Top PDF Principles of Sociological Inquiry – Qualitative and Quantitative Methods

Principles of Sociological Inquiry – Qualitative and Quantitative Methods

Principles of Sociological Inquiry – Qualitative and Quantitative Methods

IRBs are tasked with ensuring that the rights and welfare of human research subjects will be protected at all institutions, including universities, hospitals, nonprofit research institutions, and other organizations, that receive federal support for research. IRBs typically consist of members from a variety of disciplines, such as sociology, economics, education, social work, and communications (to name a few). Most IRBs also include representatives from the community in which they reside. For example, representatives from nearby prisons, hospitals, or treatment centers might sit on the IRBs of university campuses near them. The diversity of membership helps to ensure that the many and complex ethical issues that may arise from human subjects research will be considered fully and by a knowledgeable and experienced panel. Investigators conducting research on human subjects are required to submit proposals outlining their research plans to IRBs for review and approval prior to beginning their research. Even students who conduct research on human subjects must have their proposed work reviewed and approved by the IRB before beginning any research (though, on some campuses, some exceptions are made for classroom projects that will not be shared outside of the classroom). It may surprise you to hear that IRBs are not always popular or appreciated by researchers. Who wouldn’t want to conduct ethical research, you ask? In some cases, the concern is that IRBs are most well versed in reviewing biomedical and experimental research, neither of which is particularly common within sociology. Much sociological research, especially qualitative research, is open ended in nature, a fact that can be problematic for IRBs. The members of IRBs often want to know in advance exactly who will be observed, where, when, and for how long, whether and how they will be approached, exactly what questions they will be asked, and what predictions the researcher has for her or his findings. Providing this level of detail for a yearlong participant observation within an activist group of 200-plus members, for example, would be extraordinarily frustrating for the researcher in the best case and most likely would prove to be impossible. Of course, IRBs do not intend to have researchers avoid studying controversial topics or avoid using certain methodologically sound data-
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Quantitative methods for business

Quantitative methods for business

You should not be surprised that managers rely on quantitative reasoning because this is a routine part of most jobs. Engineers do calculations when they design bridges; doctors prescribe measured amounts of medicines; mobile phone companies monitor traffic on their networks; accountants give a quantitative view of performance. If you imagine that managers do not use formal analyses but can somehow guess how to make the right decisions using their intuition and judgement, you are very much mistaken. In this book, we want to overcome the strange idea that managers instinctively ‘know’ the solutions to their problems, and instead we show how they really make decisions. Of course, this does not mean that managers have to do all the analyses themselves; they can get assistance from relevant experts – in the same way that they use experts in communications, information processing, accounting, law and all the other specialised areas. However, managers really do have to be aware of the analyses available, understand the underlying principles, recognise the limitations, have intelligent discussions with experts and interpret the results.
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Reviewing the research methods literature: principles and strategies illustrated by a systematic overview of sampling in qualitative research

Reviewing the research methods literature: principles and strategies illustrated by a systematic overview of sampling in qualitative research

As far as we are aware, this is the first published source of concrete guidance for conducting this type of review. It is important to note that our primary objective was to initiate methodological discussion by stimulating reflec- tion on what rigorous methods for this type of review should look like, leaving the development of more complete guidance to future work. While derived from the experience of reviewing a single qualitative methods topic, we believe the principles and strategies provided are generalizable to overviews of both qualitative and quantitative methods topics alike. However, it is ex- pected that additional challenges and insights for con- ducting such reviews have yet to be defined. Thus, we propose that next steps for developing more definitive guidance should involve an attempt to collect and inte- grate other reviewers’ perspectives and experiences in conducting systematic methods overviews on a broad range of qualitative and quantitative methods topics. Formalized guidance and standards would improve the quality of future methods overviews, something we be- lieve has important implications for advancing qualita- tive and quantitative methodology. When undertaken to a high standard, rigorous critical evaluations of the avail- able methods guidance have significant potential to make implicit controversies explicit, and improve the clarity and precision of our understandings of problem- atic qualitative or quantitative methods issues.
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A mixed methods inquiry into the validity of data

A mixed methods inquiry into the validity of data

The highly skewed herd incidence risk of metritis based on treatment data is an important finding. Similar skewed distributions were found in studies of clinical mastitis [17,18]. This 'problem' was handled statistically by select- ing a distribution that fitted the data [18] or by cutting off the extreme values due to suspected non-compliance "based on the subjective opinion of the investigators' dur- ing the data collection phase" [17]. In the quantitative study described here, herds with very low incidence risks were also excluded. However, there may be simple practi- cal reasons for the skewed distribution like underreport- ing in many herds [17,19] or significant differences in veterinarians' beliefs in the use of diagnostic tools and in thresholds for treatment, i.e. misclassification errors, as shown in the qualitative research project presented above. The interview study indicated that an unknown propor- tion of herds in the database were subject to the veterinar- ians' more or less systematic clinical examinations, because some herds participated in the described extended herd health program and other herds did not. Thus, cows may have been selected for metritis treatment because of the presence of one or more fixed criteria (e.g. smelling discharge) or known occurrence of expected pre- disposing risk factors. Consequently, at least 2 types of metritis might be represented in the data utilized in the quantitative study; cases that are truly new incidents and cases that are more or less chronic (or subclinical) because they basically are sampled in a cross-sectional protocol. It may be complicated to distinguish between the 2 types of data based on the available information from the Danish Cattle Database.
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Revisiting the Quantitative-Qualitative Debate: Implications for Mixed-Methods Research

Revisiting the Quantitative-Qualitative Debate: Implications for Mixed-Methods Research

In contrast, the qualitative paradigm is based on interpretivism (Altheide and Johnson, 1994; Kuzel and Like, 1991; Secker et al., 1995) and constructivism (Guba and Lincoln, 1994). Ontologically speaking, there are multiple realities or multiple truths based on one’s construction of reality. Reality is socially con- structed (Berger and Luckmann, 1966) and so is constantly changing. On an epistemological level, there is no access to reality independent of our minds, no external referent by which to compare claims of truth (Smith, 1983). The invest- igator and the object of study are interactively linked so that findings are mutually created within the context of the situation which shapes the inquiry (Guba and Lincoln, 1994; Denzin and Lincoln, 1994). This suggests that reality has no exist- ence prior to the activity of investigation, and reality ceases to exist when we no longer focus on it (Smith, 1983). The emphasis of qualitative research is on process and meanings. Techniques used in qualitative studies include in-depth and focus group interviews and participant observation. Samples are not meant to repres- ent large populations. Rather, small, purposeful samples of articulate respondents are used because they can provide important information, not because they are representative of a larger group (Reid, 1996).
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Mixed methods communication research: Combining qualitative and quantitative approaches in the study of online journalism

Mixed methods communication research: Combining qualitative and quantitative approaches in the study of online journalism

The case reflects on seven years of investigation into the production, consumption, and form of online journalism at times when the various manifestations of that medium were novel, often just a few years old. As a consequence, there was a relative paucity of studies when the work discussed here began. The research that did exist focused almost exclusively on the American experience of online news publishing (for example: Boczkowski, 2004; Brannon, 1999; Murrie, 2001; Singer, 2004; and Stepno, 2003). Empirical research into British online journalism was virtually non-existent. The main academic data service providers’ collections had no relevant data sets and there was little published research. One of the only studies was Cottle and Ashton’s (1999) ‘From BBC Newsroom to BBC Newscentre’, which, although touching on the practice of online news publishing, had, as its primary focus, how new communication technologies contribute to the transformation of broadcast news production. For these reasons an approach based exclusively on an established theoretical framework was rejected. Instead, the approach was mainly inductive, seeking to infer principles from
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SOCIAL RESEARCH METHODS An Introduction to Qualitative and Quantitative Methods

SOCIAL RESEARCH METHODS An Introduction to Qualitative and Quantitative Methods

At first glance Research Methods may look like a technical course alongside the more abstract sociological subjects you have encountered thus far. In some sense, this is true –being able to do research is indeed a practical skill! However, an introduction to research methods must encompass more than practical know-how. This is because the domain of social research speaks to key issues around the production of truth. In fact methodology speaks to the heart of academic life, looking at the systems which scholars have come up with over time to gather information about people and social organisation. As you will come to see –methodology is itself a very complex field with many abstract questions which arise from the diverse ways in which new knowledge is produced. Research is an integral part of what C. Wright Mills called our “intellectual craftsmanship”. It is in this spirit that social research methods will be introduced!
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A qualitative inquiry into women principals’ leadership in Malaysia

A qualitative inquiry into women principals’ leadership in Malaysia

Data analysis in qualitative research is implemented as soon as the data collection process begins and throughout the writing of the report (Saven-Baden & Major, 2013, Bogdan & Biklen, 2007; Merriam, 2009). This is due to the plethora of information in a qualitative research. In relation to this study, an ongoing analysis started on day one of data collection. After the first participant - Principal A - had been interviewed, the researcher started to listen to the recorded interviews repeatedly. The same steps were taken for the observation and the analysis of the document that were able to be done on the first day of the data collection. Both of the data from the observation and document analysis were written down to support the emerging themes from the interviews. This was done to guide the researcher on what improvements should be made in the following interviews as well as to steer the focus of the study. However, a thorough and in-depth analysis happened only after the data were all collected. To ensure that data was transcribed and organised efficiently, the researcher used NVivo software to transcribe all the data collected from the interviews. The NVivo software was used only for transcribing and not for analysis, as the researcher believed that manual analysis would give more opportunity to immerse in the data. In a study with an attempt for theorisation, the researcher doing their own coding works better as it can ‘constantly stimulate conceptual ideas’ (Holton, 2007, p. 275). NVivo was however also used to make sure that the data were organised systematically and was easily accessible for further action.
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Selection of quantitative and qualitative methods for comprehensive evaluation of PPP projects focusing on the Czech Republic

Selection of quantitative and qualitative methods for comprehensive evaluation of PPP projects focusing on the Czech Republic

Nowadays, a method called Value for Money (based on the Public Sector Com- parator) for evaluation of suitability of the PPP projects is being used. Unfortunately, only a few projects at the municipal level (but not a single project on the national lev- el) have been proceeded since the existence of this methodology. The output of this methodology is, however, only the Net Present Value, which is a static simple indi- cator that does not refl ect the complexity of a PPP project. Private sector needs other important information such as profi tability of own capital. To improve this aspect, the authors, when studying a value assessment of property, have developed methods of value assessment of work facilities where the outputs of assessment are precisely defi ned and most importantly, the parameters, with which the aim can be reached, are precisely given. This article assumes that a PPP project can be considered as an enterprise unit. This assumption is supported by the fact that PPP projects are in 99% of cases SPV (special purpose vehicle), i.e. special project companies with a standard status of a trade corporation (most commonly stock companies or limited liability companies). In this case, the authors of this article were able to apply and examine the methods of valuation of such business units which will be modifi ed for cases of providing public goods and which will be complemented with modifi ed versions of PPP evaluations based on VFM.
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Methods for Selecting Ethical Investments: Some Sociological Explanations

Methods for Selecting Ethical Investments: Some Sociological Explanations

A recurring prejudice about ethical finance is that ‘collaboration and cooperation should replace competition and competition’ in the underlying idea that cooper- ation and competition are on antithetical positions. It is the ancient attack on the market of those who consider it a complex cause of social inequality. Well, we would like to oppose to this prejudice the thesis that competition is the highest form of cooperation and that “we must abandon the idea that fair competition and mutual collaboration are antithetical objectives and condemned to exclude each other” (Tagliagambe, 1994: p. 106). Competition is a process of discovery, says Hayek, “to consider competition as the opposite of cooperation (...) would be to understand its nature” (Hayek, 1999: p. 67). The idea that cooperation should replace competition is based on several false principles: first, it requires a broad agreement on the ends; secondly, it presupposes that man, “left free”, pursues only selfish ends; thirdly, it considers the market a place of subtraction of resources from the strongest to the weakest; finally, it ignores the characteris- tics of spontaneous orders.
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Identify and Ranking the Factors Influencing Insurance Company’s Competitive Advantage with Qualitative and Quantitative Methods

Identify and Ranking the Factors Influencing Insurance Company’s Competitive Advantage with Qualitative and Quantitative Methods

Given that the sample size is not specified before in qualitative research and the sampling process is continue as long as no sufficient dada is achieved, so the nature of repetitive sampling is observed in this study. In fact, when the researcher concluded that by more interviews, no more new data is collected and data saturation is achieved, stop the interview, therefore in this study, to determine sample size for conducting interview and collecting qualitative data, we acted based on expert‟s opinion and sample size is considered equal to 17. In next step, they were asked to respond paired comparison questionnaire.
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Veterinary Epidemiology: Principles and Methods

Veterinary Epidemiology: Principles and Methods

To fulfill these purposes, an epidemiologic study might be carried out to estimate the frequency of disease e.g., the rate of infertility in dairy cows or to identify factors that might [r]

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Access to health care for disadvantaged individuals: a qualitative inquiry

Access to health care for disadvantaged individuals: a qualitative inquiry

Grounded theory was developed in the 1960's by Barney Glaser and Anselm Strauss as a way of systematically developing mid-range theory from data. They intended grounded theory to counter sociology's overemphasis on theory verification (Glaser & Strauss, 1967). Grounded theory reflected the combination of Glaser and Strauss' educational backgrounds at Columbia University and the University of Chicago, respectively. From the marriage of Columbia's positivism and quantitative sociology and the Chicago School's traditions of pragmatism, symbolic interactionism and ethnographic fieldwork, Glaser and Strauss proposed analyzing qualitative data using joint coding and analysis following systematic guidelines. Codes were to be developed from the data rather than from predetermined categories. Constant comparison was to be employed to ensure consistency within and between codes. Data were to be collected to further theory development rather than for statistical representation and data collection was to continue until the theory was complete. In short, the analyst was to remain close to, or "grounded" in, the data, throughout the entire process. This grounded approach would ensure the production of a valid and high quality theory, or one that meets the criteria of fit, relevance, and work (Glaser, 1978; Glaser & Strauss, 1967). Fit means that the components of the theory correspond to the data.
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Research funder required research partnerships: a qualitative inquiry

Research funder required research partnerships: a qualitative inquiry

In 1979, Caplan stated that researchers and policymakers “live in separate worlds with different and often conflict- ing values, different rewards systems, and different lan- guages” [16]. Despite this, researchers and policymakers (or “knowledge-users”) are now working together in an effort to improve the practical application of research, sometimes encouraged to do so by funding opportunity requirements to include a knowledge-user. It was clear through this study that researchers are aware of the im- portance of doing research with knowledge-user part- ners; for many in our study, partnership was understood as the new “way of doing research”. Even knowledge- users were aware of the current push to make research more relevant and connected to the real world: “I don’t know of any academic researchers who do not seek out partners in practice; it just is not the way of doing re- search in Canada any longer” (KU12). Knowing this, we sought to better understand how partnerships are actu- ally functioning (developing, maintaining, sustaining) in this new environment. Our study supports the literature that researchers and knowledge-users share parallel views regarding the dimensions of partnerships [17], and ultimately, both feel that the benefits of partnerships outweigh the costs and barriers. Within this new envir- onment there has been discussion around the potential for “genuine” collaboration in required partnerships. For our participants, collaborations were most often genuine. However, some felt that the forced nature of the partner- ships was not conducive to true collaborative research and that it was more of a “game”, “not based on the principles of meaningful collaboration” (KU14).
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A Qualitative Inquiry and Review of Telemedicine: A
Case Study of Cameroon

A Qualitative Inquiry and Review of Telemedicine: A Case Study of Cameroon

While some countries have corporations that help with providing telemedicine, Cameroon has continued to suffer a major setback. In this paper we will cover the present status of telemedicine in Sub-Saharan Africa and how it has either improved or remained constant since the first project back in 2000. Different studies will also be discussed as far as how they have worked and if there were any pros or cons to the methods being used. Lastly, we will discuss the possible future of telemedicine in Cameroon with either improving current methods or starting new ones.

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Sociology Qualitative Methods

Sociology Qualitative Methods

Learning from Strangers: The Art and Method of Qualitative Interview Studies. New York: Free Press. (p. 151-end) Kvale, Steinar and Svend Brinkmann. 2009. Preparing for Interview Analysis (p. 189- 193) InterViews: Learning the Craft of Qualitative Research Interviewing. Los Angeles: Sage.

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Quantitative methods in neuropathology

Quantitative methods in neuropathology

should always be calculated along with C 7 . The limi- tation of contingency table methods is that they rely on recording the joint presences and absences of features in defined sample plots. The correlation between two histological features in AD, however, may be more complex. For example, blood vessels might influence the pathogenesis of A β plaques for some distance around the blood vessel, not just in the plots that actually contain the arteriole profile [11,22]. In these circumstances, quantitative data collected in contiguous plots at different distances from the blood vessel provide a much more accurate assessment of association. Association can be measured in this con- text either by analysis of covariance or by Pearson’s correlation coefficient. The disadvantage of the for- mer is that it is difficult to make a test of significance, whereas in the latter, the test assumes that the data are a sample from a bivariate normal distribution.
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Understanding Preschool Children’s Own Food-Related Emotions and Perceptions Through Quantitative and Qualitative Methods.

Understanding Preschool Children’s Own Food-Related Emotions and Perceptions Through Quantitative and Qualitative Methods.

“computer simulation” should be used to estimate the required sample size for this study because there is no similar previous research or a pilot study from which to estimate the sample size. Second, given the specific challenges of the recruitment process (e.g. the low response rate) and considering that consistency is the key information to detect, research methods should include only one (intervention) group instead of two (control and intervention). In this study, the research team worked with 8 centers in the Triangle area over two semesters (Fall 17 and Spring 18) to achieve the minimum determined sample size (30 children/group). In this particular study, we do not know if the children’s responses reflect their actual emotions, and thus the consistency is the key information to detect. Therefore, having one intervention group rather than dividing the recruited participants into to group will be more feasible to achieve the sample size needed. Further, in this study, research team excluded any child who failed to complete the three
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Screening test of Bile Salt Hydrolase activity produced by Lactobacillus spp.by qualitative and quantitative methods

Screening test of Bile Salt Hydrolase activity produced by Lactobacillus spp.by qualitative and quantitative methods

According to these results, only three isolates exhibited BSH activity when screened in agar plate while ten isolates showed activity in quantitative assay, that means quantitative assay was more accurate and sensitive compared with the direct plate assay for BSH activity determination because from the genetic data, it was indicated that BSH is an intracellular enzyme therefore, its activity was released by cell disruption s either by sonication or other method.

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PRINCIPLES AND METHODS OF PHARMACY MANAGEMENT

PRINCIPLES AND METHODS OF PHARMACY MANAGEMENT

Pharmacists' Work Settings 34 Pharmacists' Work Activities 35 Managerial Activity 36 Professional Activity 36 Comparison of Two Studies 38 Institutional Characteristics of Practice Setti[r]

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