women with schizophrenia in Asian countries has varied from 49.1% in Japan (Fujii et al.2010)  to 52.6% in Turkey . There is a subtle conspiracy of silence and taboos that clouds the mentality of women where women hesitate to discuss sexuality openly . Avasthi et al. in 2008  conducted a study, where 100 consecutive women attending the Department of Pediatrics for the care of noncritical children in a tertiary care teaching hospital in Chandigarh. Sexual difficulties which were attributed to other factors were not considered significant enough to demand a thorough clinical assessment. A recent study from India witnessed sexualdysfunction among patients taking psychotropic using the UKU side effect rating scale 1 . Women (70.8%) outmatched men (29%) in frequency of sexualdysfunction. Amenorrhea, galactorrhea and decreased Sexual desire were the commonest sexual side effects . However majority of the studies from India throws light only on male patients [9, 10, 11]. Though the treatment and the illness may influence the sexual functioning of women, the equation with the partner also plays an important role in sexual satisfaction. The quality of life between the patient and their partner is often disrupted due to mental illnesses  So this study throws a light to know about female sexualdysfunction and attribution in women with schizophrenia.
populations. Future studies should recruit larger samples via a nationwide survey or random sampling to improve the representativeness of findings. Nonetheless, we calcu- lated the sample size needed to ensure adequate statistical power before beginning this study and obtained some sta- tistically significant findings, so the sample size may be considered sufficient for identifying factors associated with FSD. However, future studies using non-RA subjects as a reference group for comprehensive risk comparison are still recommended. Second, this study used a cross- sectional design so we cannot confirm causality. A longi- tudinal research design is needed to establish causal rela- tionships, especially focusing on the long-term relationship between FSD and clinical prognosis. Third, al- though we accounted for the influence of potential con- founders, residual confounding might have been present due to unmeasured confounders (such as distress mood, coping effectiveness, diet, or genotype). Future studies are recommended to examine these concerns via the employ- ment of more psychometrically sound scales. Despite these methodological concerns, this might be the first study to assess the prevalence of FSD among individuals with RA in Taiwan. Thus, this study can be used as a ref- erence for the development of timely therapeutic regimens for treatment of FSD in patients with RA.
Despite the importance and high prevalence of the problem, this patients do not inform the problem either due to feeling of discomfiture or for the reason that they do not view it as a treatable problem . In other hand psychiatrists and other specialists significantly under- value or even neglect the existence of the problem prob- ably due to embarrassment of talking about sexual problems with patients, lack of time and viewing difficul- ties in this area as minor compared to psychotic symp- toms. In spite of these realities there are limited or no researches conducted in this country regarding sexualdysfunction and its influence on patients with Schizo- phrenia. Therefore, this study aims to evaluate the prevalence of sexualdysfunction among patients with schizophrenia and see if there is any association between socio-demographic factors, different clinical factors like medication related factors, co-morbid physical or psychi- atric conditions, and substance use and sexual dysfunc- tion among patients with Schizophrenia.
Introduction: female sexualdysfunction (FSD) is a complex and poorly un- derstood condition that affects females of all ages. Female sexualdysfunction has been a cyclic rather than a linear process that emphasizes biologic, psy- chological, social, hormonal, and environmental factors. Female sexual dys- function is a high prevalent disorder reaching up to 60% of females with re- ported higher levels in postmenopausal. Aim of the work: was to estimate prevalence of FSD and its related factors in Elfayoum city. Subject and Me- thod: This study was a cross sectional descriptive study conducted in El- fayoum city included 508 married females (above 21 years old) during the pe- riod from September 2016 to March 2017. Results: The prevalence of FSD among studied group was 61.2% versus 38.8% had normal sexual function, desire dysfunction was 42.3%, arousal dysfunction was 39.2%, lubrication dysfunction was 25%, orgasm dysfunction was 58.5%, satisfaction dysfunction was 58.1% and pain was 43.3%. There was statistically significant negative correlation between Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) score and each of female and husband age, duration of marriage, and number of children. Low mean of FSFI score was found among females with irregular menstrual cycle, using contraceptive, not pregnant, mutilated and females who’s their husband had erectile or ejaculation disorders. Conclusion and recommendation: High prevalence of FSD among females in Elfayoum governorate. Many fac- tors are found to affect FSD as FGM, each of female and husband age, dura- tion of marriage, and number of children.
There is a paucity of studies on sexualdysfunction in Nigeria . Many of the available studies were con- ducted among medical outpatient clinic attendees and community samples, with findings which cannot be gen- eralized to patients in specific diagnostic groups like schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders [17,18]. A recent study by Mosaku & Ukpong  conducted among outpatients attending a psychiatric clinic in Southwest Nigeria reported a prevalence of 86.5% for erectile dys- function, with varying prevalences reported for other forms of sexual dysfunctions. However, aside patients with schizophrenia, the study included patients diag- nosed with other mental illnesses such as depression, bi- polar affective disorder, and psychoactive substance dependence, who may actually have differing patterns and prevalences of sexualdysfunction. To the best knowl- edge of the authors, no Nigerian studies have reported the prevalence and correlates of sexualdysfunction among patients in a specific diagnostic group like those with schizophrenia and delusional disorders.
This study was conducted at 27 centers in the United States from September 1998 through May 2000. Patients were requested to have abstained from sexual activity within 12 hours prior to the visit. Patients arrived at the study center in the morning, and blood was collected for measurement of serum prolactin, estradiol in females, and total and free testosterone in males. Patients were given a small bland meal, and a second blood sample was collected three to four hours later from which a second prolactin measurement was obtained. Each patient’s prolactin level was considered as the mean value from the two blood samples.
The calculated sample size was 162. They were sampled from the 1400 female diabetic patients who attended the clinic during the study period. They were recruited by systematic sampling method with a sampling interval of nine. Numbers ranging from one to nine were assigned to the first nine respondents who met the inclusion criteria. The first respondent was chosen by simple balloting which was done by randomly picking one of the numbers from a basket containing the assigned numbers. Thereafter every ninth (9th) respondent was recruited for the study. Their case notes were marked to forestall duplication of entry. Inclusion criteria included willingness to take part in the study as well as those aged between 18 years and above. Exclusion criteria included diabetic females who were pregnant, or those with emergency diabetic complications who needed urgent intervention as well as those who were below 18 years of age. Ethical approval for this study was obtained from UUTH institutional review committee. A pretest of the research questionnaire was performed in order to determine its applicability, experience and logistic problems. This was a prospective crosssectional study conducted between January and June 2018.
Purpose: Symptomatic vitreomacular adhesion (sVMA) comprises vitreomacular traction (VMT) and stage 1 and 2 full-thickness macular holes (MHs) associated with vitreomacular adhesion (VMA). We aimed to estimate the incidence and prevalence of sVMA in Germany. Materials and methods: A systematic literature review was conducted to identify the incidence and prevalence of sVMA based on international epidemiologic studies, weighted for study size and then averaged across eligible studies. A second systematic review aimed to estimate the proportion of vitrectomy undertaken for sVMA in Germany. This was combined with the reported number of vitrectomies in Germany in 2016 to estimate the number of patients undergoing vitrectomy for sVMA.
The present analytical cross-sectional study was performed to investigate the sexual function of 127 married women within the age range of 30-50 who were afflicted with type 2 diabetes and referred to health centers located in Sanandaj, Kurdistan, Iran. Then, the sexual function of these women was compared with that of the 127 healthy married women referring to the same centers. Women who were involved in no surgery during the previous three months, suffered from no disease or wound in their genital system and sex organs, lived with their husbands for at least the previous six months, and those without any mental illness (depression), according to the declaration of the patients, were included in the current study.
Sexualdysfunctionprevalence among male diabetics was found to be 54.8% in the present study, which is lower than that observed from studies done in Ghana by Owiredu et al.  where the prevalence was found to be 69.3%. This could be as a result of the fact that the present study was a multicenter study and also investigated a small sample size, as compared to that of Owiredu et al. . However, the prevalence observed in the present study is comparable to that of Unadike et al.  in Nigeria, where the prevalence was reported to be 58% among diabetic males. In the present study, 6.5% of the male diabetics had severe sexualdysfunction, as compared to 4.7% in the study by Owiredu et al. . Regarding severity (severely abnormal) of the sexualdysfunction domains, impotence (12.9%), premature ejaculation (12.9%), non-communication (12.9%) and dissatisfaction (12.9%) recorded the highest in the present study (Table 3) as compared to 15.8% recorded for impotence in the study by Owiredu et al. . Furthermore, premature ejaculation, non-sensuality, avoidance and
dissenting studies from this trend, have suggested lower CUS frequency, but increased CUS amplitude, amongst observers with schizophrenia when compared with controls at low target speed (Abel, Friedman, Jesberger, Malki & Meltzer, 1991). In contrast to the general trend of an increased CUS frequency among observers with schizophrenia at low to moderate target speeds (up to 20°/sec), at faster target speeds, there appears to be little difference in the rate of CUS in schizophrenia and control cohorts (at 20-66°/sec: Abel et al., 1991; Mather et al., 1992). This may help clarify recent findings by Hutton et al (2001) who reported no difference in CUS frequency of first-episode patients compared with control observers, averaged across target speeds between 10°/sec and 36°/sec, despite an overall lower gain. However, while the finding of increased CUS frequency at target speeds lower than 20°/sec among observers with schizophrenia appears robust at a group level, such findings obscure a degree of heterogeneity within patient cohorts: Levy (et al., 2000) could classify just half of their patient sample as having qualitatively poor eye tracking, with only the poor trackers displaying any significant increase in CUS frequency when compared with control observers (at a target frequency of 16°/sec). Moreover, the large Sweeney (et al., 1994) study of consecutively- admitted participants with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders (n=101), identified just 17% of the patient sample with a CUS frequency that was two standard deviations above that of the mean of a neurologically-intact comparison cohort following a 9°/sec target.
Prevalence of female sexualdysfunction based on participants’ perception was slightly lower than the FSFI score. The agreement between the two methods was good. This study found most participants, who perceived themselves as having sexualdysfunction, thought that it was a problem for them. This finding is consistent with other studies that found women who had sexualdysfunction, had a lower quality of live. 6
John D. Foubert, Ph.D. is National President of One in Four, an Endowed Professor of College Student Development at Oklahoma State University and Principal of John D. Foubert, LLC. Dr. Foubert is an interdisciplinary scholar with over 50 peer-reviewed publications. Dr. Foubert has written seven books about the prevention of sexual violence and two about managing life in college residence halls. His tenth book is titled How Pornography Harms (2017). His federally funded, interdisciplinary research program has produced scholarship that is featured in some of the most respected peer-reviewed journals in education, gender studies, and psychology. Dr. Foubert has given over 200 professional presentations to conferences, universities, community and military organizations worldwide. In 1998, he and a group of colleagues founded One in Four, a non-profit organization dedicated to ending rape on college campuses and in the military through means shown to be most effective through scientific research. Dr. Foubert has testified to the U.S. Congress and has been called upon by the White House and the Pentagon for his scholarly expertise. He consults with colleges and the military regularly about the harms of pornography and ending sexual violence.
After undergoing full medical history and physical exami- nation, all participants were assessed for hydration status, sexual function, psychological status and sex hormonal profile. Hydration status was assessed by a safe, simple, reproducible and noninvasive whole-body bioimpedance spectroscopy technique (BIS), using a Fresenius Medical Care Body Composition Monitor (BCM) device (Fresenius Medical Care, Bad Homburg, Germany). 14,15 The OH to
Type 2 diabetes is one of the most common chronic diseases worldwide, and one of the long-term complications of this disease is sexualdysfunction in women with type 2 diabetes, which has been studied in fewer studies. The aim of this study is to determine the overall prevalence of sexualdysfunction in women with type 2 diabetes and its indica- tors with systematic and meta-analysis approach. The present meta-analysis study reviewed articles published foreign journals by searching the MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, Science direct, Embase, Proquest and Persian databases, includ- ing Iranmedex, Magiran, and SID between January 2000 to December 2018. The heterogeneity of studies was studied using the I 2 index and data analysis was carried out in Comprehensive Meta-Analysis software. The Meta-analysis
Raja and Azzoni studied various aspects of sexual behavior including awareness of high risk behavior, sexually transmitted diseases and sexual problems due to psychotropics among mixed population of psychotic patients. They assessed 117 symptomatic patients of both sexes, 39 each of schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder and bipolar disorder, by the modified version of the sexual interest and sexual performance questionnaire developed by Azzoni and his team. The patients were on different antipsychotics, benzodiazepines and anticholinergic drugs, but the names of drugs are not mentioned in the study. Overall, 38.5% of patients reported detrimental effects of psychoactive drugs on their sexuality. Impaired desire was the most commonly reported sexualdysfunction. Patients with schizophrenia scored low on all aspects of sexuality compared to other groups.(16)
increased alcohol consumption predicted poor neuropsy- chological performance. Thus, clinicians treating patients with alcoholism may provide more effective treatment when considering that personality disorders such as ASPD contribute to frontal dysfunction resulting in impulsivity, disinhibition, compulsivity, negative affectivity, and emo- tional dysregulation. These factors are related to drinking behaviors, which in turn, can complicate treatment and lead to poor treatment outcomes. Therefore, ASPD symptoms must be carefully examined in order to facilitate accurate and timely evaluations of alcoholic patients, as well as to anticipate and counter potential difficulties inherent in treat- ing dual diagnosis patients.
Adjusted by cofounding variables, it was clear to find that Age was a common risk factor for FSD. Adjusted odd ratio (OR) was 1.086 (1.021, 1.155), 1.087 (1.023, 1.155), 1.118 (1.050, 1.191) and 1.059 (1.001, 1.120) in Desire, Arousal, Lubrication and FSD, respectively, Table 3. Likely, Depression was common risk factor for all types of FSD. And it is interesting to see that higher Income (40,000–100,000 RMB/year) was a protective variable for nearly all types of FSD. However, it would impair female sexual ability when income >100,000 RMB/year. BMI was identified as risk factor for Low Desire (1.281 [1.121, 1.463], p < 0.001). Besides, we failed to found a determined relationship between ScHT with any type of FSD. Table 3.
The results showed that women under 40 years old had significantly higher FSFI scores with higher levels of desire, arousal, lubrication and satisfaction than women who were over 40 years, indicating that women over 40 years have a higher risk of experiencing sexualdysfunction. This suggests that women over 40 years, as they are approaching the climacteric period marked by a series of changes caused mainly by falling estrogen levels, are more likely to report impairment of the urogenital tract such as urethral syndrome, the increase of urinary infec- tions frequency, urinary urgency, dyspareunia, and vaginal dryness with important repercussions in the sexual sphere of women (De Lorenzi, Danelon, Saciloto, & Padilla Jr, 2005; Lopes, 2003); (Nijland et al., 2008). In ad- dition, there is also skin aging caused by the collagen reduction and the tendency of accumulating fat which af- fects the self-image, contributing to lower self-esteem and even the decline in sexual desire (De Lorenzi et al., 2005).