Top PDF Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity among Private and Government School Children

Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity among Private and Government School Children

Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity among Private and Government School Children

Keywords: overweight, obesity, private, government, school children. 1.INTRODUCTION Today as standards of living continue to rise, weight gain and obesity are posing a growing threat to health of the world. Obesity is a chronic disease, prevalent in both developed and developing countries [1]. In many developing countries including India it co-exists with nutrition. This constitutes a double burden for those countries [2]. The problem of obesity is confined not only to adults but also among the children and adolescents [3,4].Data from National Health And Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) showed that 17% of children in the age group of 12 to 19 years are overweight or obese[5] In India, the data which is available from urban school children in cities like New Delhi, Chennai, Hyderabad etc. where prevalence of obesity was found to be between 6 to 8 % and overweight between 9 to 12%.Over the last few decades, children worldwide have become significantly heavier [6]. There has been an increase in the percentage of overweight and obese children in affluent urban families of India in the past decade [7]. evaluationof obesity in children is important as it provides an opportunity to identify the problem and prevent disease progression into adulthood. In developed societies, several studies have shown increasing number of overweight children. Approximately 14-15% of all 15 years olds in USA can be classified as obese [8]. Childhood obesity is associated with several risk factors for later heart disease and other chronic diseases including dyslipidemia, hyperinsulinemia and hypertension. The ideal definition based on percentage body fat is impracticable for epidemiological use. BMI is widely used in adult population to define obesity and a cut off point of 30 kg/m2 is recognized internationally as a definition
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Prevalence and factors associated with overweight and obesity among private kindergarten school children in Bahirdar Town, Northwest Ethiopia: cross sectional study

Prevalence and factors associated with overweight and obesity among private kindergarten school children in Bahirdar Town, Northwest Ethiopia: cross sectional study

Previous studies conducted in various setting identi- fied several risk factors for overweight and obesity among children, including: socio-economic status of the fam- ily [15], family size [8, 16], educational status of moth- ers [17], physical activities [8, 14, 18], dietary habit and a family history of overweight and obesity [19]. Previous researches were conducted among children were more focused on under nutrition than over nutrition. There are few studies conducted on obesity and overweight, particularly in Ethiopia, and none of them included pri- vate kindergarten (KG) school children aged 3–6 years in urban settings that was investigated in our study. Thus, the study aimed to assess prevalence and associated fac- tors of overweight and obesity among private kinder- garten preschool children in Bahirdar town, Northwest Ethiopia.
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Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity among Children in Private Schools in Aracaju

Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity among Children in Private Schools in Aracaju

In Table 6, we compare our findings with those in the Brazilian literature and from other countries [20-31]. In addition to the countries where the studies were conducted, this table presents the authors, year of publication, total number of participants in the study, number of adolescents, age range, proportions of boys and girls and definitions of overweight and obesity according to the classification system used. Regarding the limitations of the present study, these relate especially to non-inclusion of important variables, such as food consumption and better evaluation of sports practices, with detailing of the quality of the sport, number of hours and frequency, which would make it possible to understand the results better. Because the sample was selected only in private schools, greater generalization to the general population, regarding the prevalence of excessive weight among children of this age group, is not possible. The most important limitation of the present study was that it did not assess the quality of the canteens in different schools and thus did not evaluate the dietary habits of the children.
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Prevalence and predictors of overweight and obesity among school-aged children in urban Ghana

Prevalence and predictors of overweight and obesity among school-aged children in urban Ghana

The current analysis included 3089 out of the 3444 school children who were sampled (Fig. 1). The majority (90%) of children who were sampled but not included did not show up on the day of data collection; the re- mainder either refused participation (9%) or were ineli- gible because of their age (1%). The mean age of children who participated in the study was 12.2 ± 1.7 years and more than half of them were female (Table 1). Most of the children ate breakfast during the school week, with 85% having breakfast more than three days per week (Table 2). Consumption of fruits and veg- etables was low. Only 20% and 38% had consumed fruits and vegetables >5 times, respectively, the previous week. About three-quarters of the children (76%) walked to school at least four out of the five school days in a week and more than half (58%) did household chores during the week. However, involvement in sporting activities was low, with less than one-third of the children en- gaging in a sport at least three times in a week. Television watching was also low among the study sample. Less than 15% watched television at least five times during the week prior to the survey. The over- all prevalence of overweight and obesity was 14.7% among the children, with 4.4% being obese (Table 3). A higher proportion of children were overweight (including obese) in the private compared to the pub- lic schools (21.4% vs 11.2%, p < 0.001).
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Overweight and obesity among public and private primary school children in Nairobi, Kenya

Overweight and obesity among public and private primary school children in Nairobi, Kenya

Data was analysed using SPSS version 17.0 and WHO AnthroPlus. Measures of central tendency and dispersion were determined for quantitative variables (age, weight, height, BMI). Student’s t-test was used to test continuous data. Frequency distributions of categorical data (sex, school type, number of siblings, residence, parents’ oc- cupation and education levels) were determined and as- sociations between population groups and prevalence rates determined using Chi-square statistics. A p-value of less than 0.05 was considered significant. Risk factors were determined by comparing selected socio-demo- graphic characteristics of normal and overweight/obese children. Underweight children were only eleven and were excluded from this comparison. The study protocol
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Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity among Primary School Children Aged 8–13 Years in Dar es Salaam City, Tanzania

Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity among Primary School Children Aged 8–13 Years in Dar es Salaam City, Tanzania

Incidences of overweight and obesity are more common in the middle and high cost private schools than in public schools [17]. The findings of this study revealed that the prevalence of overweight and obesity was higher among pri- vate school children 22.1% and 11.4% than their counterparts in public primary schools 12.1% and 3.8%, respectively. In agreement with these findings, a study in Kenya reported that private school children in Nairobi province were found to be 5.1 times more likely to be overweight/obese than their counterparts in public school [17]. The study further revealed that public school children were more likely to be under- weight than those in private schools. This finding was in line with those of a study in western Kenya which reported that there was higher prevalence of overweight/obesity among the participants from private schools compared to their counterparts from the public schools [21, 33, 34]. Most of the underweight children in Dar es Salaam reported during interview to have missed some meals suggesting that the lower weight was a result of undernutrition. Similarly, it was reported by another study that there was an increase of obesogenic environment to children who were restricted in movement by their parents or guardians; this is even more evident in children who have less and less opportunities to involve in spontaneous physical activities [31].
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Impact Of Socio Economic Status On Prevalence Of Overweight And Obesity Among Urban School Children Of Visakhapatnam, North Coastal Andhra Pradesh

Impact Of Socio Economic Status On Prevalence Of Overweight And Obesity Among Urban School Children Of Visakhapatnam, North Coastal Andhra Pradesh

The significant association between the school type and overweight or obesity stated the fact that the children from private schools belongs to higher socio-economic status. For their parents’ occupations, the parents of the private schools children were more likely to be educated and professionals compared to those from public schools who were more often uneducated and unskilled workers. This clearly illustrates that the children attending private schools were richer when compared with their contemporaries from public schools and these have been strongly linked to the pathogenesis of obesity. This implies the importance of the family characteristics in the causation or predisposition of an individual to overweight and obese (Pandez et al., 2005). In developing countries, however, the level of obesity is greater in the higher socio-economic status segments of society in China and Russia (Wang, 2001). The prevalence is similar to what is reported in different parts of the country like Rajasthan (Kaneria et al., 2006), Hyderabad (Laxmaiah et al., 2007), South Karnataka (Shashidhar Koitan et al., 2010), Chennai (Shabana Tharkar and Vijay Viswanathan, 2009).
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Prevalence and correlates of overweight and obesity among school children in an urban district in Ghana

Prevalence and correlates of overweight and obesity among school children in an urban district in Ghana

High SES households in developing countries may have access to high energy foods and drinks and processed foods compared with low SES households [44, 45]. More- over, there may be increased use of technology [45] such as cars, electronic devices and indoor entertainments facil- ities like gaming consoles and televisions in the high SES households compared to low SES households. In this study, significantly higher proportion of children attending private schools were from higher SES households, con- sumed high energy foods, snacks and drinks, and used motorised transport to and from school compared to chil- dren attending public schools, consistent with the afore- mentioned findings. Additionally, more children in private schools were engaged in sedentary activities compared to those in public schools, though not sig- nificant. These dietary and sedentary habits could con- tribute to weight gain among the children [39]. The results from this study however contrast observations from developed countries where inverse associations exist between SES and overweight or obesity preva- lence [42, 46, 47]. This has been attributed to low Table 3 Anthropometric characteristics of school children by gender and type of school
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A Cross sectional study on the Prevalence of Overweight and obesity and its association with Dietary pattern among school going children

A Cross sectional study on the Prevalence of Overweight and obesity and its association with Dietary pattern among school going children

In Gulbarga city there are 212 schools having total children 29,715 aged between 10-15 years. Cluster sampling method is used, after selecting the cluster (schools) randomly by lottery method. All children between 10-15 years in that cluster (school) are included in the study, if the school population in that selected cluster is less than the required sample; we select the second cluster by lottery method and repeat the process till the required sample is obtained. Hence we got 5 schools in our study to meet the required sample. The list of Government and Private schools along with the number of students studying between 10-15 years were taken from the office of Deputy Director of school Education, Gulbarga. After selecting the school, prior consent from school authorities was obtained. The students between 10- 15 years were interviewed personally with the help of
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Obesity prevalence. Overweight/obesity by education. Overweight/obesity by age. Overweight/obesity by region

Obesity prevalence. Overweight/obesity by education. Overweight/obesity by age. Overweight/obesity by region

The ‘Universal Health Insurance Act’ of 1994 resulted in improved insurance coverage for secondary and tertiary care - 95% of the population was considered to be covered by 2014. There are 4 main insurance organisations; one for employees of the formal private sector and their dependents, one for government employees, the self- employed, students and others, one for military personnel and finally, one for those with low-income. Criticisms of the insurance system include the multiple risk pools and differing benefit packages, resulting in great

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A study of correlates of overweight/obesity among high school children of mandya city, karnataka

A study of correlates of overweight/obesity among high school children of mandya city, karnataka

to boys (Preetam et al., 2011 and El-Hazmi and Warsy, 2002). In contrast to the above findings, the prevalence of overweight / obesity was found high in boys as compared to girls in other studies (Kalpana and Lakshmi, 2011; Chhatwal et al., 2004; Kumar et al., 2011 and Ramachandran et al., 2002). This could be due to the fact that during puberty, females have tendency to accumulate more fat and male adolescents have larger amount of lean mass compared to females, thus the amount of body fat in males decreases by approximately 40% (La Merrill et al., 2011 and Strauss, 2002). The prevalence of overweight / obesity was high in private schools (12.46%) as compared to government schools (8.83%). These observations are in line with results of previous studies (Premanath et al., 2010 and Kumar et al., 2007). The prevalence of overweight / obesity was statistically significant with relation to viewing television. The prevalence was high in children who watched television >1.5 hous/day. The possible explanation could be television viewing affects obesity by influencing food choices, encouraging excess food intake, lowering metabolic rate, reducing the time available for activities to burn calories (De Sousa A. Maternal, 2009).
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Family-based factors associated with overweight and obesity among Pakistani primary school children

Family-based factors associated with overweight and obesity among Pakistani primary school children

list of all public and private primary schools in Lahore was provided by the Punjab Department of Education. The listed schools were stratified according to the geo- graphic area and monthly fee structure of schools into following four strata: a) urban with high SES (urban area and fee > 2500 PKR), b) urban with middle SES (urban area and fee = 1000-2500 PKR), c) urban with low SES (urban area and fee < 1000 PKR), and d) rural with low/disadvantaged SES (rural area and fee ~100 PKR or free). The former two strata included private (including public-private mix) schools and the later two strata included public schools. In Pakistan, public schools cater low SES urban and rural children while high SES and middle SES urban children are educated in private and public-private mix schools. Three schools were selected at random from each stratum and con- tacted by the Departments of Education and Health to participate voluntarily in the study. If the school admin- istration refused to participate, next school was selected randomly from the respective stratum. For each school, a list of all classes in five grades (one to five) was obtained and one class in each grade was selected at random. In this way, sixty classes, five from each school, were selected. For each of the selected classes, first thirty-one children on class attendance register, present on data collection day and aged five to twelve years, were included in the study. Participation of children in the study was voluntary. Children suffering from any known metabolic syndrome (e.g. Prader-Willi syndrome) were excluded. Sample size was calculated using Epi Info 6.04d (United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2004) with a confidence (1- a ) of 95%, anticipated prevalence of 5% and margin of error of ± 1. The minimum sample size calculated was 1823 and a sample of 1860 was deemed sufficient.
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Prevalence and Correlates of Overweight and Obesity among School Children in Sohag, Egypt

Prevalence and Correlates of Overweight and Obesity among School Children in Sohag, Egypt

As regards the prevalence of overweight among school children in the Arab countries, our results are consistent with [9] and [10] in Saudi, [11] in Jordan and [12] in Qatar. On the other hand, our results were much lower than [13] in Kuwait. Concerning the prevalence of obesity, our results were in agreement with [10] [11], but it was higher than [9] [12] and [13]. Apart from Kuwait, all of these studies showed nearly similar rates of overweight, while the prevalence of obesity showed marked variation. As we mentioned before, this could be ex- plained by differences in standard curves used for defining obesity and over- weight, in addition to differences in socio economic status between Sohag go- vernorate and those countries. This governorate is one of Egypt poorest gover- norates that results in a relatively less consumptions of energy dense foods and high consumption of the cheap high fiber diet. In addition, availability of private cars on individual level had led to reduced physical activities of children.
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Prevalence of overweight and obesity among preparatory school adolescents in Urban Sharkia Governorate, Egypt

Prevalence of overweight and obesity among preparatory school adolescents in Urban Sharkia Governorate, Egypt

But this prevalence was higher than that reported in similar studies in UK and Brazil (8.7% and 4%) respectively. 14 Our study showed a significant association between obesity and parents 0 education as the highest prevalence of obesity was among students with low educated parents as they are respon- sible for food selection for their children as well as their life style activities. This agrees with several studies carried out in the developed countries which explain this association by the belief of low educated parents that overweight children are healthier than normal weight children. So they prefer high calories food which causes obesity in their children. 15,16 While most studies carried out in developing countries revealed that the highest prevalence of obesity was among students with high educated parents due to parental style with low energy expenditure. 14,17
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The B'Active programme for overweight primary school children in Glasgow : determining the prevalence of overweight and obesity and piloting an activity intervention

The B'Active programme for overweight primary school children in Glasgow : determining the prevalence of overweight and obesity and piloting an activity intervention

The view that the activity programme produced physical, behavioural and psychological changes was a prominent theme. Physical changes were reported mostly by the children, typical responses included: ‘I feel much fitter and that I’m flexible and that I can do more fun things’. Coaches supported this, commenting on improvements in co-ordination skills and other physical abilities. Behavioural changes reported by chil- dren and echoed by teachers and parents included increased physical activity levels and willingness to engage in new activities ‘I tried it out with my friends because I live in a flat and it seemed quite good learning new games. I learned how to get fit and stuff and now me and my Mum and Dad go walking’ [child]. Psychological outcomes were frequently reported, with children typically claiming that the programme helped them feel more confident ‘I felt more confident in the games I played ’cause I used to always want to know how to play them . . . I feel happier that I went to the B’Active Club and more confident than I used to feel’. Parents, teachers and coaches supported this ‘Confidence was the biggest thing defi- nitely, that’s the biggest change that was most clearly recog- nised, like from week one to week ten’ [coach].
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Prevalence of overweight/obesity and its association with sedentary behavior in children

Prevalence of overweight/obesity and its association with sedentary behavior in children

Going to school can be physical activity, since some chil- dren walk or cycle, but in children in the present study, the car was the most common type of transportation. Younger children walk to school less frequently than older children. At younger ages, parents usually take children to and from school, mostly by car. The common use of mechanical means of transportation to go to school is associated with a lower level of energy expenditure, contributing to increased over- weight and obesity in children. However, the results of this study did not show a significant effect of the type of trans- port on overweight or obesity.
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Prevalence of underweight, overweight and obesity among Palestinian school-age children and the associated risk factors: a cross sectional study

Prevalence of underweight, overweight and obesity among Palestinian school-age children and the associated risk factors: a cross sectional study

There are a few earlier Palestinian studies concerning childhood obesity and underweight which focused on the prevalence while very little attention was paid to the risk factors. Furthermore, earlier studies were either self- reported or had a small range of students’ ages and most of them concerned with older ages (> 12 years old). These studies are old and the last one was conducted in 2009, in which it has been shown that the prevalence of overweight and obesity among Palestinian school age children was ap- proximately 13 and 6% respectively [13, 14]. Therefore, this is the first time (1) to determine the prevalence of underweight, overweight and obesity amongst Palestinian children with younger and greater age diversity (between 6 and 12 years old) and (2) to assess the role of some en- vironmental factors such as dietary factors, physical activ- ities, and socio-economic and demographic factors.
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Prevalence of overweight and obesity among the urban adolescent English Medium School girls of Kolkata, India.

Prevalence of overweight and obesity among the urban adolescent English Medium School girls of Kolkata, India.

most of the high-income populations, overweight and obesity can be tracked from childhood to adulthood. If the current trends of overweight and obesity are tracked from childhood to adulthood in developing countries also, as has been observed in the developed nations, then, in the next few decades, West Bengal may experience a prevalence of adult overweight and obesity similar to, or higher than, those presently observed in the developed nations (14). As the present study was conducted in a pocket of Kolkata population, it should not be considered as representative of the State as a whole. However, it is definitely indicative of the obesity threat, which may likely persist among the Bengalee school children from wealthier families.
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High prevalence of overweight and obesity among 6-year-old children in Finnmark County, North Norway

High prevalence of overweight and obesity among 6-year-old children in Finnmark County, North Norway

prevalence of OWOB was higher among school children in the Central and Eastern districts of Oslo, where the socio-economic level is generally lower than in Western districts (15). In our analysis we did not observe any variation in the prevalence of OWOB associated with variation in mean income, proportion of employment and proportion of inhabitants with academic education on the municipality level. These results might be in contrast to a study among 4-year–old children from Sweden (24) which reported higher prevalence of overweight and obesity in municipalities with low socio-economic level, in particular among girls. In order to compare different studies however, standardised measures of socio economic level are needed. Since no association was found by cross tabulation, multilevel analysis was not performed in this study. Larger samples and individual information might be required to detect possible associations between socio-economic factors and the prevalence of OWOB within this county.
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Prevalence and Determinant Factors of Overweight and Obesity among Preschool Children Living in Hawassa City, South Ethiopia

Prevalence and Determinant Factors of Overweight and Obesity among Preschool Children Living in Hawassa City, South Ethiopia

The present study showed that the combined prevalence of overweight and obesity among children 3-5 years old in Hawassa City, South Ethiopia was 10.7%, of which 7.3% was overweight and 3.4% was obese. This prevalence was comparable to reports of studies in some developed and developing countries. In developing countries obesity may co-exist with under-nutrition, with children in the relatively affluent urban areas more likely to be obese than their rural counterparts. Many studies of individual countries have noted increases in childhood obesity in recent years. Kalies et al. (2002) showed that obesity rates have increased from 1.8% to 2.8% among pre-school children in Germany, which is in the range lower than our finding; this might be due to the time gap between the previous studies and this study or it might be in developed countries have better prevention and control interventions towards childhood obesity than developing countries like Ethiopia. In China, prevalence of obesity in urban area was 12.6% (Lou & Frank, 2002), which is four times higher than the finding of the present study. It might be the socio-economic status variation even if the study was conducted few years back. As one study indicated that prevalence of overweight in Eastern Mediterranean region was 3%-9% (Musaiger, 2004), which is in the range closer to our finding. In Kenya, prevalence of obesity among children 3 to 5 years old was 4% (Gewa, 2010), which is almost a similar figure to the present finding. In Pakistan, prevalence of obesity among children was 7.5% (Muhammad et al., 2011), which is more than two times higher than the finding of present study; the possible reason, it could be in the study area of the children are less adopted to nutrition transition than in Pakistan children.
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