interviewees argued that it was often difficult to get different authorities to agree to a “shared mission” with clear outcomes, such as focusing on mental health or substance abuse, and to share resources equally to ensure certain authorities are not overburdened. In a similar fashion to homelessness forums, a successful cross-authority partnership requires buy-in from the various authorities and a clear understanding of its aims based on local need. This can be particularly difficult for two-tier authorities working with other districts and county councils, as the number of relevant partners can grow significantly. Statutory obligations and limited resources can affect the ability of local authorities to work together. If a young person in need of housing does not have a local connection, such as living, working or having family in the area, the local authority may refer the relief and housing duty to another authority where the young person has a connection. According to MHCLG’s Homelessness Code of Guidance, however, if that person is at risk of domestic abuse or violence, that person should not be referred. 63 Nonetheless,
It has been useful to consider the range of youthhomelessness interventions at both national and local levels using the typology of prevention. The typology reinforces that, to effectively tackle and end youthhomelessness, there is a need to consider structural and systemic issues that reach beyond housing. The international evidence review concludes that to be most effective, youthhomelessness prevention should involve all five strands of prevention and sets out the areas of each for which there is evidence of effectiveness. It also concludes that research indicates that youthhomelessness prevention requires targeted interventions and approaches that account for the distinct challenges that young people face. Some local authorities in Wales are recognising this in the way that they provide services to young people with housing issues, while others take a much more generic approach, expecting young people to access services and projects that are provided for all age groups.
educate the public on the scope, causes, and costs of homelessness, the Strategic Plan, and the reasons for taking action; (ii) engage state, local, and tribal leaders in a renewed commitment to prevent and end homelessness in their communities; (iii) get states and localities to update and implement plans to end homelessness to reflect local conditions and the comprehensiveness of the Strategic Plan, as well as to develop mechanisms for effective implementation; (iv) involve citizens and businesses in efforts to prevent and end homelessness; (v) test, model, and learn more about interagency collaboration; (vi) seek opportunities to reward communities that are collaborating to make significant progress preventing and ending homelessness; (vii) review budget processes to determine avenues for recognizing savings across partners resulting from interventions to prevent and end homelessness; (viii) seek opportunities for engaging congressional committees collaboratively on issues related to preventing and ending homelessness; (ix) collaborate on and compile research to better understand best practices and gaps in research; (x) coordinate federal technical assistant resources and provide service providers with information on how to access the support they need; (xi) make information on best practices and strategies to finance them more readily available; (xii) make information more readily available on working effectively with various sub-populations; (xiii) attend to the unique needs of rural and tribal communities; (xiv) develop and maintain an inventory of federal emergency response programs to help communities identify what is being funded in their community with federal resources and which resources are available to them; (xv) continue to increase and encourage the use of the HMIS, and develop
All efforts to prevent youthhomelessness can be strengthened, supported, enforced, and defended through legislation and social policy. Recent international examples include: the Housing (Wales) Act (2014); England’s Homelessness Reduction Act (2017); Ireland’s National Homeless Prevention Strategy (2002); and Washington State’s Homeless Youth Prevention and Protection Act (2015). The Welsh and subsequent English legislation legally require the local council to immediately assist anyone who is homeless or at risk of homelessness, if they are deemed eligible for assistance. While evidence is still emerging, early evaluations of the Housing (Wales) Act (2014) indicate that this policy intervention is successfully decreasing the number of people who are homeless (including youth), as well as reducing the number of people in temporary accommodations (Mackie, Thomas, and Bibbings, 2017). While the specific effects of this policy on youth have not been examined to date, this evidence holds considerable promise for structural youthhomelessness
The ONSET assessment was designed to help panels and keyworkers decide the key targets for intervention, and the ISP should set out the expectations for the child, the family and the service providers. Although relatively few data were available about ISPs on YISPMIS, we were able to see from the quantitative and qualitative information that a range of interventions were offered. These tended to fall into two distinct categories: direct work with children and indirect work on behalf of children. The former included activities for children, one-to-one support, mentoring, and issues-based sessions/programmes. Structured activities such as sports, art, media and computing were popular. Most activities had developmental and social learning aims as well as providing fun and diversion. Keyworkers regarded them as helping to build self-esteem, improve social skills, offer one-to-one attention and enhance the social inclusion of YISP children. Direct one-to-one work was offered in most pilots by the YISP keyworker. All the keyworkers believed that a one-to-one relationship is crucial to the success or failure of most ISPs. However, differences of approach emerged within and between YISPs regarding what were considered to be appropriate interventions. Many keyworkers made use of programmes for addressing risk factors, which they had bought in (e.g. Teen Talk), downloaded from the internet or designed themselves. Some keyworkers stressed that the ‘crime and consequences’ work, as it was often termed, was only of value when integrated into an ISP which addressed deeper issues, such as family functioning. Deciding whether, and how, keyworkers should be involved in direct service delivery to children and families was an issue with which many pilots had to grapple. Resource and workload considerations resulted in some keyworkers being unable to devote much time to direct work with YISP children. Furthermore, the professional qualifications and practice skills of keyworkers were variable.
We know that homelessness takes a serious toll on the lives of youth through increased rates of mental health and substance abuse disorders, unemployment, and lower educational attainment. If California does not act to address this problem, the homeless youth of today will be at greater risk of becoming the chronically homeless adults of tomorrow. Preventing and ending homelessness now is far less costly than paying for the consequences of chronic homelessness later. For these reasons and many more, it is crucial that the State of California pursue strategies, supported by better data collection, to end youthhomelessness through prevention, supportive services, and housing. By creating a State Action Plan, we hope to bring together public and private sector partners to exercise leadership and pursue strategies that will prevent and end youthhomelessness in California.
behavioral health disorder (mental health and substance abuse) for which the youth would benefit from an evidence-based treatment intervention (National Council on Disability, 2002). The practice of placing a youth in a juvenile justice setting in order to access these services requires policy and legislative monitoring. Courts need to work closely with public behavioral health, chemical dependency, child welfare, and public education systems to identify accessible interventions that do not require youth to be placed either under the care of the juvenile court or remanded to secure detention in order to access mental health interventions. Court administrators, judges, prosecuting attorneys, and the defense bar need to create facilitated and prioritized access outside of the system for youth needing interventions. Strategies That Relate to Overarching Priority I
commissioned Relate to develop a standard model for a service to address relationship breakdown that may lead to homelessness. As a national provider of counselling and mediation services, Relate has a proven track record in helping individuals, couples and families to improve communication, strengthen their relationships and reconcile differences. Relate practitioners are trained to recognise indicators of abuse and violence, and to respond with a model that prioritises the safety of victims and associated children.
DTCs detected . Th e presence of extensive bone metastases has been associated with increased CTC numbers in metastatic breast cancer . A prospective multicenter trial of patients with metastatic breast cancer found that about half of all patients had detectable CTCs using the CellSearch® assay and about 40% were positive using AdnaTest BreastCancer™ . More interestingly, up to half of patients with HER2-negative primary tumors had HER2-positive CTCs. Th is suggests that HER2 status can change during breast cancer progression or relapse and raises the possibility that monitoring of CTCs for such markers could inform targeted treatment of metastasis. Th ere remains, however, a troublingly poor concordance between CTC assay methods. Development of consistent CTC detection methods and standard HER2 (and other biomarker) assessment methods is still needed. Another challenge is that CTCs can lie dormant for years and have been detected in patients with metastasis-free survival over 20 years after primary diagnosis . Th us, simple detection of CTCs alone may not be suﬃ cient to identify clinically important meta- static disease or determine the correct treatment. Indeed, studies have shown that only a subset of DTCs/CTCs detected are viable and that many are simply terminal or dead tumor cells shed from the primary or metastasis and do not necessarily directly represent metastatic cells (reviewed in ).
accommodation that someone might be helped to obtain would include any form of hostel, private rented accommodation, accommodation with friends or relatives, supported lodgings, social housing or low cost home ownership schemes (DfCLG 2013b). Since 2008, local authorities have been required to provide data on the numbers of households for whom casework and positive action took place in order to prevent or relieve homelessness, either by the authority themselves or by a partner organisation (DfCLG 2013b). With a rate of 6.21 per thousand households, levels of prevention and relief in Liverpool City Region were lower than the national average of 8.20 in 2012/13. Within Liverpool City Region, Knowsley (12.09) and Halton (8.62) had levels higher than the national average. Levels in Sefton were lowest, at 2.65 per thousand households (Table 4).
5.2 Youth Leadership and Engagement According to the Centre of Excellence for Youth Engagement, youth engagement is meaningful participation and sustained involvement of a young person in an activity, with a focus outside of him or herself. The kind of activity in which the youth is engaged can be almost anything – sports, the arts, music, volunteer work, politics, social activism – and it can occur in almost any kind of setting. Under the Youth Plan, youth will have the opportunity to influence, shape and refine its implementation. They will be key drivers of policy and program improvements, which will be paramount to the Youth Plan’s success. Youth have an important role in directing and shaping their own priorities and interests. This role should be facilitated through the Government of Alberta’s youth engagement processes to ensure direct linkage to broader public policy initiatives on youthhomelessness.
These religious approaches should be based on traditional moral values, communication and dialogue, love, mutual respect and collegiality spirit to eradicate sexual abuse and gender violence. Any religious leaders or traditions that seek inequality, and promote sexual abuse and gender violence are unforgivable and should be discarded in all ramifications as crime against women. Those who are engaged in education of the Youths and in moulding of public opinions should promote gender equality. This is the only path possible where justice, solidarity, universal brotherhood and sisterhood could be achieved. All religions affirmed the fact that men and women were created equal. Christianity for example, maintains that men and women were created in the image of God to multiply and fill the earth. The book of Genesis 1:27 states thus: “God created man in his image. In the image of God he created him. Male and female, he created them. This identical human nature which appears in the two different forms of male and female indicates that women possess equal human nature perfectly to men before the creator. As a sovereign being, women are not subordinate to man more than they subordinate to them; they are free and independent as the men. Pope John Paul II (1981) asserts that both men and women are human beings to equal degree. The women have full and equal human rights and role both politically, economically, culturally and ecclesial as benefits the human persons. All women and men are individuals worthy of respect and dignity even in terms of sexual rights. Jesus unfailingly respected the human dignity of women and went off his way to help the most vulnerable women.
On a large scale, one of the most effective ways to help girls escape involvement within the juvenile justice system is to decriminalize offenses common to girls living in traumatic social contexts, such as prostitution, non-violent school-based offenses, and verbally disruptive behavior. 43 Though many jurisdictions recognize that sexually exploited youth are victims and not criminals and have consequently moved towards decriminalizing prostitution, the majority of states still inflict criminal punishment on survivors of exploitation. 44 Likewise, schools should be held responsible for handling all nonviolent, school-based offenses, such as verbally disruptive behavior, or status offenses, such as truancy. Keeping these offenses within the school district and not involving the delinquency system and its punishment mechanisms could ensure that youth are not punished for typical adolescent behavior.
7.2.5 Data collected internally in 2014/15 as part of the Prevention and Sustainability (PAS) module highlight that around 1,500 people were assessed as having a high level of risk to sustainability and a further 2,227 a medium risk. 1,932 of these cases went on to make a homeless application which therefore suggests that prevention activity is having a limited impact on those seeking assistance. However, it could be that these individuals are presenting in crisis which makes it much less likely that homelessness can be prevented. PREVENT1 statistics published each quarter are being analysed in order to fully understand the reasons why some people go on to make a homeless application and what prevention activity could be completed to avoid the need for a homeless application.
Synovial fibroblasts in rheumatoid synovium may also con- tribute significantly to localized bone loss. These cells produce chemokines such as macrophage inflammatory peptide 1, regulated-upon-activation normal T cell expressed and secreted, IL-8, and IL-16, which promote lymphocyte infiltration and support lymphoproliferation via secretion of various colony-stimulating factors . This results in a large pool of RANKL-expressing lymphocytes supporting osteoclastogenesis and local bone loss. Furthermore, syn- ovial fibroblasts may directly contribute to local bone destruction by expressing RANKL on their surface [22,23] and by secreting cathepsins . These cells have not been shown to have any bone-resorbing capacity, and any direct role of these cells in bone resorption is unknown. Inflammatory cytokines play an important role in various inflammatory arthritides and associated bone damage. Ele- vated levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α have been demonstrated by immunoassays in several inflammatory arthritides . TNF-α promotes expression of adhesion molecules, activation of leukocytes, recruitment of leuko- cytes, and production of proinflammatory cytokines (e.g. IL-1, IL-6, and IL-8) in RA. It promotes osteoclastogenesis by stimulating the osteoblasts/stromal cells and possibly T lymphocytes to produce RANKL and M-CSF. In addition, recent in vitro studies have shown that TNF-α, in the pres- ence of M-CSF, directly induces the formation of multinu- cleated cells containing tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase that are fully capable of resorbing bone [25,26]. This effect is independent of RANKL/RANK inter- action and is potentiated by IL-1. The osteoclast progenitor cells have been shown to express both p55
youth employment prospects in the region, a number of projects carried out under Priority IX of the Human Capital Operational Programme not only facilitate the universal access of children and young people to education but also provide an attractive and high quality educational programme via centres of learning. The schools development programmes carried out under these projects help to improve the core competences and key skills needed to enhance students' employment prospects and to continue with their education or start work. Moreover, the project also gives young people educational and careers guidance, information on the benefits of selecting a given educational path, information on further training and educational opportunities in view of local and regional labour market needs as well as schools careers centres. All these measures should help students to plan and follow their own educational and careers path (including helping graduates adapt to labour market requirements). The projects carried out in the regions aim to increase the educational standards and attractiveness of schools and learning centres that organise vocational training to improve their students' employment prospects. These measures will help popularise vocational training as a career path and tailor vocational training to labour market needs (particularly at local and regional level). This will enable the vocational training system to supply the labour market with a greater number of qualified specialists who have the skills that match employers' current requirements. This action also gets employers involved in the vocational training process in a way that goes beyond hands-on teaching of a trade. For instance, this may involve assessing market demand for graduates with a specific skills set. To improve the quality of vocational training, the projects include a number of measures which aim to increase employer involvement in the organisation of work placements and work experience programmes, thereby providing a concrete prospect of employment.
The phenomenon of homelessness is stated to be one of the poorest forms of urban poverty and social vulnerability. It is largely upsetting and also an impediment within the course of the development of the country, that a large number of poverty stricken people in urban areas are homeless. In a civilized society and an independent India, a large number of individuals, who do not have proper education, employment opportunities, and other facilities that are required for an efficient living are homeless, i.e. they do not even have proper roofs over their heads and have to live on the streets. In this research paper, the concept of homelessness has been studied, the main areas that are taken into consideration are, causes for homelessness, lifestyle of the homeless individuals, problems and difficult situations experienced by homeless individuals, National Policy and housing for the poor homeless and the homeless girl child. Amongst the homeless individuals, women constitute one of the groups that are affected by homelessness on an extreme basis. The individuals who are homeless, encounter numerous problems, they are deprived of human rights and suffer from the most severe kinds of abuses and violence. There have been individuals, who at one point of time, led a good life, had access to educational and employment opportunities, but the occurrence of natural calamities and disasters have left them in a homeless state. It is evident that the circumstances that have led the individuals and families to homelessness are prevalent worldwide and there are absence of tasks that would integrate these homeless individuals into the mainstream society.
Key of those affecting demand of labour were: poor investment climate to foster job creation and informal employment dominance of labour market while for the supply of labour mismatch between higher education graduates and job availability, outdated pedagogic models, imbalance between higher education graduate quality/quantity. Of all the prescribed policy options implemented by AfDB, there was an evaluation emphasising the integration of youths in the labour market, support for private sector value chain initiatives, minimisation of skills mismatch between demand and youth employability as well as the revamping of educational systems to spur innovation and entrepreneurship amongst youths. Central to this crisis is the need of making youth skill readily absorbable by the labour market. This is crucial especially in a situation where the labour market has been saturated and has a slow rate of labour turnover. All the above may just be ad hoc measures if the entrepreneurial classes or absorption capacity of the economy is not efficiently developed.