To conclude, there is no doubt about the role of self- medication in the healthcare services. Nevertheless, self- medication has to be within the scope and it ought to have restrictions to the kind of symptoms to be self-diagnosed and treated. The prevalence and practice of self-medication in our study was alarming in both groups. Fever, headache, cough and cold were the most common indications leading to self-medication. Antipyretics and analgesics were the most commonly used medicines for self-medication. The use of antibiotics was also found to be very high amongmedicalstudents. This creates a concern over the antibiotic use among the medicalstudents and doctors because of their medical knowledge about drugs and diseases, which could also contribute to antimicrobial resistance. It is the need of the hour to create better awareness amongmedical and non-medical population regarding the use of drugs for self-medication, to implement strategies and guidelines to prevent the dispensing of medicines without any prescription which would remain as the cornerstone for reducing the practice of self-medication.
Most common reason for using the selfmedication has been found out to be usefulness in mild illnesses and easy availability. This finding goes in accordance with the observations of some other studies. 8,14,15 conducted in India. The common ailments for which self medications were used are fever, cough and cold and headache. The same were reported in a study conducted in Ethiopia. 6 One study conducted in SouthIndia has reported cough and cold to be the commonest cause. 10
The study shows high prevalence of self-medicationamong basic science medicalstudents of the institution. The students’ knowledge and attitude about self-medication is encouraging. High prevalence of self-medication with antibiotics is of concern. Further studies to investigate in detail the cause of high self-medication could be planned. There is a need of a module to educate and aware the students about advantages of responsible self-medication and drawbacks of self-medication. A similar can be carried out amongstudents during the clinical years of study. Similar type of study on self-medication in various other medical colleges in Nepal may provide a clearer picture of self-medicationamongmedicalstudents of Nepal.
Students were informed about the purpose of study, time spent and confidentiality details. Among 200 students of 5 th semester, 184 students gave the written consent for the study. A Questionnaire form containing 10 questions was given to each student. They were told to fill up the form and return the form after completion. They can ask doubts if any. Questionnaire form was framed in such a way to know the complete pattern of how frequently students take medicines, reasons and which medicines they use on their own without consulting the physician. Their knowledge and attitude towards self-medication was also tested. In the questionnaire form, out of 10 questions, 2 questions were based on 5 point likert scale. This scale was followed as it increases the credibility of the data.one question was related to their gender identity to know the differences in prevalence of self-medicationpracticeamong males and females. One question was a definitive one with options yes or no which tests their knowledge about over the
High prevalence of Self-medicationpracticeamongundergraduate have also been documented in past by numerous studies in India in agreement to our results. 11-14 Most studies have shown females outnumbering males unlike our results. But in some studies though females outnumbered males but the difference was not statistically significant. 15,16 However, some trials have recorded more males indulged in in selfmedication as observed by us. 17 Gender is observed as important factor in young people especially students indulging in selfmedication. 18-20 Most of these studies were done in final term medicalstudents, while we have carried out our study in second professional students.
Results: A total of 328 subjects studying at a medical school were assessed regarding their practice, attitude and perception of self-medication behavior. Out of total recruited subjects, 53% were males and 47% were females. The prevalence of self-medicationamong recruited subjects was 89.9%. Symptoms like fever, Headache and weakness were the most common reasons of self- medication. The most commonly used drugs were antipyretic, analgesics (81.7%), antibiotics (51.2%). Approximately 15% subjects were not aware about the completion of the course of antibiotic treatment. Subjects obtained information and procured drugs from their family members, friends and pharmacist and the reasons for this were cited as lack of time, minor ailments and quick relief. Only 32.6% students opined that self-medication should be encouraged in future.
authorities etc. In today’s tech savvy era, Internet comes in
handy to get information regarding use of drugs for common day to day ailments. Inappropriate use of these drugs can bring about a brief symptomatic relief but in the long term, may hinder the correct diagnosis, undermine the contraindications and warnings of drug use, leading to development of resistance as seen with antibiotics, or many adverse effects. 2,3,5 In a study conducted by Verma ,antibiotic resistance was found to be the biggest hurdle in fighting bacterial infections and selfmedication was the major factor behind this. 2
Self-medication has its pros and cons. Responsible Self- medication is a convenient alternative to treat minor illness and part of self-care, whereas inappropriate Self- medication can have harmful effects. Although OTC drugs are safe and meant for Self-medication, there can be serious implications if they are used improperly due to lack of knowledge of their side effects and interactions. So, the faculties of the institute should educate the students regarding the merits and demerits of Self-medication. The present study also perceives the implementation of regulatory control on prescription and OTC sale of antibiotics. More multicentral studies need to be carried amongmedicalstudents and general population at large to study various factors influencing Self-medication. These studies should be conducted on periodic basis so that they will give insight into changing pattern of drug use in society.
In addition to community pharmacies, other identified bases for drugs choosing used by the respondents for self-medication were previous doctor prescription, my own experience and Opinion of friends. These other bases for choosing drugs, apart from pharmacists, could also pose serious risks to the consumer’s health. However, in another study in Ethiopia textbooks were reported as the most common source of information 24 . Self-medication with antibiotics has been reported as 24% to 90% of university students from different regions and countries 12, 25, 28, 29 . In the present study, more than half of those self-medicated used antibiotics. This may due to the availability of antibiotics from pharmacies without prescription though they are prescription only medicines. Self- medication with antibiotics can lead to the emergence of the dangerous worldwide problem of antibiotics resistant micro-organisms. Moreover, Arzi A et al, (2010), claim that people may abuse antibiotics by using them for such wrong indications as common cold or infections of non- bacterial origin 30 .
The response to a natural quest for wellbeing includes the self-diagnosis or administration of medication without prior medical consultations in the aspects of dosage, indications of side effects and duration of treatment. Self-medication, as a component of self-care, is considered to be a primary public health resource in health care system. According to the WHO guidelines, the act of practicing responsible self-medication can help prevent and treat diseases that do not require patients to seek medical consultation. This action can therefore reduce the increasing pressure on medical services for relief of minor ailments especially when resources are limited” (WHO, 2000). However, there are risks associated with self-medication which include lack of clinical evaluation of the condition by a health care
Since majority of the above mentioned studies were conducted outside India so the exact pattern of SM practices in our country remained unidentified. With respect to this the present study was conducted to see the pattern of SM practices, to find out the common complains and common drugs used, reasons for SM along with establishing a relationship between the level of medical knowledge and the SM practices amongmedical undergraduates.
Rushi N. Pandya 1 , Kunal S. Jhaveri 2 , Falgun I. Vyas 3 , Varsha J. Patel 4 *
Self-medication can be defined as the use of drugs to treat self-diagnosed disorders or symptoms, or the intermittent or continued use of a prescribed drug for chronic or recurrent disease or symptoms. In practice, it also includes use of the medication of family members, especially where the treatment of children or the elderly is involved. 1 Use of self-medication is highly prevalent in both urban and rural community varying from 32.5% to 81.5%. 2-4 Self-prescribing among doctors is reported to be prevalent. In a study of selfmedication in young Norwegian doctors, 56%
Accepted on: 23-04-2014; Finalized on: 30-06-2014.
Dysmenorrhea is responsible for significant absenteeism from college in female students. Self-medication and home remedies are used by the students for relief from menstrual discomfort. The pattern of self-medication varies among the medical, paramedical and non-medicalstudents. Hence, the present study was done to analyze and compare the self-medicationpractice and drugs used for dysmenorrhoea amongmedical, paramedical and non-medicalstudents. This was a cross-sectional study conducted among female students with dysmenorrhoea in M.S.Ramaiah College Campus, Bangalore. Out of total 261 female students; 84 were medical, 91 paramedical and 86 non-medicalstudents. Data was collected with prevalidated questionnaire related to various aspects like demographic data, symptoms and duration of dysmenorrhoea and pattern of management in the three groups. Data collected was analyzed using SPSS version 20. The mean age of female students with dysmenorrhoea was 19.37 ± 0.99 years. 39%
The scenario in India, which is stratified by the World Bank into lower-middle income country is not much different from other developing nation counterparts.  Many studies have concluded that people who tend to self-medicate detain care seeking and this in turn can result in paradoxical increase in healthcare cost as a result of the delay in proper diagnosis and therapy. There also arises the problem of drug-interactions and anti-biotic resistance due to lack of guidance from a qualified practitioner who could have mitigated and prevented such instances with his clinical expertise.  In the light of these incidences, WHO has emphasised the need to regulate such practices and need to educate the public on the aspects of self-medication.
use of prescription use, 4.1% reported use non-medical use in the past year and 2.1% reported in the past month. Analysis of individual college proposed that non-prescription stimulant use ranged from zero to 25%. Overall multivariate regression analysis findings indicated an increase of non-medical prescription use among college students that were male, white, were members of fraternities or sororities, attended colleges in the north- eastern region of the US and colleges with high admission standards. Regardless of high admission standards, rates were also higher amongstudents that earned lower grade point averages. Furthermore, users were more likely to report the use of marijuana, cigarettes, alcohol, ecstasy and cocaine. There is a probability that this study underestimated the amount on non-prescription use among college students due to limiting the questionnaire to three stimulants (e.g. Ritalin, Adderall and Dexedrine). McCabe and colleagues did not examine the use of other stimulants such as Concerta, Focalin, Focalin XR, Metadate CD/ER, Methylin, Vyvanse and Daytrana. Furthermore, the survey was limited to 4-year college universities so that students attending a 2-year college program were excluded from the sample population. Although results were not generalized to the entire college population and were limited to self report, the suggested increase of non-prescription stimulant use among particular demographics were comparable to other surveys.
use of prescription use, 4.1% reported use non-medical use in the past year and 2.1%
reported in the past month. Analysis of individual college proposed that non-prescription stimulant use ranged from zero to 25%. Overall multivariate regression analysis findings indicated an increase of non-medical prescription use among college students that were male, white, were members of fraternities or sororities, attended colleges in the north- eastern region of the US and colleges with high admission standards. Regardless of high admission standards, rates were also higher amongstudents that earned lower grade point averages. Furthermore, users were more likely to report the use of marijuana, cigarettes, alcohol, ecstasy and cocaine. There is a probability that this study underestimated the amount on non-prescription use among college students due to limiting the questionnaire to three stimulants (e.g. Ritalin, Adderall and Dexedrine). McCabe and colleagues did not examine the use of other stimulants such as Concerta, Focalin, Focalin XR, Metadate CD/ER, Methylin, Vyvanse and Daytrana. Furthermore, the survey was limited to 4-year college universities so that students attending a 2-year college program were excluded from the sample population. Although results were not generalized to the entire college population and were limited to self report, the suggested increase of non-prescription stimulant use among particular demographics were comparable to other surveys.
In this study, the responses from 75 Medicalstudents were analysed. The response rate was 100% and the mean age of the study population was 22.01±1.438 years.
62.7% of the students were females. In our study, majority of the students were aware of the term Pharmacovigilance, its definition, existence of a national programme for Pharmacovigilance and the criteria to call an ADR as a serious adverse event. Most of them also knew that all ADRs irrespective of whether they were common, serious or rare have to be reported and were aware of the existence of a Pharmacovigilance committee in their institution. However, Knowledge regarding details of International ADR monitoring centre, the regulatory authority for PvPI, when to report a Serious adverse event, who all could report an ADR and whether an ADR could be reported without relating it to a drug were lacking in many students.
Available online: https://edupediapublications.org/journals/index.php/IJR/ P a g e | 520 developed and developing countries. Its
incidence, however, is higher in developing countries. This trend is due to the educationa l background of the countries 5 . Medicalstudentspracticeself-medication due to their increased medical knowledge 4 . The prevalence of self-medication in medicalstudents globally is, 92.3% in Slovenia 6 , 86.4% in Brazil 1 , 67.4% in Germany 7 , 76%
Self-medication is a convenient yet inappropriate practice which is ap- plied widely throughout the world. 1 Every day millions of people prac- tice self-medication with the use of medicine not specifically prescribed by a healthcare professional such as Over the Counter (OTC) medicines, leftover drugs and medicine not specifically prescribed for them. 2 Self- medication can be understood simply as “the use of medications without prior medical consultation regarding indication, dosage and duration of treatment”. 3 Along with the ever-progressing industrial modernization of the world, pharmaceutical industries compete in the efficacy of both their drugs in curing illnesses and in their production to greatly outstand their opponents and obtain a greater profit. People nowadays no longer need to relive the hassle and fear they face during the “no prescription no medicine” days where doctors serve as the gatekeepers against their need for their medicine. The presence of physicians greatly ensures rational use of drugs and medicine which guards against risks of misuse such as resource wastage, drug abuse, drug toxicities and more importantly, antibiotic resistance. However, considering the advantages of self-med- ication in various aspects such as convenience, time consumption, cost and possibly avoiding the need to consult a professional “white coat” on what seemed to be feeble matters, people overlooked these factors and chose to practiceself-medication over standard consultation. 4 The drive towards self-medication is further endorsed by advice from relatives and close friends, media propaganda or even the pharmacists themselves,
Selfmedication is one of the most practiced worldwide issues and can cause both benefit also with harmful effect at a time, when if it is not properly mentored by experts of drugs. Bangladesh is a south Asian developing country, where selfmedication is highly practiced. The aim of the study was to examine the knowledge and practice of selfmedicationamong the medicalstudents in Bangladesh. The study was done among 731 medicalstudents of both public and private medicals in Bangladesh. 92% of the medicalstudents of both government and non- government medical colleges self-medicate and they get the drugs from local pharmacies, family, friends and neighbors. More than 60%