with the job profile of filling the fuel with nozzle in vehicles 20 – 40 years of age working since > 6 months, without any shoulder injury, trauma and neurological musculoskeletal problem. Ethical approval taken from the ethical committee Questionnaire was prepared and validated. The subjects fulfilling the inclusion and exclusion criteria of the survey will be selected and a written consent of the participants was taken. Detailed information about the project will be explained to the participants and personally interviewed. Questionnaire was filled and data analysis was done.
pain and shoulderpain. These symptoms of pain is due to improper table height, weight and height of the person, iron box weight and working hours and quantity of the clothes as shown in Table 3. These symptoms are predominant among constructional workers, plantation workers, hospital staffs, sports players and much more.[14-16] the prevalence of the symptoms shows a pronounced effect for female compared to male worker, as the latter are stronger. Improper postures lead to neck pain, had/wrist pain and shoulderpain, this pain is due to improper design of work table, weight of the iron box. Occurrence of neck back pain is due to the over bending and stretching.[17, 18, 19] In order to avoid shoulder and hand/wrist pain the table height is placed appropriate to the height of the person, which in turn minimizes over stretching and bending. It is advised that the workers should take appropriate rest breaks in between their process of ironing. At least 5-10 minutes of rest after each 45min. should be taken by the workers who perform continuous and repetitive work which is recommended by the Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene.
This descriptive cross-sectional study using purposive sampling technique was conducted to assess the prevalence of shoulderpain among the assistive device users with paraplegia with spinal cord injury at SIRC. The discussion was made by reviewing different literature on Prevalence of ShoulderPain and Disability Among Assistive Devices Users with Paraplegia. Spinal cord injury is a devastating, sudden onset injury which may result in permanent paralysis and loss of physical function. The injured individual is usually dependent on a wheelchair for mobility and may require varying levels of personal care assistance with activities of daily living.
A limitation is the small number of men (n = 24), which increases the risk of statistical type II errors. Also, the anatomical overlap of several neck/shoulder muscles - e. g. trapezius and supraspinatus - may weaken the ability to precisely determine tenderness of specific muscles. Further, the study would have been strengthened by measuring pressure pain threshold of all the investigated anatomical locations and relating this to the manual pal- pation scores. As manual palpation scores are prone to many errors, the inclusion of a calibrated team of trained examiners may have strengthened the study. Although, the tenderness scale of ‘no’, ‘some’ and
Active MTrPs, which are painful spots that produce familiar shoulderpain during contraction, stretching or compressing, these MTrPs may provide an alternative explanation for shoulderpain, which is independent of the presence of subacromial abnormalities. According to Simons, Travell and Simons , MTrPs within the infraspinatus muscle (which were most prevalent) cause pain in the anterior and middle deltoid regions which expands into the frontal upper arm, as well as referred pain and referred sensations felt in the wrist and the hand. In addition, internal rotation and cross-body adduction may be impaired, which is often the case in patients with shoulderpain. Both experimentally induced and spontaneous muscle pain lead to an aber- rant motor activation pattern that is also present in patients with shoulderpain [68,69]. Although latent MTrPs are not usually an immediate source of pain, they can elicit referred pain when mechanically stimu- lated, or during sustained or repeated muscle contrac- tion. In addition, latent MTrPs may disturb normal motor recruitment patterns and movement efficiency.
Thirty undergraduates from the Department of Clinical Medicine at the School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University were responsible for distributing and retrieving the questionnaires. The undergraduates had received training related to aspects of the survey in advance. Be- fore conducting the survey, the undergraduates gave the participants a popular science lecture; marked the specific scope of headache, abdominal pain, neck and shoulderpain (NSP), and LBP using diagrams of the human body; and explained in detail the characteristics of pain and the differences between post-exercise sore- ness, menstrual pain in women, and post-traumatic pain. Onset of pain was defined as pain lasting for more than 10 min, and we define “chronic pain” as “the pain lasting over 6 h single a time or short time with high frequency over 2–3 one day, and this bad situation happened more than 3 times in one month”. But in the questionnaire, simply we described the standard as” in the last 3 months, how often did you feel this kind of frequent or continuous pain in neck/shoulder, low back, head and abdomen” to differentiate chronic pain from acute pain. Instead of directly using “yes” and “no” to as- sess the exposure to risk factors, the onset frequency of pain was classified into the following four levels: “almost never”, less than once per month; “occasionally”, 1–3 times per month; “often”, 1–3 times per week; and “al- ways”, more than 3 times per week. General treatment of the results: “often” and “always” were treated as “yes”, while the other two levels, “almost never” and “occasion- ally”, were treated as “No”.
study shows a somewhat lower annual consultation prevalence and new onset consultation rate leading to consultation in general practice than previous studies from UK and the Netherlands that suggest a preva- lence and incidence of 236-480/10 000 and 112-300/ 10 000 [14-18,30] respectively. Possible explanations could include, but not be limited to, differences in study design (e.g. case criteria), health care systems and/or the more frequent use of symptomatic codes. Linsell et al. for example, also included acute trauma diagnoses and, Bot et al. included a general diagnostic code for “shoulder complaints”. Dorrestijn et al. re- port that in only 14% a specific diagnosis was recoded . When taking this into account, the oc- currence of shoulderpain conditions in Sweden seems to be about similar as in the United Kingdom and Holland.
Results: Cervical pain was associated with position of desk, chair and keyboard. There were significant association between shoulderpain and position of the keyboard, low back pain and chair position, carpal tunnel syndrome and mouse usage. The prevalence of cervical pain, shoulderpain, arm pain, wrist pain, hand pain, low back pain, elbow pain, back pain, and carpal tunnel syndrome, among respondents were 38.3%, 38.3%, 27.1%, 21.2%, 18.8%, 24.5%, 15.7%, 26.4% and 21.2%, respectively. In this study, there was significant association between exercise and all variables of carpal tunnel syndrome, elbow pain, back pain, low back pain and shoulderpain. Conclusions: It can be concluded that prevalence of musculoskeletal pain in computer users in our study were very common. Improving the position of desk, chair, mouse and keyboard could help with reducing cervical pain, shoulderpain, back pain, low back pain and carpal tunnel syndrome. Key words: Musculoskeletal Pains, Employees, Risk Factors, Iran.
reasons for this remain speculative. Painprevalence may indeed be higher, but it is also possible that it may be more acceptable for girls to complain about pain than boys. After univariate analyses, we found that adoles- cents coming from “other countries” had more neck/ shoulderpain. After multivariate analyses, this associa- tion was no longer significant. Adolescents in this ethnicity group with neck/shoulderpain were more of- ten stressed and depressed (results not presented). A portion of these adolescents were (children of) asylum seekers and refugees. A lot of these adolescents had been traumatized. 19 It therefore is conceivable that neck/
In this systematic appraisal worldwide incidence and prevalence rates for UEDs available in scientific literature were collected. No studies were found with regard to the incidence of UEDs that met the inclusion criteria. The esti- mates of the prevalence rates varied enormously across the 13 included studies. The point prevalence ranged from 1.6–53% and the 12-months prevalence ranged from 2.3– 41%. One study reported on the lifetime prevalence (29%). Only Picavet et al  studied the prevalence in an open population. The low point prevalence they reported can not be compared with the other studies available, because they all studied a specific (working) population. In addition, Picavet et al  reported on the occurrence of 'RSI', while the occurrence of an epicondylitis (around 11%) and a tendonitis or capsulitis (for the whole body they reported a prevalence rate around 16%) were reported separately and therefore not included in 'RSI'. In this study studies were included that reported incidence and prevalence rates of the whole upper extremity. Stud- ies, which reported incidence or prevalence rates on differ- ent regions of the upper extremity separately, but give no estimates for the whole upper extremity, were excluded. Reviews on the prevalence rates of a specific disorder or complaints in one region of the upper extremity have been reported elsewhere. For example, the estimates of the occurrence of the Carpal Tunnel Syndrome in different occupational groups was studied by Hagbert et al  and varied between 0.6 and 61%. Luime et al  reported on prevalence rates of shoulderpain studied in open popula- tion: the point-prevalence ranged from 7 – 27% and the 12-months prevalence ranged from 8.4 – 20%
Table 2 gives an overview of the risk factors, prevalence of arm, shoulder and neck symptoms and sick leave at base- line and 12 months of follow-up. After 12-months of fol- low-up, the intervention group scored significantly better than the usual care group on the scales "Information" and "Work posture and movement" (Table 3). Corrected for baseline values, a significant Odds Ratio of 0.48 (95% CI: 0.28 to 0.82) was found for information, indicating that at follow-up the participants in the intervention group had a two times higher chance to have had information con- cerning prevention than the usual care group. For the scale work posture and movement, the significant regres- sion coefficient of -0.35 (95% CI: 0.68 to -0.03) indicates that the intervention group had at follow-up on average 0.35 points less on a 0 to 11 points scale than the usual care group, indicating a slightly lower risk. The results were corrected for baseline values. There was a slight reduction in scores for several other factors, but this occurred in both, the intervention and usual care, groups. There were no significant differences in the changes in prevalence of arm, shoulder and neck symptoms between the intervention and usual care group. The overall preva- lence of arm, shoulder and neck symptoms decreased by 9% in both the intervention (decrease from 51% to 42%) and usual care group (decrease from 56% to 47%). There were no significant differences in changes in sick leave between the intervention and usual care group. Compli- ance of the participants varied from 51%, for an eyesight check, to 89% for a visit to the occupational health physi- cian. Low compliance was sometimes caused by the deci- sion of participating organisations not to accept (parts of )
Petrol (gasoline) is a complex combination of hydrocarbons. Petrol evaporates more readily in hot than cold climate. Petrol vapor contains volatile organic compounds (VOCs) like benzene that will be released into the atmosphere during vehicle refuelling. The benzene content of petrol has typically been in the range of 1-5% but may have risen following the removal of lead additives. Exposure to less than 1ppm of benzene for eight hours or exposure to 2-3ppm for shorter period (30-120 minutes) can result in various haematological changes, respiratory disturbances and thyroid disorders. India does not have an air quality standard for Benzene. In India permissible level of benzene in petrol is 3%. 7
A total of 994 sewing machine operators who had worked in the two garment industries for more than 12 months prior to the study period were considered as source population. The sample size was determined using single population proportion formula and to maximize the sample size, 50% assumption was used at 95% confidence interval and margin of error 5%. Therefore, including 10% non-response rate, the total sample size obtained was 422. First, sewing machine operators were stratified by its organizational structure, then after, sample size was proportionally allocated to each garment industries. Lottery method was used to recruit the actual number of study units. Administrative or supportive staffs and workers those who were absent during data collection period were excluded from the study.
Musculoskeletal disorders are known to have an inter- mittent pattern of recurrence [27, 28]. In the same indi- vidual, complaints may come and go, and their intensity may vary at over time. Thus, asking about pain during an extended period of time is valuable when compared to reports of only currently-present pain, or pain during the past week. In addition, the severity of complaints varies among individuals: some may have slight or mild complaints that do not interfere with their daily life; others have serious problems which may result in taking long term sick leave or a disability pension. Such varia- tions are not captured by questions which simply ad- dress complaints (“any pain”). Therefore, we defined cases of pain based on the subjects’ reports on frequency as well as the intensity of complaints during the preced- ing 12 months. Such an approach has not, to our know- ledge, been used earlier, and we consider this a major strength of the study.
However, the requirements statement contains two examples of generalization. Payments can be made either in cash, by credit card, or on account. These payment methods require different information in each case, and so these are candidates for payment specializations. Also there are two kinds of pump: the simple one that we have already described in our models, and the sophisticated version from New Zealand, which allows the customer to preset the volume or amount. This can also be modeled by an inheritance relationship. We will make no decision about whether the subclasses are a disjoint union or not, so we leave the triangles empty. These inheritance relationships are shown in figure 4.
module of the DASH questionnaire, among the workers with chronic pain. Hence, chronic pain was paralleled by functional impairment of the arm, shoulder and hand dur- ing daily work tasks indicating an imbalance between indi- vidual capacity and work demands. This is further acknowledged, by the observed reduction in work ability (i.e. lowered WAI-score) in the chronic pain group (Fig. 4). The concept of work ability reflects the relation between capacity of the worker and demands of the work, and takes into consideration both demands of the work, health sta- tus, and physical and mental resources [53, 54]. As a multi- dimensional instrument, work ability (index) has been related to musculoskeletal pain, chronic disease, product- ivity, sickness absence, early retirement and all-cause mor- tality [29–32, 55]. Likewise, workers exposed to highly repetitive and forceful exertion, lack of sufficient recovery, and awkward postures [24, 25] have an elevated risk of both impaired work ability and musculoskeletal disorders [26–28]. Despite lower work ability in the group with chronic pain observed in the present study, ther index score of 39.7 was still categorized as good. Additionally, when analyzing the items of the WAI separately, no differ- ence in item 5, regarding sick leave during the past year existed between the groups (Fig. 4). Thus, in this group of workers, chronic upper limb pain is paralleled with self- reported decreased work productivity, evidenced by im- paired work performance and work ability (DASH-W and WAI) without having direct consequences on sick leave. Consequently, in the present study, chronic pain seems to foster presenteeism (i.e. decreased on the-the-job performance due to health problems) while not leading to absenteeism, which is further acknowledged by the fact that the group with chronic pain were active on the labor market working fulltime at the slaughterhouse . It should however be mentioned, that the differ- ences in DASH and WAI score could potentially be at- tributed to the inclusion criteria, as participants in the two groups were selected to be different in perceived work disability.
The present research can be distinguished from earlier studies in that there was no correlation in discomfort scores and total body discomfort scores tended to have greater correlations with ROSA scores. Lumbar disc herniation among of- fice employees occurs due to the risk factor of (25) prolonged sitting on a daily basis (26). Maintaining a posture of sitting during long hours in static pos- tures may cause alterations in muscular activity of the cervical spine and shoulder stabilizers (27). This continuous activity may lead to muscle fa- tigue and result in WRMSD. This may lead to sci- atica, a disorder of the sciatic nerve resulting in sharp pain down the (26). The posture of sitting at the computer resulted in workers adapting throughout the workday and interaction with the other features of the workplace leads to muscle tension in the shoulder and neck (14).
There are a large variety of shoulder disorders and some classification systems to categorise these into different groups. Most shoulder problems fall into three major categories: soft tissue disorders, articular injury or instability, and arthritis (Dinnes, Loveman, McIntyre, & Waugh, 2003). One of the studies classified these into six diagnostic categories: capsular syndrome (adhesive capsulitis, arthrosis, frozen shoulder, etc.), acute bursitis, acromioclavicular syndrome, subacromial syndrome (chronic bursitis, tendinitis, rotator cuff tears), rest group, and mixed clinical picture (De Winter et al., 1999), whilst another study described three different patterns of shoulderpain. These were Pattern 1: impingement pain, Pattern 2: acromioclavicular joint pain and Pattern 3: shoulderpain (frozen shoulder; glenohumeral osteoarthritis; complete cuff tear; subscapularis tear; painful laxity; post-traumatic instability; and internal derangement) (Carter et al., 2012). They all have some specific features as well as common characteristics. It is not always easy to diagnose these as they may not be an isolated problem but may be a rather a complex and mixed one.
The present study can provide a great chance to the owners of petrol filling stations to work on to their services to attain maximum benefit from customers. Currently, this area has been ignored in literature, which is leading to a lack of knowledge about growth and development of the business of fuel refilling station. A serious attention towards the issues and customers’ needs regarding fuel refilling stations’ services can provide a high level of achievement in gaining customers’ confidence and perception building. Therefore, to study the important factors which are the cornerstones for developing customers’ trust and perception, which are neglected in Karachi, following hypothesis are being made:
Abstract: The security challenges being encountered in many places today by means of controlling access in order to secure the premises. Nowadays petrol stations are operated manually we required more man power & it is time consuming process. So we have proposed a system in order to make easier, reliable & secure system. The main aim of this paper is to present an Automatic Fuel Dispensing System based on RFID & GSM Technology. RFID reader is installed at the bunk. Every customer is provided by a unique RFID Cards .On swapping the RFID Cards the authentication of passwords & available balance amount of the user is done. If both are fine, then the fuel filling process gets initiated automatically according to the customer entered amount. Passive RFID Tags can be recharged through online facility which is provided to every customer, through his smart phone by using GSM Technology. The deduced amount & remaining balance amount of every RFID Cards is send to the user smart phones using GSM Technology, even the deduced amount information is send to the web server using Wi-Fi Technology. Keywords: Arduinomega2560 microcontroller, RFID Reader, Passive Tags, GSM Module, Fuel Dispensing System, LCD Display, Keypad, Level sensor, Gas sensor, Fire sensor, Wi-Fi Module.