HCV and HBV [6,8]. A study conducted among blood donors at the Yaoundé Central Hospital (YCH) re- vealed that the risk of TTI from patients with residual in- fections remains high (9.8%) in Cameroon [9]. Bacterial contamination remains a major risk of infection during blood transfusions. Endotoxic shock caused by massive, usually Gram-negative, bacterial contamination is rare but represent a very serious outcome that includes sudden death [10]. Bacterial infections including T. pallidum have been reported in Cameroon, and are common in many other countries [11-14].
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Trends of Transfusion Transmissible Infections among the blood donors In a Tertiary Care Hospital

Trends of Transfusion Transmissible Infections among the blood donors In a Tertiary Care Hospital

Various studies reported that prevalence of HBV among blood donors was higher than HIV, HCV, syphilis and malaria [4-6]. In this study prevalence of HBV was more in comparisons to other TTIs over the years and in each year as well. Overall prevalence of HBV (2.18%) was lower in comparison to study carried out by Pahuja et al[10]. But Fernandes H et al, Chandra T et al and Leena MS et al had reported lower prevalence rate of HBV compared to present study[4,11,13]. Studies from other countries like Tanzania, Saudi Arabia and Ethiopia had reported much higher prevalence of HBV[15-17]. In US and China the HBV prevalence among the blood donors was quite lower compared to present study [18,21]. In present study HBV prevalence was higher in voluntary donors which was similar to study carried out by Kakar et al[7] but many had reported higher prevalence of HBV in replacement donors[4-6, 9, 11]. HIV prevalence was 0.11% which was slightly higher compared to study carried out by Fernandes et al[4] and Agarwal N et al[12]. HIV prevalence was lower in present study in comparison to most of the studies carried out in India [5,6,11,10,13,14].
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Seroprevalence of transfusion transmitted infection among blood donors at Jijiga blood bank, Eastern Ethiopia: retrospective 4 years study

Seroprevalence of transfusion transmitted infection among blood donors at Jijiga blood bank, Eastern Ethiopia: retrospective 4 years study

Blood transfusion is a therapeutic procedure, as there is no genuine substitution. But contaminated blood transfusion can transmit infectious diseases and can be fatal instead of saving life [2]. Evaluation of data on the prevalence of transfusion transmissible infections (TTIs) namely HIV, HBV, HCV and syphilis antibodies among blood and plasma donors permit an assessment of the occurrence of infections in the blood donor population and consequently the safety of the collected donations. It also gives an idea of the epidemiology of these diseases in the community. Transfusion associated infections con- tinue to be a big threat [3].
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Trace Element Levels, Cytokine Profile and Immune Activation Status in Plasma among Repeat Blood Donors with Asymptomatic HIV 1, HBV and HCV Infection

Trace Element Levels, Cytokine Profile and Immune Activation Status in Plasma among Repeat Blood Donors with Asymptomatic HIV 1, HBV and HCV Infection

High prevalence of Human immune deficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and Hepatitis C virus (HCV) among blood donors has been rec- orded globally [1]. In the city of Delhi, the overall prevalence in blood donors has been reported to range from 0.28% to 0.30% for HIV-1, 1.15% to 1.33% for HBV and 0.57% to 0.67% for HCV respectively [2]. Studies indicate that an im- balance in T helper type 1 (Th1) and T helper type 2 (Th2) cytokine profile is associated with disease progression in infections due to HIV-1 [3], HBV [4] and HCV [5]. Further, studies have shown that changes in the intracellular environ- ment induced by alterations in trace element status can cause immune dysfunc- tion [6]. There are separate reports on cytokine alterations in HIV-1, HBV and HCV infections and that on trace element alterations in these infections [7] [8] [9]. However, there is hardly any report on relationship between trace element status and cytokine profile in HIV-1, HBV and HCV infections in same group of individuals. The present work aimed to study the impact of changes in a wide range of trace elements i.e. Zinc, Selenium, Iron, Copper and Magnesium (Zn, Se, Fe, Cu, Mg) on the status of immune activation and cytokine profile in an asymptomatic group of blood donors infected with HIV-1, HBV and HCV.
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Article: Prevalence and risk factors of Human Immunodeficiency virus, Hepatitis B virus, Hepatitis C virus and Syphilis infections among nonprofessional blood donors in Chittagong, Bangladesh

Article: Prevalence and risk factors of Human Immunodeficiency virus, Hepatitis B virus, Hepatitis C virus and Syphilis infections among nonprofessional blood donors in Chittagong, Bangladesh

We know that Hepatitis B virus is transmitted by blood, sexual contact, by birth, contact to body fluid etc. While our study, after getting any positive donor, we tried to find out by questionnaire what factors are contributed to transmit viruses (Table 4). In our questionnaire, 71.43% HBsAg positive donors was not aware of what factors are responsible for the transmission of Hepatitis B virus; 21.43% positive donors had sexual relationship to the commercial sex workers or extra married sex partners, Even 7.14% positive donors informed about their parents that they (either father or mother or both) were carrier of Hepatitis B virus. In similar questionnaire about the HCV study, 50% HCV positive donors was not aware of what factors are responsible for the transmission of Hepatitis C virus; 50% positive donors informed that they taken intravenous drug. In our study 71.43% HBsAg and 50% HCV positive donor did not know about the route of HBsAg and HCV transmission, which indicated that the blood donors are unconscious and illiterate. So we can suggest that government and non-government organization taken special attention for HBV, HCV infection by blood donation.
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Prevalence of blood-borne viral hepatitis in different communities in Yemen

Prevalence of blood-borne viral hepatitis in different communities in Yemen

Few studies have examined the prevalence of HBV and HCV in Yemen. Scott reported an HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) carrier rate of 12.7 % among the gen- eral population [8] and a prevalence of HCV of 2.6 % [9], while Al-Robasi and Al-Harbi reported an HBsAg prevalence of 9 % among blood donors [10]. These studies did not, however, consider the effect of geo- graphical, cultural or social differences on the preva- lence of these viruses across the country. Until 12 years ago, the Republic of Yemen consisted of two separate countries (currently the Northern and Southern re- gions). The Northern region was an Arab state and the Southern region a socialist republic. In addition, some ethnic minorities originating from Africa live in close communities and poor socio-economic con- ditions. This may have resulted in different trans- mission patterns and prevalence of hepatitis viruses. The present study examines the prevalence of HBV and HCV in blood donors attending the blood bank services of Sana’a and Aden in the Northern and Southern regions, a group of residents of Soqotra
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Seroprevalence and risk factors for HIV, HCV, HBV and syphilis among blood donors in Mali

Seroprevalence and risk factors for HIV, HCV, HBV and syphilis among blood donors in Mali

Continuous variables were described with median and interquartile range [IQR] and categorical variables as number and percentages. The prevalence of HIV, HBV and HCV was expressed with a 95% confidence interval (CI95%) and group’s comparison was performed using Chi-2 test for categorical variables. Univariable and mul- tivariable (including gender, age, education level (none, primary school, secondary school, higher), marital status, geographical setting and type of blood donation covari- ates) logistic regression analyses were performed with R (v3.6.1) [11] software to identify risk factors of each in- fection. Factors associated with HIV, HBV or HCV in- fection with a P value of < 0.20 in the univariate logistic regression analyses were included in the multiple logistic regression model. The level of significance for each ana- lysis was set at 0.05.
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Hepatitis B virus infection in a cohort of HIV infected blood donors and AIDS patients in Sichuan, China

Hepatitis B virus infection in a cohort of HIV infected blood donors and AIDS patients in Sichuan, China

The identification of a high prevalence of HBV in HIV infected individuals in this study indicates the significance of screening for HBV among patients newly diagnosed with HIV/AIDS. Hence, we strongly recommend that rou- tine testing for patients newly diagnosed with HIV/AIDS should include tests for HBV in China and that treatment of HBV should become an important part of HIV care. The hepatitis B infection with negative HBsAg in HIV in- fected Chinese individuals found in this study suggested that HIV/HBV coinfected patients remain undiagnosed, if only conventional serological markers for HBV are used and it’s important to detect HBV DNA for HIV infected patients. Reagents with the ability to detect samples containing mutants should be selected for HBsAg testing to avoid diagnostic mistakes resulting from mutations in MHR region. HBV DNA levels were relatively low in HBeAg negative patients, thus this serologic marker may be useful in prioritizing patients on their need for HBV treatment in settings in which HBV DNA is not available. More studies are needed to determine the HBV genotype distribution in the HBV/HIV coinfected individuals further.
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Trends in prevalence of hepatitis B virus infection among Albanian blood donors, 1999 2009

Trends in prevalence of hepatitis B virus infection among Albanian blood donors, 1999 2009

than paid donors (figures 2). So, it is important to encourage the voluntary blood donors to become regu- larly blood donors. Screening the blood donors for anti- HBc or HBV DNA has reduced the risk of transmition of HVB infection by transfusion of blood and his pro- ducts [27]. It is generally accepted that the diagnosis of infection by HBV is based on the presence of the HBsAg in the bloodstream [28]. However, screening of blood donors for HBsAg does not totally eliminate the risk of HBV infection through blood transfusion [29] since the absence of this marker in the serum does not exclude the presence of HBV DNA [30-33]. It is possible that, donors with occult HBV infection, who lacked detectable HBsAg but whose exposure to HBV infection was indicated by a positive anti-HBc and HBV DNA, are a potential source of HBV infection [34-36].
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Seroprevalence of transfusion transmissible infections and evaluation of the pre donation screening performance at the Provincial Hospital of Tete, Mozambique

Seroprevalence of transfusion transmissible infections and evaluation of the pre donation screening performance at the Provincial Hospital of Tete, Mozambique

Africa faces the highest transfusion needs in the world, but also the highest prevalence of blood-borne pathogens and the weakest transfusion programs [6]. Most blood banks in Africa are small, hospital-based and relying on an important proportion of replacement donors, in contrast with western transfusion units orga- nized with large pools of voluntary donors [7]. In addi- tion, recommended reference screening tests like enzyme immunoassays (EIA) or nucleic acid testing (NAT) are technically, logistically and financially still far beyond reach of many resource-constrained blood banks [8]. In such settings with limited capacity and low throughput, WHO accepts the use of rapid and simple serological assays for TTI screening, provided that they are quality-assured, locally validated and quality-con- trolled. Rapid test-based screening protocols tend to be used increasingly in African blood banks [9]. It seems indeed effective at least for HIV and HCV screening [10], although safety of such a strategy has been recently challenged in an international quality control survey [11]. For some experts, rapid testing has also the advan- tage of immediate counseling of infected candidates and referral to appropriate care, although this is not the pri- mary objective of transfusion medicine [12].
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