10. Sanei Moghadam E, Khosravi S, Gharibi T. Prevalence of HBsAg and Anti-HCV reactivity in donors embarking on direct blood donation and among first-time blooddonors in Zahedan Blood Transfusion Center. The Scientific Journal of Iranian Blood Transfusion Organization. 2004; 1(2): 19- 25.[Persian]
9_ Uneke CJ, Ogbu O, Lnyama P, Anyanwa GL, Njoku MO, Iobok IH, Prevalence Of hepatitis-B Surface antigen among blooddonors and human immunodeficiency Virus- infected Patients in jos,Nigeria .Men inst oswaldo cruz,Riode Janeiro , 2005;100(1):13_16.
Out of 4224 blood units collected, 487 units that tested positive for any of the TTI tested giving an overall posi- tivity rate 11.5 %. No co-infection reported during this study period. Of all the TTI, hepatitis B form major- ity of infection 460/4224 (10.9 %), followed by hepatitis C 17 (0.4 %), while the least percentage was HIV and syphilis 6 (0.1 %), 4 (0.1 %) respectively. High percent- age of TTI was reported in 2010 (14.1 %), followed by 2012 (12.4 %), while least was reported on 2011 (10.1 %). High percentage (13.9 %) of HBV was reported in 2010, followed by 2012 (11.6 %), the least was reported in 2011 (9.4 %). There was statistically significant (Chi square = 9.24 P value = 0.02) change in sero-positivity from year 2010 to 2013. Trends of Hepatitis B also statis- tically significant from year to year (Chi square = 11.14 P value = 0.01). All TTIs types were reported in 2011 and 2013, while syphilis cases were not reported in 2010 and 2012 (Table 2). When grouping (HCV, HIV, and syphilis) by years, the percentage was increasing from year 2010 (0.3 %), 2011 (0.6 %), 2011 (0.8 %), and decline in 2013 (0.7 %), but there was no statistically significant change (P value = 0.576) (Table 2).
One of the main recommendations of the WHO to achieve a safe and sufficient blood supply is the collec- tion of blood from voluntary regular non-remunerated donors who have a lower risk of TTIs compared to fam- ily replacement and commercial donors. In this study, the overall prevalence of HIV among blooddonors in the last three years at University of Gondar compressive specialized Hospital blood bank, 2.5% is lower than previ- ous studies conducted Ethiopia, 3.8 and 11.79% [16, 25], in Cameroon, 2.9 and 4.1% [12, 23], in Dares salaam, 3.8% , in Mozambique, 8.5% , in Nigeria, 2.8, 6.2 and 3.1% [17, 26, 27]. However, the overall prevalence of HIV in this study, 2.5% was higher as compared to the preva- lence of HIV in Ethiopia, 1.4, 0.25 and 0.1% [18, 37, 39], in Netherland, 0.06% , in Nepal, 0.12% , in the Uni- versity Clinics of Kinshasa of Democratic Republic of the Congo, 2.2% , in Saudi Arabia, 0% , in Istanbul, Turkey, 0.008% , in Kathmandu, Nepal, 0.007% , in Pakistan, 0.007, 0.25, 0.017 and 0.09% [30, 35, 38, 40], in Delhi, 0.56% , in Kashan, Iran, 0% , in south- eastern Anatolia, 0.0004% , in India, 0.27 and 0.39% [34, 42], in Koudougou, 2.21% , in Lahore, 0.05% . This variation of seroprevalence of TTIs from other stud- ies might be due to due to difference in the characteristics of the study population, geographical distribution and diagnostic techniques.
One of the strengths of this study was its epidemiologi- cal aspect that covered 3000 eligible women from urban and rural areas of Khuzestan Province. Secondly, all eligible women were contacted by phone and if anyone could not attend the clinic, one of the researchers went to her house and collected the information. Considering the recent policy of population increase in Iran, attention to the unmet need for family planning can help women to decide about a number of children they desire and timing of their childbearing. Furthermore decreasing unmet need can significantly decrease the number of illegal abortions. The unmet need for family planning in the Khuzestan Province is quite high compared to some statistics from other cities as well as the whole country. The policy mak- ers can use this data for making decisions about family planning. Improving awareness about family planning can help women to decide on safer and more reliable contra- ceptive methods.
7-Siham Al-Mufti, Alexander Voevodin, Sabeeha Ahmed, Samia Al Hamdan, Abdul Azis Al-Basheer. Seroprevalence of Human T-Cell Leukemia/Lymphoma Virus Type I and Type II (HTLV-I/HTLV-II) Infection among Volunteer BloodDonors in Kuwait. Medical Principles and Practice 1999;1(8): 45-50 (Kuwait)
region. In another study in southeastern part of Iran (Sistan and Baluchestan province), which is a high HBsAg prevalence area, HBV-DNA positive was observed in neither the HBsAg- negative nor anti-HBc-positive donors. Furthermore, the broad range of OBI (0.006%- 22%) has been reported among blooddonors in different parts of the world. For instance, in European countries like Poland, Italy, Spain, and Germany, OBI pervasiveness rates of 0.006%, 0.22%, 0.05%, and 0.0006%, have been reported respectively. All in all, these data imply that the prevalence of OBI is distinctive in every country .
systematic review was aimed to provide pooled seroprevalence estimates of the three viruses in Sudan. Structured review of the literature was conducted to obtain relevant studies published in both national and international databases. After assessment of quality and bias in all proposed studies, 57 prevalence studies were included. Meta-analysis was conducted for all studies and subgroup analysis was also approached. The total sample size of participants in included studies providing HIV antibodies prevalence was 15,479. Based on information retrieved from these studies, HIVprevalence ranged from 0 to 18.3% among different study populations. However, pooled prevalence estimate for HIV antibodies was 1%. Kassala, Eastern Sudan was the most endemic State (4.18%). The HBV reported seroprevalence rates ranged from 5.1 up to 26.81% among different populations and the overall pooled prevalence was 12.07%. For HCV antibodies; 2.74% was determined to be the pooled prevalence. Khartoum State was the most endemic State of both HBV and HCV with seroprevalence of 12.69% and 6.78%, respectively. Based on data reviewed and synthesized; there is no evidence for an HIV endemic in the general population of Sudan. However, both HBV and HCV seroprevalence rates are indicating otherwise. Reducing the overall burden of HIV, HBV and HCV infections will require new measures and national strategies and the recognition of the infections as one of the country ’ s priority issues.
DOI: 10.4236/jbm.2017.59008 85 Journal of Biosciences and Medicines redox, and other crucial cellular processes in nearly all tissues and cell types, in- cluding those involved in innate and adaptive immune responses . The measurement of trace elements especially viz, Se and Zn has been considered to predict disease progression in many viral infections e.g. HIV-1, HBV and HCV   . Iron plays important roles in anti-microbial host responses, firstly by synergistic effects towards anti-microbial radical formation  and secondly by directly altering immune cell proliferation and anti-microbial immune effec- ter pathways . Conversely, excess iron promotes the formation of intracellu- lar free radicals, which can cause oxidative damage . Requirement of copper for optimal innate immune response has been demonstrated in animal models  and cell culture models using mouse macrophages , where the effects could be reversed by administration of Cu. Nitric oxide (NO), an important me- diator of intracellular killing of microbes, is degraded during copper deficiency . Some of the recent research showed that interleukin-2 induced T cell proliferation is reduced even in marginal copper deficiency . Magnesium acts as a cofactor for immunoglobulin synthesis, immune cell adherence, antibo- dy-dependent cytolysis and macrophage response to lymphokines.
Results: HBV coinfections were found in 12.9% (79/614) HIV infected individuals including 42/417(10.1%) blooddonors and 37/197 (18.8%) AIDS patients. In the HBsAg positive individuals, 80.0% were HBeAg negative in which 10.0% were HBV DNA negative and 38.3% with HBV DNA lower than 2000 IU/ml. The average HBV DNA levels were lower in donors than in patients. In the HBV DNA positive populations, HBV genotypes B, A and C accounted for 48.1%, 22.8% and 8.86% respectively. Mutations related to the failure of HBsAg detection were found in 2 of the 4 HBsAg-/HBV DNA + subjects. Conclusions: High prevalence of HBV in HIV infected individuals was found in this study. Hence, we recommend routine testing of HBV for patients newly diagnosed with HIV/AIDS in China. Some HIV-HBV co-infected patients remain undiagnosed if only conventional serological markers for HBV are used and it ’ s important to detect HBV DNA for HIV infected patients. HBV DNA levels were relatively low in HBeAg negative patients, thus this serologic marker may be useful in prioritizing patients on their need for HBV treatment in settings in which HBV DNA is not available.
Several limitations are to be mentioned. The study was conducted according to the routine practice of the blood bank, with no additional staff or equipment. Full time supervision (24 hours a day, 7 days a week) by the main investigator was not possible, and errors in per- forming or reporting may have occurred. Also, rapid tests were compared in parallel and in a non-blinded way, with some risk of “ cross-influence ” on the results. As mentioned, sophisticated testing could only be per- formed in Maputo, representing considerable logistical efforts. For this reason, reference testing was not per- formed on the whole sample set but purposely restricted to the samples with discordant results in Tete, to all samples reactive to HCV rapid test and to the subset of positive and negative samples sent for quality control. Some erroneous results of rapid testing might therefore Table 2 Frequency of positive serological tests for, and confirmation of, HIV, HBsAg, HCV and syphilis infections in non-deferred (voluntary and replacement) blood donor candidates at the provincial hospital of Tete, Mozambique
As most OBI infections are asymptomatic, we can detect them only through screening of large populations. Current tests for this purpose include: 1) Liver biopsy: although diagnosis of HBV DNA in liver is the best method to detect OBI, it is not always possible to perform, and liver biopsy for routine testing of patients has not been approved by FDA 138 . 2) HBsAg detection method; the detection
HBVprevalence tops the list of total prevalence with fluctuating HIV and HCV data. Syphilis is reduced to the least due to wide use a potent bactericidal agent like Penicillin, which was very rampant 4 – 5 decades back. Surprisingly transfusion Malaria is reported the least in all studies in India though there were several such cases treated all over India and developing countries in the past. CD 4 and VL are inversely proportional. In knowing the intensity of HIV disease both the values have to be correlated to initiate HAART therapy and blood transfusion. Better to perform all the battery of investigations including the antigenic and antibody profile of the viruses. Even before issuing blood bag for transfusion. That is the surest way to minimise TTi and to reduce sero prevalence to a great extent. Though not routinely performed in India unlike in the west, the tests for HBV like HBeAg, anti-HBe, anti-HBs, anti-HBc, IgM anti-HBc and HBV – DNA must be performed and also HCV- Ab, HCV-RNA. This kind of sero response of HBV is clearly shown in the graph 2. Strict quality control, counselling of donars, elimination of paid repeated donors, using the latest time tested gadgets to screen the blood, avoiding contamination, training of blood bank lab technicians at regular intervals updating knowledge, maintaining regular uninterrupted power supply and avoiding resource crunch are very very essential for the best possible quality of blood transfusion. A qualified medical officer, nurse, lab technician in transfusion 9 medicine or the clinical pathologist has to be posted in blood bank to render dedicated work. Paid, repeated and habituated donors must be eliminated from blood donation.
Golestanprovince includes 14 counties with 60 townships and 1021 villages, lying within the 36°30’ to 38°8’ N and 53°57’ to 56°22’ E, is located in North-East Iran. This province with more than 1 750 000 populations covers an area of 20 893 km2. Different regions of Golestanprovince have different climate and are notably heterogeneous. Northern parts are located in the arid and semi-arid climate, southern parts show a mountainous climate, and central and southern west parts have a moderate Mediterranean climate. 7 Feral cats were collected from 20 villages of 5 towns locating in different climates of Golestanprovince (Figure 1).
Among blood check up transfusion required, we do have the detection of B and C hepatits. For those patients having antibodies against antigens of hepatitis, sample of urine has been required. Whenever the result seems to be positive, we will be searching bile pigments not in the blood but in the urine of either those antigens having B hepatitis or those having C hepatitis.
Background: The Varroa destructor mite is considered as a major pest of honey bees Apis mellifera. The rapid spread of Varroa mites among bee colonies may be due to several factors, including drifting of infested bees, movement of bee swarms, and robbing of weakened colonies. Disease spread and predisposing the infested bees to other diseases lead to high economic losses in beekeeping industries. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of and evaluate some managing factors in GolestanProvince in Iran in 2008.
non aseptic practices putting individuals in rural areas at risk for HCV such as female excision (removal of a part or entire clitoris), circumcision or cultural scarification as previously reported in others African countries  but probably not linked to injection drugs users mainly present in the center of Bamako. None of these specific factors were assessed in this study and further investiga- tion should be undertaken to completely assess HCV epidemiology and transmission knowledge in Mali. Fi- nally as expected, syphilis prevalence was very low with Table 1 HIV, HBV and HCVprevalence, according to sociodemographic and geographical data, from Bamako blood bank, year 2018
This study has several limitations. The ideal condition to conduct a seroprevalence study is by taking sample of general population. As blooddonors are specifically selected based on extensive questionnaire, strict selection criteria and physical examination and only apparently healthy individuals with lowest risk of TTIs were allowed to donate blood, our study sample does not represent general population. Further, the donor pool was predominantly composed of male population. We acknowledge the limitation of not using advanced methods like NAAT (Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques) which are needed for detection of window period in HIV due to non-availability in our blood bank. CONCLUSION
Blood sample was collected on site and transported within a few hours (less than 3 hours) to the local laboratory in blood bank in the region for separating serum aliquots and stored in a –20°C deep freezer until testing. Sero- positivity to HBV was defined by detection of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and sero- positivity to HCV by detection of anti-HCV antibodies by a third generation enzyme linked immunoassay (ELISA). Samples that initially gave a positive HBsAg and anti-HCV antibodies result were repeatedly (3 times) tested for confirmation. The contributing blooddonors were presented separate into four regions of study and then divided into age groups. Data is presented and described by using mean, and table presentations.