Top PDF Primary-secondary transitions : a systematic literature review

Primary-secondary transitions : a systematic literature review

Primary-secondary transitions : a systematic literature review

secondary school. Those who had lower ability and lower self-esteem experienced poorer school transitions 12 . Those who were feeling anxious, had experienced victimisation in the past, had difficulty forming friends and had concerns about peer relationships, experienced poorer peer transitions. Also, those who had concerns during the transition to secondary school went on to achieve a lower number of Standard Grades. They also found that poorer school transition at age 15, predicted negative impact on both educational and wellbeing outcomes. However, as acknowledged by the authors, the data about transition concerns and anxieties were not captured at the first time point, i.e., in the final year of primary school, and pupils were instead asked to reflect on their experiences when they were in the second year of secondary school. Further, the first set of data were collected in 1994 and transition practices might have changed in the intervening 24 years.
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Primary-secondary transitions : a systematic literature review

Primary-secondary transitions : a systematic literature review

Figure 1: PRISMA flow diagram of study selection Conclusions & Recommendations There was robust evidence to indicate a decline in pupils’ educational outcomes after they moved to secondary school, along with declines in motivation, school engagement and attitudes towards some subjects, and an increase in levels of school absence. Similarly, there was evidence of a negative impact on wellbeing, including poorer social and emotional health, and higher levels of depression and anxiety. However, whether this impact was as a result of the transition to secondary school and what proportion of pupils experienced this decline were less clear.
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Semantic Enrichment for Recommendation of Primary Studies in a Systematic Literature Review

Semantic Enrichment for Recommendation of Primary Studies in a Systematic Literature Review

A test article is classified by taking the scalar product of the document feature vector with the perceptron vector and comparing the output values. Considering a recall of 95%, the reduction of workload ranges from 0% to 68% according to the SLR they took under evaluation. Similarly to Cohen et al.’s work, in our approach we evaluate the reduction of human workload, while holding a 95% of recall for the classifier. The experiment we conduct is inspired to this, but we di↵erentiate in terms of feature selection and the classifier used. For the former, we use a bag of words model enriched with further descriptions available in an external knowledge base, and we used a Multinomial Naive Bayes classifier. The human workload and the precision we achieve are in order of magnitude com- parable with the ones observed by Cohen et al. (above the average) on fifteen medical literature reviews. However, due to the di↵erence of the SLR domains (medical for Cohen et al., Software Engineering in this paper), we cannot exhaus- tively compare the two approaches. Among the findings, Cohen et al. suggested that the automatic classification may be useful to regularly monitor new relevant journal issues in order to identify interesting primary studies, easing the task to keep a SLR constantly updated. According to this result, it is crucial to con- sider the classification problem in the SLR field as a semi-supervised approach in which a human being supervises the inclusion or exclusion of possible relevant studies selected by the classifier.
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Semantic Enrichment for Recommendation of Primary Studies in a Systematic Literature Review

Semantic Enrichment for Recommendation of Primary Studies in a Systematic Literature Review

A test article is classified by taking the scalar product of the document feature vector with the perceptron vector and comparing the output values. Considering a recall of 95%, the reduction of workload ranges from 0% to 68% according to the SLR they took under evaluation. Similarly to Cohen et al.’s work, in our approach we evaluate the reduction of human workload, while holding a 95% of recall for the classifier. The experiment we conduct is inspired to this, but we di↵erentiate in terms of feature selection and the classifier used. For the former, we use a bag of words model enriched with further descriptions available in an external knowledge base, and we used a Multinomial Naive Bayes classifier. The human workload and the precision we achieve are in order of magnitude com- parable with the ones observed by Cohen et al. (above the average) on fifteen medical literature reviews. However, due to the di↵erence of the SLR domains (medical for Cohen et al., Software Engineering in this paper), we cannot exhaus- tively compare the two approaches. Among the findings, Cohen et al. suggested that the automatic classification may be useful to regularly monitor new relevant journal issues in order to identify interesting primary studies, easing the task to keep a SLR constantly updated. According to this result, it is crucial to con- sider the classification problem in the SLR field as a semi-supervised approach in which a human being supervises the inclusion or exclusion of possible relevant studies selected by the classifier.
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Are multidisciplinary teams in secondary care cost-effective? A systematic review of the literature

Are multidisciplinary teams in secondary care cost-effective? A systematic review of the literature

research in this area. Firstly, future research should ensure a clear definition of MDT working and detailed reporting of its characteristics. In our systematic review, we found that the description of the two key features of MDT working was so vague that it was difficult to determine whether MDT working had taken place or not. We recommend that studies should provide the characteristics of the MDT meeting as shown in Table 4. Secondly, it is essential to estimate the full costs of administering, preparing for and attending an MDT meeting. Such attempts should take into account two issues. One, all relevant costs should be identified. We recommend that the following costs should be accounted for: time spent by each team member in preparing for the MDT meeting and this should include time spent by team coordinator in providing administrative support to the MDT meeting, time spent on travelling to and from meetings by any team member who is located on a different site than the meeting venue, costs of using tele- conferencing if applicable, and time spent by each member at each meeting. Two, these costs should be measured as accurately as possible. The standard methods used in health services research for workflow assessments are work sampling, time efficiency, and time-and-motion. The first two methods are less resource intensive as compared to the third method but there is evidence to show that the time-and-motion technique may produce the most accurate results [54-56]. Thirdly, it remains unclear what models of MDT are cost-effective in secondary care. Therefore, future studies using strong study designs should compare the cost-effectiveness of different models or aspects of MDT working c . For this to be performed accurately there is a need for agreement in the clinical community about which outcomes would be core in the evaluation of MDT working. Whilst some clinical outcomes are important, the inclusion of patient-centred outcomes and satisfaction of health professionals as well as assessment of the quality of decision-making and MDT decision-implementation may also be important [2,57,58].
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A systematic review of the literature

A systematic review of the literature

The NICE guideline strongly emphasises that no patient with BPD should be excluded from access to health or social care services, and that treatment should be undertaken in an optimistic environment [1.1.1.1 and 1.1.4.1]. These issues are not explicitly addressed in the APA recommendations; however in Section IIB (Principles of Psychiatric Management), the guideline notes the importance of establishing a therapeutic framework and alliance. The NICE guideline suggests that while involvement of families and carers should be subject to patient preference, their inclusion in the patient’s care should be encouraged [1.1.5.1]. The APA guideline addresses the issue of family involvement in the context of formal therapy rather than general patient care (as per the NICE guideline). The guideline suggests that while family therapy can be helpful, it is not recommended as the only form of treatment for patients with BPD [Page 11, C.4a, R6-R7]. According to the NICE guideline, general principles for healthcare professionals when assessing a person with BPD include using non- technical language to clearly explain the process of assessment. While they are not the subject of specific recommendations in the APA guideline, some of these issues are very broadly discussed in Section IIB (Principles of Psychiatric Management). The NICE recommendations provide detailed advice about how best to manage endings or transitions from one service or treatment to another. The APA recommendation on this topic is less explicit, stating that “standard guidelines for terminating treatment should be followed in all cases”.
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Hysteroscopy as An Investigational Operative Procedure in Primary and Secondary Infertility: A Systematic Review

Hysteroscopy as An Investigational Operative Procedure in Primary and Secondary Infertility: A Systematic Review

lesions that were not diagnosed by other tools. Indeed, it mayprovide definitive treatment of endocavitary lesions that could impact women fertility (4). Conversely, hysteroscopic exam of the uterine cavity is considered mandatory during the primary work-up of infertile couples in presence endometrial abnormalities detected at TVS, accompanied or notby bleeding. In this context, the most common endometrial pathologies observed by hysteroscopyare endometrial polyps and submucous fibroids. In general, their treatment by operative hysteroscopy improves PR and reproductive outcomes. Endometrial polyps are thought to interfere with uterine receptivity and embryo implantation, and adversely impact fertility (25). Current evidence supports hysteroscopic resection of endometrial polyps prior to ART in order to improve fertility (6, 25-27). There is a 50%
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Sedentary behaviour across the primary-secondary school transition:A systematic review

Sedentary behaviour across the primary-secondary school transition:A systematic review

The evidence on changes in sedentary behaviour indicates that screen-based sedentary behaviour and overall sedentary time increase during the transition from primary to secondary school. Although direct comparison of results is hindered by the different durations of follow- up, studies that assessed changes in sedentary time by accelerometry reported remarkably similar findings. This was typically an increase of approximately 10 –20 min per day per year. The overall trend was sim- ilar for studies that measured self- or proxy-reported sedentary behav- iours, though there was much less consistency in the estimated magnitude of change. This may be due to true variation in the degree of change in individual behaviours and between populations or the gen- erally lower reliability of self-report measures. Further observational studies that seek to identify factors that predict changes in behaviour over the school transition will help to inform intervention design. Pre- liminary evidence indicates that height-adjustable desks may be a route to reducing sedentary behaviour in school but high quality evalu- ations are lacking and much of the existing research has been based in primary schools (Sherry et al., 2016). Factors such as break duration and the availability of facilities for physical activity may also in fluence sedentary time in secondary schools and are worthy of further explora- tion as targets for intervention (Morton et al., 2016b).
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The breadth of primary care: a systematic literature review of its core dimensions

The breadth of primary care: a systematic literature review of its core dimensions

Methods: A systematic review of the primary care literature was carried out, restricted to English language journals reporting original research or systematic reviews. Studies published between 2003 and July 2008 were searched in MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, King ’ s Fund Database, IDEAS Database, and EconLit. Results: Eighty-five studies were identified. This review was able to provide insight in the complexity of primary care as a multidimensional system, by identifying ten core dimensions that constitute a primary care system. The structure of a primary care system consists of three dimensions: 1. governance; 2. economic conditions; and 3. workforce development. The primary care process is determined by four dimensions: 4. access; 5. continuity of care; 6. coordination of care; and 7. comprehensiveness of care. The outcome of a primary care system includes three dimensions: 8. quality of care; 9. efficiency care; and 10. equity in health. There is a considerable evidence base showing that primary care contributes through its dimensions to overall health system performance and health.
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Profile of Bioaerosol Contaminants in Primary School Classrooms: Systematic Literature Review

Profile of Bioaerosol Contaminants in Primary School Classrooms: Systematic Literature Review

Each literature goes through five stages which include the screening based on the year of publication and language, screening by the title and abstract, screening by the result, selection based on the accessibility and completeness of articles, and selection based on the eligibility. The inclusion criteria on finding the literature are that the literature must be available in the database of Google Scholar and Portal Garuda (Garba Rujukan Digital), be in either English or Bahasa Indonesia, was published between 2016 – 2020, and must answer study questions regarding the description of bioaerosol contaminants in the form of types, concentration on sampling results and factors that could affect the concentration of bioaerosol contaminants in primary school classrooms. After the literatures are selected, data from the literature will be processed by identification, extraction, synthesis and interpretation using the software Microsoft Word and Microsoft Excel in which the results will be presented in narrative form, figures and tables.
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The breadth of primary care: a systematic literature review of its core dimensions

The breadth of primary care: a systematic literature review of its core dimensions

Methods: A systematic review of the primary care literature was carried out, restricted to English language journals reporting original research or systematic reviews. Studies published between 2003 and July 2008 were searched in MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, King ’ s Fund Database, IDEAS Database, and EconLit. Results: Eighty-five studies were identified. This review was able to provide insight in the complexity of primary care as a multidimensional system, by identifying ten core dimensions that constitute a primary care system. The structure of a primary care system consists of three dimensions: 1. governance; 2. economic conditions; and 3. workforce development. The primary care process is determined by four dimensions: 4. access; 5. continuity of care; 6. coordination of care; and 7. comprehensiveness of care. The outcome of a primary care system includes three dimensions: 8. quality of care; 9. efficiency care; and 10. equity in health. There is a considerable evidence base showing that primary care contributes through its dimensions to overall health system performance and health.
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Employment Instruction for Secondary Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Systematic Review of the Literature

Employment Instruction for Secondary Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Systematic Review of the Literature

Publications selected for review met the fol- lowing criteria. First, two-thirds of the partici- pants had to be between the ages of 14 –22. The two-thirds ratio was selected to capture studies with secondary special education pro- gramming as a central focus, and to eliminate studies comprised of a majority of younger students (e.g., preschool and elementary) as well as adult participants who completed their schooling. Additionally, this age range was se- lected because it represents the period when transition planning and instruction should oc- cur. Second, 50% of the participants had to have a diagnosis of ASD. This criterion was chosen so that studies reviewed had at least a balanced representation of individuals with ASD in their participant pool. Third, the in- dependent variable had to be an intervention designed to improve the participants’ employ- ment skills. Fourth, the dependent variable had to be job related skills or social skills related to employment, exclusive of reducing problem behavior. Studies that focused on preference assessments to increase work per- formance were also included in the review.
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A systematic review of CALL in English as a second language : Focus on primary and secondary education

A systematic review of CALL in English as a second language : Focus on primary and secondary education

with traditional approaches – is more effective than traditional approaches alone. It is clear from the review that a much more rigorous methodology is needed. Firstly, one needs to isolate the key feature of each technology which makes it different from non-CALL pedagogy. An obvious example of this is that more advanced technologies can offer individual learners individualized feedback on spoken utterances, something that is more difficult in a large class of learners with one teacher. Having identified a key feature in the technology one might then go on to relate this to theories of language learning – in this case perhaps the use of recasts and other forms of error correction, linked to the development stage of the individual learner (Philp, 2003), again something more difficult in the large class with one teacher. Finally one would need to make a decision about the kind of comparison being made. If the comparison is simply of non-technology with technology, one would need to consider time on task and other variables. If the condition of interest is non-technology plus technology, one needs to measure magnitude of gains against time taken away from other activities. All these issues and covariates need to be thought through and justified much more than they have been to date if there is going to be some rigorous theorizing centred around CALL.
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1. Systematic literature review

1. Systematic literature review

Step 5: Evaluate search performance Up on searching for the QGS articles in the automated search results, authors were able to get 21 QGS articles out of 26, which shows a quasi-sensitivity of 80% ((21/26)*100). But among the QGS articles, three articles (2 from XP 2008 and 1 from XP 2010) found not to be indexed by either of three selected databases at the time of search 1 . Due to this limitation, these three articles have been excluded in calculating the quasi-sensitivity but included in the set of identified primary studies. Now, calculating quasi-sensitivity shows an increased value of 91% ((21/23)*100) which satisfies the defined threshold value (i.e. 70%-80%). Authors further tried to improve the quasi-sensitivity by changing the search terms but this lead to no improvement in quasi-sensitivity. Therefore, the authors settled with the existing search string which was run in the remaining electronic databases (see Figure 3). In evaluating search performance, precision (no. of irrelevant articles retrieved) was not carried out due to the reason of terminology inconsistency in GSE [7], which resulted in higher number of irrelevant articles.
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An investigation into the prevalence of sleep disturbances in primary Sjögren’s syndrome: a systematic review of the literature

An investigation into the prevalence of sleep disturbances in primary Sjögren’s syndrome: a systematic review of the literature

There were inconclusive findings regarding whether pSS patients spend more time in bed than comparative groups, however, if they do spend longer in bed, it is likely that this is due to the sleep disturbances and night awa- kenings they experience. Because of the conflicting find- ings in this review, further studies are needed to confirm whether pSS patients have a short sleep duration com- pared with other groups. However, pSS patients do seem to experience more frequent nocturnal awakenings than other groups. Despite this finding, the arousal index scores were not found to be greater for pSS patients in the studies that examined this outcome. One reason could be due to low numbers of participants in these studies.
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An investigation into the prevalence of sleep disturbances in primary Sjögren’s syndrome: a systematic review of the literature

An investigation into the prevalence of sleep disturbances in primary Sjögren’s syndrome: a systematic review of the literature

There were inconclusive findings regarding whether pSS patients spend more time in bed than comparative groups, however, if they do spend longer in bed, it is likely that this is due to the sleep disturbances and night awa- kenings they experience. Because of the conflicting find- ings in this review, further studies are needed to confirm whether pSS patients have a short sleep duration com- pared with other groups. However, pSS patients do seem to experience more frequent nocturnal awakenings than other groups. Despite this finding, the arousal index scores were not found to be greater for pSS patients in the studies that examined this outcome. One reason could be due to low numbers of participants in these studies.
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Antibiotic resistance in primary care in Austria   a systematic review of scientific and grey literature

Antibiotic resistance in primary care in Austria a systematic review of scientific and grey literature

Methods: A systematic review was performed including scientific and grey literature published between 2000 and 2010. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were defined and the review process followed published recommendations. Results: Seventeen scientific articles and 23 grey literature documents could be found. In contrast to the grey literature, the scientific publications describe only a small part of the resistance situation in the primary health care sector in Austria. Merely half of these publications contain data from the ambulatory sector exclusively but these data are older than ten years, are very heterogeneous concerning the observed time period, the number and origin of the isolates and the kind of bacteria analysed. The grey literature yields more comprehensive and up-to- date information of the content of interest. These sources are available in German only and are not easily
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The Post-Schooling Transitions of Remote Indigenous Secondary School Graduates: A Systematic Scoping Review of Support Strategies

The Post-Schooling Transitions of Remote Indigenous Secondary School Graduates: A Systematic Scoping Review of Support Strategies

Two divergent ideological approaches that aim to address the disparity in remote Indigenous training and employment outcomes were described in the literature regarding the role of education in preparing for students for their post-schooling transitions. The first reflects the current national neoliberal policy direction based on the premise that improvement in education outcomes will lead to improved post-schooling employment and economic participation. This has promoted more prescriptive curricula, pedagogy and standardised testing which is heavily outcomes-focused. On the one hand, there is an imperative to improve educational outcomes of remote Indigenous students, and to some degree, there have been improvements in literacy and numeracy outcomes and year 12 attainment (Commonwealth of Australia, 2017). However, critics of this approach have warned that the model is flawed, suggesting it does not reflect the values of remote Indigenous communities and as such it risks further alienating and disengaging those students who cannot see how this education relates to their world outside of school. Conversely, the alternative ideological approach outlined in five of the publications (Altman & Fogarty, 2010; Fogarty, 2012; Fogarty & Schwab, 2012; Guenther, Disbray, et al., 2017; Kral, 2010), advocates for a more localised and experiential community-based model of learning linked to local employment opportunities. The preservation of cultural knowledge and languages is emphasised in this approach although, it still promotes the need for formal education in what is termed a ‘blended approach’. With this model caution is needed to ensure that there is not an imposed assumption that all students desire to pursue in-community post-schooling pathways. Rather there is a need to ensure that any education provided is comprehensive and does not delimit students options to pursue a wide range of post-schooling opportunities, including university or other non-
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Systematic review of interventions for the secondary prevention and treatment of emotional abuse of children by primary carers

Systematic review of interventions for the secondary prevention and treatment of emotional abuse of children by primary carers

Theoretical foundation and content: The PUP programme aims to improve family functioning and child outcomes by addressing risk factors both within the family and in the wider social systems around the family. The individual treatment focus is designed to decrease parental psychopathology. This in turn enables parents to put into practice parenting skills (which address the parent child relationship as such) and relapse prevention techniques. Finally, difficulties that occur between individuals and their social environment are addressed. The programme is primarily cognitive behavioural in focus and draws from the literature on regulation of affect, decreasing negative mood states and preventing lapse and relapse into substance misuses and improving parenting practices using behavioural family therapy approaches. An individual treatment plan is created. The programme consists of 10 units delivered over 12 sessions, but tailored to the needs of each family. Treatment was delivered by two clinicians.
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Effect of chiropractic treatment on primary or early secondary prevention: a systematic review with a pedagogic approach

Effect of chiropractic treatment on primary or early secondary prevention: a systematic review with a pedagogic approach

However, to observe the ‘effect’ of chiropractic care, through a comparison of an area with access to chiroprac- tic care versus an area with less or no such access, as was the attempt in the five reviewed population studies, it would be necessary to take into account factors that might incite chiropractors to settle in a specific area. In poorer areas there would be fewer chiropractors because of the difficulty to run a successful practice but poor people are also sicker and die younger than more financially comfort- able people [30, 31]. Therefore, increased morbidity or mortality that seems to be linked with the number of chi- ropractors would instead depend on other more funda- mental factors. None of the five register studies included in this review took into account, properly, the moderating
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