d.Judgement of overall weight of evidence (WoE) was made based on the assessments for each of the above criteria and by using the same scoring system. Studies classified as medium overall were still included in the synthesis as they met the inclusion criteria for the review, but less reliance was placed on their results. Studies were also graded as: A (directly relevant, UK based); B (probably relevant, non UK based but would equally likely apply to UK settings); C (possibly relevant, non UK but should be interpreted with caution due to strong cultural or institutional differences); D (not relevant, clearly irrelevant due to legislative differences). UK-based studies graded as A were further scrutinised to ascertain their direct relevance (i.e. in terms of context and characteristics of target population). Further details can be requested from main author .
The review found that there are a number of individual, interpersonal and school level factors that can support or hinder the transition from primary to secondary school. Overall, the key factors which make a positive or negative contribution to the primary to secondary transition are those situated within the pupil’s ecological system, such as the pupils themselves, family, teachers, peers, and environmental and school factors.
All publications that reported primary data on out- comes of interest (measures of care efficiency; clinical outcomes; finances; and patient, family, provider, and housestaff experiences) in pediatric hospitalist systems were included in the review. Publications that did not include significant primary data such as commentaries or case reports were excluded. Studies that were focused solely on adult hospitalist systems were excluded, but pediatric data from studies that included both pediatric and adult hospitalist systems were included. Information on study design and patient populations was extracted. Systematic meta-analyses were not performed because of the absence of randomized, controlled trials that com- pared hospitalist systems with traditional systems and a diversity of study designs.
Primarily, the chosen attributes and, thus, the pref- erences elicited by the DCE depend on the specific research question. Even if the study objective is the same, the precise issue might differ. Pedersen et al.  and Turner et al.  for example both aim to assess primary care consultations in general, but while the first assess preferences regarding different organizational characteristics, the latter estimate the relative importance of continuity of care compared to other aspects of primary care. Therefore, unsurpris- ingly, these two studies obtain different results regarding the preferences for primary health care. Pedersen et al. find the attribute “ Waiting time ” as being the most important one and Turner and col- leagues ascertain the process attribute “ Information and explanation ” to be most significant. Their differ- ent research questions may cause a different selection of attributes and consequently different results although the study objectives are the same. In this context, a replication study using the same research question, the same attributes and levels as an existing DCE but comparing different regions and/or populations would be a useful addition to the literature.
As a context of this research, combinatorial testing (CT) in simplifications of the parameter interactions strategy is to grade or rank the best algorithm in order to eliminated the parameter interaction on various crucial issue. These will become the most interesting research finding so as to enhance the efficiency of the test cases generations. The objective of this research is to identify and analyze existing combinatorial testing technique in the context of the formulated research questions. Search terms with relevant keywords were used to identify primary research that was related to combinatorial testing technique classified under journal articles, conference papers, workshops, symposiums, book chapters and IEEE bulletins. In the end of this research, we provided a primarily result of comparison on efficiency of the simplifications strategy in order to enhance the combinatorial testing technique.
ts of a systematicreview of the literature on Academic Analytics that comprised an analysis of 10 international studies published in the period Portal de Periódicos da Capes. Regarding the guiding questions of the study, we observed that the most explored aspect in the publications were tools to help professors and students. We were able to identify the computational tools and MDE and LA techniques used, in addition to the indicators, of which many are educational tors. These indicators, however, still focus more on students, and give secondary importance to the financial aspects of an HEI. We would like to highlight the importance and prominence that this field will have in the near provides to treat the generated data, thus enabling a more precise, fast and systemic
shorter hospital LOS and lower costs when compared with warfarin. When examining health care resource utilization, six economic studies reported readmission rates that ranged from 1.5% for patients receiving rivaroxaban to 15.4% for patients receiving a VKA or IAC. The more notable gaps in the literature include the finding that none of the studies reported indirect costs such as work productivity. More stud- ies are needed that examine VTE treatments when patients are transitioning from IP to OP settings and their associated outcomes including work productivity. Of note, is a study conducted by Stein et al 22 who examined the prevalence of
A strong and effective workforce is needed to underpin comprehensive primary healthcare efforts by primary healthcare services (PHCs). Primary healthcare is im- portant because it focuses on healthcare throughout the lifespan and can deliver better health outcomes, effi- ciency and improved quality of care compared to other models . Globally, particularly in rural and remote areas, PHCs face challenges in defining and operationa- lising an optimal workforce model that responds to the needs for primary healthcare delivery [2, 3]. Such a workforce requires stability, leadership, role clarity, sup- port and coordination [2, 4]. PHCs and the workforce models that underpin them have traditionally been framed mainly to address acute conditions, yet they are also faced with a high and increasing burden of chronic disease in the populations they serve [5, 6]. Addressing chronic disease and wellbeing creates a greater demand for patient-centred care, community-based health ser- vices, and personalized long-term care . Health work- force strategies therefore increasingly need to incorporate health promotion, prevention, treatment, re- habilitation and palliative care services, and to work through team-based care .
We mapped out the process of medicine usage in primary care and produced a high-level process map, in accord- ance with established processes  using an iterative process of refining the map in the light of findings from the literaturereview. We included episodes of secondary care which patients in primary care may have experienced (as outpatients or inpatients), treating them as a 'black box' rather than studying all types of errors that could occur in these settings. We superimposed the error rates, non-adherence rates and lack of efficacy rates, found in the literature at each stage of the process, onto the map. Where more than one study addressed the reliability of a particular stage, we reported the range of rates found. Meta analysis was not appropriate due to the heterogene- ity of methodology (discussed later). For the purpose of reviewing the system, non-adherence was treated as an error, or a system failure, as the intended outcome was treatment of the patient with a medicine. We recognize that non-adherence in some cases could be seen as an appropriate act taken by patients, however, although unquantified, this did not seem to occur very often. Unlike other forms of medication error, there is extensive literature on non-adherence which has been summarized in recent reviews [18,19]. We therefore used the adherence rates reported by the National Institute for Clinical Excel- lence (NICE)  and the Cochrane Collaboration , rather than conducting our own review.
Technological advances have led to vast amounts of data that has been collected, compiled, and archived, and that is now easily accessible for research. As a result, utilizing existing data for research is becoming more prevalent and therefore secondary data analysis. While secondary analysis is flexible and can be utilized in several ways, it is also an empirical exercise and a systematic method with procedural and evaluative steps, just as in collecting and evaluating primary data (Proctor & Jamieson, 2012). In a time where vast amounts of data are being collected and archived by researchers all over the world, the practicality of utilizing existing data for research is becoming more prevalent (Andrews, Higgins, Andrews, Lalor, 2012; Schutt, 2011; Smith, 2008; Smith, Ayanian, Covinsky & Landon, 2011). Secondary data analysis is analysis of data that was collected by someone else for another primary purpose. The utilization of this existing data provides a viable option for researchers who may have limited time and resources.
Research. As described in Tables 2 and 3, eight were pro- spective clinical studies [11–18] published between 1997 and 2016. Seven originated in America and six were published in the Journal of Vertebral Subluxation Research. Five register studies [19–23] were included (Tables 4 and 5), published between 2007 and 2013 by the same author. Three out of these five articles were published in the Journal of Vertebral Subluxation Re- search. Finally, we included five case reports [24–28] that were found in the reference list of Hannon’s review (Table 6). These all originated in America and were also published in the Journal/Annals of Vertebral Sublux- ation Research. Six potentially relevant studies in Hannon’s review and one from an additional hand search could not be obtained (Table 7). However, only two of these appeared to be of interest because the titles Table 6 Descriptive checklist of five case studies on chiropractic primary or early secondary prevention
Extending prescribing authority in primary care is a health care innovation driven by various factors in each country. Addressing shortages of medical staff particu- larly in remote and rural areas has been one driving fac- tor in North America, Africa and Australia [11,12]. In African countries such as South Africa, Botswana, Uganda and Zimbabwe, the aim has been to meet com- munity health care needs by improving access to medi- cines . In Sweden, the UK and New Zealand; NMP was commenced in order to improve the efficiency of services for specific groups, such as elderly people or those who receive nursing care in the community [14,15]. In some countries, the aspirations of profes- sional groups have been significant in changes to the legislation  but only when they have coincided with other public health and health policy imperatives. In summary, the key policy goals to date have been to improve patient access in primary care settings to safe, timely and effective medicines and increasing the effi- ciency of health service delivery. However, NMP exists in a minority of countries and the extent of prescriptive authority is contentious in some . A sociological narrative review has explored these dimensions further . Other recent narrative reviews [19,20] have consid- ered nurse prescribing in any setting without acknowl- edging that prescribing in primary care is a very different context from a hospital setting. In primary care settings the prescriber may have little immediate access to other professionals and may be seeing patients with previously undiagnosed illnesses. Therefore the question remains as to the contribution NMP makes to the care of patients in primary care and what is the evidence on which clinicians, commissioners of services and policy makers can consider this innovation.
cure is undoubtedly true for obesity; its growing prevalence, however, is evidence that this approach is not successful in the real world. Early and effective treatment of obesity is required to limit its direct impact on patients, healthcare services and nations. Such early intervention may also reduce the knock-on impact of obesity-related co-morbid conditions. As suggested by Bahia et al., reallocation of resources from treatment toward primary prevention of type 2 diabetes, 128
To make the data extraction process the researcher has designed a form to be used for collecting information relevant to the research questions that is used to evaluate the quality of the primary studies. The questions were proposed as the literature found in  .Our checklist was composed of ten general questions as shown in the table below to evaluate the previous studies so far according to the following degree scale: for answer by Yes = 2 points, for answer by Partially = 1 point , and answer by No = 0 points . The optimal total scores for each study ranged between 0 and 20. If the total score is 0 this evaluated as (out of scope) , if the total scores between (1-9) it was evaluated as weak , if the total scores between (10-14) it was evaluated as good and if the scores was between(15-17 ) it was evaluated as very good ,if the scores between(18-20) it was evaluated as excellent. The researcher made an evaluation to each paper by answering the questions found on the table II below after reading the paper carefully . The questions were taken mostly from several previous studies .
The paper is enticing attentions towards technical paradigm of e-learning. A systematicreview was done having 80 research papers in primary study. These 80 were reduced by 26 because of delicacy; then remaining 54 were forwarded for the next level of filtration. Among these 54, just 40 had been shifted for the next level as 14 were not accessible. Again a filter was applied by hence 24 more papers excluded thus at the end 16 papers were taken part in study. While in other for systematicreview among 41 papers some exclusion were done thus for study only 17 papers were taken part .
It consists of a systematicreview study, carried out from July to August of 2018, carried out from the electronic survey. He followed the steps recommended for a systematicreview: (1) elaboration of the research question; (2) search in the literature; (3) selection of articles; (4) extraction of the data; (5) methodological quality assessment; (6) data synthesis (meta-analysis); (7) evaluation of the quality of the evidence; and (8) writing and publication of the results (GALVÃO; PEREIRA, 2014). The research question of the present research was: What scientific evidence has been developed about pressure injuries in the elderly? The literature search was developed in the Virtual Health Library (VHL), through the Latin American and Caribbean Center for Health Sciences Information (Bireme), and the integration with Latin American and Caribbean Literature in Health Sciences (LILACS), Nursing Database (BDENF) and Scientific Electronic Library Online (SCIELO), where the articles were analyzed and peer- reviewed and data extraction for subsequent meta-analysis and evaluation of the evidence, and publication of the results. The selection of articles was done after the interpretative reading of the titles and abstracts, excluding those who did not bring the proposed theme and those who did not meet the inclusion criteria, initially identified 1495 primary studies. The studies were evaluated by the three researchers alone, in view of the inclusion criteria, and were subsequently assessed. Only those articles chosen in common by both were included in this study, with concordance higher than 90%. At first, the location of the articles in said databases was performed using the words "pressure lesion" with their synonyms, and "elderly", in combination with the Boolean operator AND, forming the crosswords: AND elderly pressure; pressure ulcer and elderly; pressure ulcers AND elderly; elderly AND pressure ulcer; elderly AND decubitus ulcers and elderly AND decubitus eschar. Studies verified in more than one database were considered only once, being counted in the database with more work.
Our review highlights the relevance of a number of factors including job demand and decision latitude, as well as managerial support and peer relationships in influencing perceptions of work stress. Importantly, these organisational stressors appear to be common contributors in the development of work-related mental illness; burnout; compassion fatigue; intention to leave the specialty and early retirement. These underlying occupational stressors are also common to many workforces. 69 This provides a template from which to design interventions that target the origins of stress within the ED; which this review demonstrates are currently lacking. A review of sixty-three stress orientated interventions in 2003 identified that only three reported changes in burnout, with most focussing on secondary-level approaches such as increasing resilience through mindfulness and cognitive-behavioural therapy. 70 Nonetheless, research elsewhere has demonstrated the positive and long-lasting effects of primary-level management interventions designed to improve
Pigment in the chamber angles might lead to increased intraocular pressure (IOP) and thereby to glaucomatous le- sions. In total, 15 articles commented on the IOP, eight reporting values above 21 mmHg [21,23,70,73,74,76,85,86]. Interestingly, in three of them the patients suffered from acute secondary glaucoma, always attributed to central vein occlusion [70,73,74]. Among the remaining cases, a primary glaucoma was only described in one case  while an increased intraocular pressure was documented, but not further discussed in two [76,85]. Noteworthy, gonioscopy is only described in two of the cases indicating elevated IOP. It revealed a hyperpigmented chamber angle each time [23,76].
Findings: We conducted a systematicreview of the literature on statin cost-effectiveness. The four studies that met inclusion criteria reported varying conclusions about the cost-effectiveness of statin treatment, without a clear consensus as to whether statins are cost-effective for primary prevention. However, after accounting for each study ’ s assumptions about statin costs, we found substantial agreement among the studies. Studies that assumed statins to be more expensive found them to be less cost-effective, and vice-versa. Furthermore, treatment of low- risk groups became cost-effective as statins became less expensive.
Our search yielded a total of 8095 articles. After removal of 2354 duplicates, 5741 articles were included for initial screening. After screening titles and abstracts, 60 full-text articles were retrieved for further review and assessment. The references of these articles were manually screened to capture any missing publications. Four additional articles were identified through this process. Based on a full-text review, 23 articles met the eligibility criteria (41 articles were excluded). Full citations and primary reasons for the exclusion of these articles are provided in Appendix 2. The selected articles ( n = 23) were part of 16 RCTs 23 – 45 ( Fig 1).