Top PDF Problem Based Learning Model to Increase Mathematic Critical Thinking Skills of V Grade Primary Student

Problem Based Learning Model to Increase Mathematic Critical Thinking Skills of V Grade Primary Student

Problem Based Learning Model to Increase Mathematic Critical Thinking Skills of V Grade Primary Student

Penelitian ini dilatarbelakangi oleh kemampuan berpikir kritis matematis siswa yang masih harus ditingkatkan. Hal tersebut disebabkan oleh pembelajaran matematika masih berpusat pada guru, sehingga siswa kurang aktif dalam membangun pengetahuan dan kemampuan berpikir kritis matematisnya. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui peningkatan kemampuan berpikir kritis matematis siswa dan perbedaan peningkatan kemampuan berpikir kritis matematis siswa yang memperoleh model pembelajaran berbasis masalah dan konvensional. Model pembelajaran berbasis masalah merupakan model pembelajaran yang dapat menciptakan suasana pembelajaran aktif, guru menghadapkan siswa pada suatu permasalahan nyata sehingga menuntut siswa berpikir kritis. Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah kuasi eksperimen the nonequivalent control group design. Sampel dalam penelitian yaitu 30 siswa kelas VA SDN Binongjati sebagai kelompok eksperimen, dan 30 siswa kelas VA SDN Babakanjati sebagai kelompok kontrol. Instrumen yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah tes kemampuan berpikir kritis matematis. Hasil analisis data kuantitatif terhadap uji gain ternormalisasi menunjukkan adanya peningkatan kemampuan berpikir kritis matematis siswa pada kelompok eksperimen sebesar 0,48 dengan kriteria sedang, dan pada kelompok kontrol sebesar 0,19 dengan kriteria rendah. Hal tersebut diperkuat dengan kesimpulan yang diperoleh berdasarkan uji hipotesis yaitu: 1) Terdapat peningkatan kemampuan berpikir kritis matematis siswa yang memperoleh pembelajaran berbasis masalah; 2)Terdapat perbedaan peningkatan kemampuan berpikir kritis matematis antara siswa yang memperoleh model pembelajaran berbasis masalah dan siswa yang memperoleh pembelajaran konvensional. Dengan demikian model pembelajaran berbasis masalah dapat dijadikan sebagai alternatif dalam meningkatkan kemampuan berpikir kritis matematis siswa.
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Development Problem Based Learning to Increase Skill Thinking High Levels

Development Problem Based Learning to Increase Skill Thinking High Levels

Based on the results of research development of teaching materials theme Beau- tiful diversity in my country using the model of PBL in class IV in Elementary School Padi can be summed up as follows; 1) teaching materials theme Beautiful Diversity in my country using PBL model developed based on requirement analysis, media expert’s judgment, material expert and student response ex- pressed feasible to be used as instructional material in learning process fourth grader of SD Kaliug Padi District Kalianda in even semester of lesson year 2017/2018; 2), the item should be able to measure the practicality of teaching materials according to the learning objectives. This principle should refer to the learning objectives that exist in each learning activity. Taxonomy of educational goals by Bloom in the high-level thinking cognitive domain, C4 (Analyze), C5 (Evaluate), and C6 (Creating). Before using the teaching materials, student learning outcomes in Elementary School Padi still low. The average student who passed the KKM was just under 10; and 3) teaching materials theme Beautiful Diversity in my country using the model of PBL produced effectively is used in the learning process to improve high thinking skills level of students in fourth grade elementary school Padaka Padi District. It is used with the increase of fourth grade students’ learning result of SD Padi Padi, especially on the theme of Beautiful Diversity in my country, sub theme 7.
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The effect of Problem and Learning Motivation Based Learning Model on Student s Critical Thinking Skills in SD Negeri Sidomulyo

The effect of Problem and Learning Motivation Based Learning Model on Student s Critical Thinking Skills in SD Negeri Sidomulyo

Abstract: This study is aimed to determine: (1) whether the critical thinking skills of students taught with problem-based learning models are higher than the critical thinking skills of students taught with Direct Instruction learning models, (2) whether the critical thinking skills of students who have higher learning motivation are more higher than the critical thinking skills of students who have low learning motivation; and (3) the interaction between learning models and learning motivation on student's critical thinking skill. The population in this study were all fifth grade students of SD Negeri 104217 Sidomulyo, consisting of 2 classes with totaling 62 people. The research method used were Quasi Experiment with 2x2 factorial research design and a significance level of 0.05. The instruments used were motivation questionnaire and critical thinking skills test. Data analysis used were analysis of variance and the Tuckey test. The results showed that: (1) student's critical thinking skills taught with problem-based learning models was higher than the critical thinking skills taught with direct instruction learning models in fifth grade of SD Negeri 104217 Sidomulyo. (2) Student's critical thinking skills who have high motivation was higher than student's critical thinking skills who have low learning motivation fifth grade of SD Negeri 104217 Sidomulyo. (3) There was an interaction between the problem and learning motivation based learning model on the critical thinking skills of students in fifth grade of SD Negeri 104217 Sidomulyo. The strongest interaction that affects critical thinking skills is the highly motivated PBM model, while the weakest interaction is the low motivated direct instruction model.
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Effectiveness of the Guided Inquiry Model Integrated with STEM to Improve the Student Critical Thinking Skills in Chemistry Learning

Effectiveness of the Guided Inquiry Model Integrated with STEM to Improve the Student Critical Thinking Skills in Chemistry Learning

effectiveness of the guided inquiry model integrated with STEM to enhance the student critical thinking skills. This reseach is begun with development of chemistry learning device for thermochemistry topic using the 4-D model. The subject of reseach are the fifty seven students of XI grade divided in two classes (MIA- 1 and MIA-2) at Muhamadiyah 10 Senior High School, Surabaya, Indonesia. The results of study showed that validity of the learning device developed were very valid category. The guided inquiry model integrated with STEM was effective to increase the student critical thinking skills with gain score of medium category for the MIA-1 class and high category for MIA-2 class, respectively. There was significant difference between pretest score and post test score for two classes based on t-test analysis. The critical thinking skills of students changed from very less critical category to critical category, in both classes studied.
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The effect of Problem and Learning Motivation Based Learning Model on Student’s Critical Thinking Skills in SD Negeri 104217 Sidomulyo

The effect of Problem and Learning Motivation Based Learning Model on Student’s Critical Thinking Skills in SD Negeri 104217 Sidomulyo

This research method used was quantitative approach with quasi experimental type with 2x2 factorial research design. This research was conducted at SD Negeri 104217 Sidomulyo, Biru-Biru Subdistrict, Deli Serdang District, North Sumatra Province. The population in this study were all fifth grade students of SD Negeri 104217 Sidomulyo, consisting of 2 classes totaling 62 students, including fifth grade of a class consisting of 32 students and fifth grade of b class consisting of 30 students. The sample in this study was from the fifth grade of a class and fifth grade of b class, then the determination for the problem based learning model class and the Direct Instruction class was made by lottery. In Class fifth grade of a class as many as 32 students, and in fifth grade of b class as many as 30 students. Data collection techniques used in this study were student motivation questionnaires and tests of critical thinking skills. The data analysis technique used in this study was inferential statistical techniques. Hypothesis testing is done by two way ANOVA test with a significant level of 0.05. Before the two-way ANOVA test is performed, first the analysis requirements test is carried out that is the normality test and the data homogeneity test. The normality test was carried out by the Kolmogorov- Smirnov test while the homogeneity test of the data was carried out by the Levene test with a significance level of 0.05.
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Problem-Based Learning Model with Experimental Task Method Triggers Critical Thinking Skills

Problem-Based Learning Model with Experimental Task Method Triggers Critical Thinking Skills

The aim of this study is to determine the effect of Problem-Based Learning models with experimental task methods to trigger the critical thinking skills. The ability to think critically is the main needed ability for graduates in the 21st century. This type of research is a quasi-experiment using pre-test and post-test. The population used is the XII grade students of SMA in the 2018/2019 academic year. The research sample used was selected through purposive random sampling. The analysis used is Covariance Analysis. The results showed that the average difference in the value of critical thinking skills of the experimental class students was higher than the control class, which was 31 for the experimental class and 24 for the control class, with significance results (Sig = 0,000). This is because PBL is a learning model that uses contextual problems so that students actively build knowledge and can accommodate the development of critical thinking skills. In conclusion, the Problem-Based Learning model with the experimental task method triggers an increase in students' critical thinking skills compared to conventional learning models as evidenced by the ANACOVA results of significance 0,000 <0.05.
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Improving Critical Thinking Skills and Learning Independence Using Problem Based Learning Based On Science Literation

Improving Critical Thinking Skills and Learning Independence Using Problem Based Learning Based On Science Literation

Based on the results of discussions conducted together with class teachers, researchers collaborate to improve critical thinking skills and learning independence using the Problem Based Learning (PBL) model. Walfajri, and Harjono (2019) argue that the application of PBL models can improve critical thinking skills and learning outcomes. Badarudin (2018) PBL as one of the learning models characterized by the use of real life problems as something students must learn. Susilowati (2018) believes that the use of the PBL model can foster student learning independence. Pebriana and Disman (2017) argue that students with learning using the PBL model can increase critical thinking skills compared to students who learn to use conventional models. Handayani (2018) integrative thematic learning module with PBL models developed effectively to improve student learning outcomes and independent learning. The existence of these improvements and differences, the researchers are interested in using PBL in hopes of being able to improve critical thinking skills and student learning independence. The innovation in this research is the existence of scientific literacy as an introduction to present a problem related to student life in learning.
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The Implementation of Problem Based Learning Model to Improve Student s Motivation and Critical Thinking

The Implementation of Problem Based Learning Model to Improve Student s Motivation and Critical Thinking

Problem-Based Learning (PBL) model to find out the improvement of student’s motivation and critical thinking skills. It is a classroom action research conducted in two cycles, cycle I consist of 4 meetings, and cycles II consists of 3 meetings, with the topics of Temperature, Expansion, and Heat. The subjects of the research were 34 students on grade VII in one of the junior high schools in Malang. Instruments used to measure the implementation of learning PBL model using the form of implementation sheet following the lesson plan, tools to measure motivation using a poll and to measure the critical thinking skill, and researchers use essay questions. The implementation of the PBL model in the cycle, I was 72.9% and was classified as a good qualification; while in cycle II, it was 91.2% and was classified as a very good qualification. The analysis of student’s learning motivation in pre-cycle was 56%, was classified as a quite good qualification, cycle I was 67.2%. I was classified as a quite good qualification, while in Cycle II, it was 87.2% and was classified as good qualification. The analysis of student’s average critical thinking skills in pre-cycle was 44.12% and was classified lack of good qualification, cycle I was 76.4% and was classified as a quite good qualification; while in cycle II it was 88.4% and was classified as good qualification. The results showed that the PBL model successfully improved motivation and critical thinking skills of students beginning the pre- cycle, cycle I, and cycle II.
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A Holistic and Multifaceted Model for Ill-Structured Experiential Problem-Based Learning: Enhancing Student Critical Thinking and Communication Skills

A Holistic and Multifaceted Model for Ill-Structured Experiential Problem-Based Learning: Enhancing Student Critical Thinking and Communication Skills

In this article, the EPBL model has been presented highlighting holistic components and theoretical support. To experiment with or adapt this model, several preconditions are necessary. These include training of staff in the model and technology use, creation of handbook that addresses particular disciplines and educational areas directly, applications to real-world scenarios, and orientation of students to the model and mode of learner- centered teaching and the requirements, as instructors and students commented on. The primary considerations to be aware of are possible confusion on the stages of the EPBL problem-solving guides for both staff and students (as students commented on) and built- in periodic refresher training and/or troubleshooting with a staff member or faculty member who has worked with the model. Further, monitoring of the model success should take place with staff and student feedback, preferably before the end of the course so that corrections can be made.
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Designing Student Worksheets To Improve Critical Thinking Ability Based On Problem Based Learning

Designing Student Worksheets To Improve Critical Thinking Ability Based On Problem Based Learning

The type of research conducted is development research. The product to be developed in this study is to improve the critical thinking skills of seventh grade students, namely to design student worksheets based on Problem Based Learning (PBL). This research model uses the ADDIE development model which includes five stages, namely analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation. Data analysis using Miles and Huberman consisting of data reduction, appearance, and conclusions. The research subjects included VII grade students of Muhammadiyah 1 Berbah MTs and Depok 1 Public Middle School. The objects in this study are student characteristics, evaluation of teaching materials and curriculum. The instrument for collecting data uses observation guides, interview guides, and questionnaires. Guidelines for observation are conducted to find out the learning process with the curriculum and characteristics of students. The interview guide is used to retrieve data about evaluating teaching material sources. The stages of development in this study can be seen in Figure 1. This research has been carried out until the design stage.
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The effect of problem based learning model on critical thinking skills in the context of chemical reaction rate

The effect of problem based learning model on critical thinking skills in the context of chemical reaction rate

The previous research result showed that the learning model based on the investigation could increase the students’ critical thinking skills. The aim of this research was to measure the effectiveness of the using of problem-based learning model to increase the students’ critical thinking skills. The research design was quasi-experiment by using post-test only design. The population of this research was the eleventh grade students of science which contained 124 students of SMAN 6 and SMAN 7 Kupang that were chosen randomly. The treatment that was given in this research was problem-based learning model for the experiment class and conventional model for the control class whereas the given materials were the reaction rate. The learning process in the experimental class begins with the provision of contextual problems aimed at increasing students' interest and motivation in finding and designing solutions to solve problems individually or in groups. The instrument that was used in this research previously validated by two experts of theory and material. The result of this research showed that the students who studied in experiment class had different critical thinking skills better that the students who studied using conventional model.
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Improving Skills of Critical Thinking of Students Through Edmodo-Helped Problem Based Learning Model for Fifth Grade Students of Elementary School

Improving Skills of Critical Thinking of Students Through Edmodo-Helped Problem Based Learning Model for Fifth Grade Students of Elementary School

Quoted from the results of interviews conducted by researchers at one of the VA class teachers at Lowokwaru Elementary School 2 Malang on August 24, 2018, Farid Pribadi stated that Lowokwaru 2 Elementary School Malang was one of the schools in Malang City based on Adiwiyata, so that it had potential support, one of which is in the development of learning media. All classes are equipped with LCDs and projectors that can be used to support IT-based learning. In addition, teachers and students are also familiar with technology and there are also computer laboratories and intranet network facilities that can be used in learning. However, the use of computer labs is still not optimal, this is because these laboratories are often used for ICT learning and their use in daily thematic learning is very rare. Things that can support other learning are gadgets owned by teachers that can actually be used as support in creative and innovative media design for learning, however, in reality the teachers have not been able to utilize some of the gadgets they have. Teachers often access through standard applications, for example Microsoft Word or Microsoft Power Point which are used to present material and practice questions to students in learning. This results in students still having difficulty in concretizing abstract concepts. Another problem that was found was that students in V-A class in answering questions from the teacher were still fixated in text or books, so when the teacher gave the Out of the Box questions the students still looked confused. If observed, the statement of one of the teachers interviewed was that the facilities and infrastructure contained in the school were adequate, but in application and utilization still needed innovation or development. Therefore in this study we will try to develop edmodo-based e-learning in problem-based learning to improve critical thinking skills of fifth grade students.
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Implementation of Problem Based Learning Model Based on Monera Kingdom to Increase the Learning Outcomes and Critical Thinking Skills

Implementation of Problem Based Learning Model Based on Monera Kingdom to Increase the Learning Outcomes and Critical Thinking Skills

Abstract: Permendikbud No. 65 of the standard curriculum in the learning process 2013 highly recommended approach is to use learning approaches that produce work. Based on these models are suitable is Problem Based Learning models. Problem Based Learning models is designed to help students develop thinking skills, problem-solving skills, and intellectual skills. This research aims to improve learning outcomes and critical thinking skills studentsSMA 5 Banjaramasin to the application of Problem Based Learning models. This research is a classroom action research conducted in two cycles, each cycle of 2 meetings. The subjects were students of class X MIA 4 SMA Negeri 5 Banjarmasin. Cognitive learning outcomes of students has increased of the first cycle of 36.2% and cyc le II of 90.7%, from the data obtained indicate achievement of classical completeness is set at ≥ 85%. Results of the assessment process is fair in every cycle. LKS assessment results classified as good in every cycle, the first cycle of 76.57% and 88.69% second cycle. Assessment of products / works has increased from 73.19% the first cycle and 83.59% second cycle. Affective student assessment results quite well on the assessment of character behavior and social skills in every cycle. Assessment of critical thinking skills of students has increased from 73.55% the first cycle and cycle II 82.11%, from the data obtained shows that the achievement of success indicators research students' critical thinking skills quite well. Students' response to the application of Problem Based Learning models showed high positive answer is 55.41% of students agreed. Under these conditions, the application of the model Pembelajaran Berdasarkan Problems can improve learning outcomes and the critical thinking skills of students on the Monera Kingdom Concept.
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Problem-Based Learning Application to Increase Critical Thinking Ability and Learning Result of Economic Student Learning

Problem-Based Learning Application to Increase Critical Thinking Ability and Learning Result of Economic Student Learning

This research aims to know the implementation of the Problem Based Learning model in critical thinking skill and student learning outcome to the Economy subject in the X IIS 3 class SMA Negeri 1 Garum. The research design used was classroom action research. This research was conducted in 2 cycles. Based on research results it was known that there was an improvement of student activity in the X IIS 3. It was showed the percentage of student critical thinking skills results in cycle I for 61,3% and in cycle II is improved for 77%. The improvement of student learning outcome could be seen from the completeness of student learning outcome in the cognitive domain with the post-test average score of students that improved from cycle I for 78,64% improved to be 91,61% in the cycle II. Therefore, it could be concluded that the implementation of Problem Based Learning could critical thinking skills and student learning outcomes in the X IIS 3 SMA Negeri 1 Garum. Suggestion for teacher of Economy The subject was this model could be made as an alternative to improve critical thinking skills and student learning outcomes. How to Cite
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Design Of Probability Module Based On PBL Learning Model To Improve Critical Thinking Skills

Design Of Probability Module Based On PBL Learning Model To Improve Critical Thinking Skills

1 I NTRODUCTION He development of the industrial world is growing rapidly in line with the demands of the world of education, especially in Indonesia to improve the results of professional graduates and prepare superior human resources to products [1]. Mathematics is a subject that must be mastered from an early age because it is a tool or a means of learning other fields of science [2]. With the development of 21st-century education, students are expected to be able to prepare the ability to master a variety of skills, especially creative thinking skills [3]. Critical thinking skills are skills needed in the 21st-century [4]. Critical thinking is one of the skills associated with thinking, evaluating our own and other people's ideas without guessing [5]. The ability to think critically is a form of reason where an individual can increase his thinking potential through a process of analysis and evaluation of problems [6]. Critical thinking requires encouragement from learning that requires students to achieve these abilities [7]. Mathematics has a very important contribution in achieving abilities such as the ability to connect, communication skills, problem-solving, the ability to represent (representation) reasoning and proof of ability [2]. Critical thinking skills are expected to be a part of student learning, and schools will be responsible for developing and refining critical thinking skills into the learning process [8]. Mathematics learning is a subject that can develop critical
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The Effectiveness of Applying a Problem-Based Learning Model in Mathematical Learning in Improving Students Critical Thinking

The Effectiveness of Applying a Problem-Based Learning Model in Mathematical Learning in Improving Students Critical Thinking

Based on the experience of researcher teaching Mathematics in PGSD majors (approximately 12 years), it can be concluded that 90% of students experienced difficulties in learning mathematics. Of the total PGSD students, only 10% of students liked mathematics (source: archive PGSD study program). 60% of students forgot concepts that should have been mastered in elementary or high school. 65% of students were in panick when given a rather complex problem or mathematical problem. Likewise, if given a question that is different from the sample questions given, 65% of students also could not complete it. Based on the results of interviews with students, it was found that students had math difficulties because students could not understand the problem and forgot the ways and the formulas used to resolve the matter. Students only focused on the difficulty of the questions given not on their ability to solve the problems presented. This is an evidence that students' critical thinking skills are low (Amrina, 2013). In addition, the learning model used, so far, tends to be lecture methods-oriented. Indeed, students were able to learn on their own way. Although the lecturer only provides a little explanation on the teaching material, they should be able to expose material by themselves. But this was not found on students of the PGSD Study Program, FKIP of Bung Hatta University. The lack of critical thinking skill of students adversely affects the student's learning outcomes. In the last three years, the average of student learning outcomes in mathematics learning courses was that only 60% of students’ grade was fair, not more.
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THE USE OF PROBLEM-BASED LEARNING TO ENHANCE CRITICAL THINKING SKILLS IN BACCALAUREATE NURSING STUDENTS A RESEARCH PAPER

THE USE OF PROBLEM-BASED LEARNING TO ENHANCE CRITICAL THINKING SKILLS IN BACCALAUREATE NURSING STUDENTS A RESEARCH PAPER

definition of critical thinking has been used extensively to establish teaching measures and to assess critical thinking ability (Facione & Facione, 2008, p. 1). Problem-based learning (PBL) was developed and initially utilized in medical education at McMasters University in Ontario, Canada in the late 1960‟s. PBL presents students with a problem or situation to apply previous knowledge and acquire new knowledge. It has been recognized as an instructional method to increase motivation for learning (Sherwood, 2004). Savery (2006) suggested this learner-centered approach “empowers learners to conduct research, integrate theory into practice, and apply knowledge and skills to develop a viable solution to a defined problem” (p. 12). While the instructional method of PBL was originally used in medical education, it has been considered a relevant and appropriate teaching method for other health professions as well (Barrows & Tamblyn, 1980). Research examining the use of PBL to enhance critical thinking in nursing students is limited.
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Improving Critical Thinking Skills Using Learning Model Logan Avenue Problem Solving (LAPS)-Heuristic

Improving Critical Thinking Skills Using Learning Model Logan Avenue Problem Solving (LAPS)-Heuristic

Inquiry learning model is another name for heuristic models (Hosnan, 2014: 341). Discussion and presentation activity in order to solve problem and find solution in the experimental class will pose a question and answer activity. Question and answer activity will encourage students to think focus and think critically in obtaining information. So the indicators focus on the question and analyze the reasons for the experimental class is higher with a critical criterion. However, it cannot be denied that the indicators ask and answer questions that require reason the control class is above the experimental class. This is because the conventional learning remains question and answer activities between teachers and students. In addition, the results of interviews with subject teachers of Economics and Business, and one of his teachers majoring in Office Administration, the students in control class does have uniform level of intelligence and generally are superior than the experimental class. In addition to asking important questions and issues, critical thinkers also formulated clearly, gather and assess relevant information, using abstract ideas, open-minded, and communicate effectively with others (Duron, 2006). Ennis (2011) said that the ideal critical thinkers who have the ability to clarify, to seek and assess bases, to conclude wisely, to imagine and integrate, and to do things with dispatch, sensitivity, and rhetorical skills. In the application of experiment class that formed in a group to discuss related to problem solving will also encourage students to conclude in order to find the best solution. Taking conclusion activity is used to more focus on the source of the problem, the alternative problems, until the determination of the solution based on the strengths and weaknesses of the options. In LAPS-Heuristic learning model, concluding skills is emphasized. So that students in the experimental class have the ability to think inference critically high.
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Effectiveness of Problem Based Learning Model with Worksheet Assisted on Students' Critical Thinking Ability

Effectiveness of Problem Based Learning Model with Worksheet Assisted on Students' Critical Thinking Ability

The basic critical thinking skills of critical thinking include: (a) analytical thinking skills (b) synthesis thinking skills (c) problem solving skills (d) inferring skills (e) evaluation or valuing skills (Hendra, 2013). One learning model that can build critical thinking skills is a problem based learning model. The learning model can be interpreted as a concept that explains the learning process, both explaining thought patterns and patterns of action (Abidin, 2014). In addition, the learning model can be interpreted as a pattern used for curriculum preparation, organizing material, and giving instructions to teachers in the classroom (Suprijono, 2012). So it can be concluded that the learning model is a pattern or plan used as a guide in planning learning activities so that learning objectives can be achieved. While problem based learning is a learning model that requires students to work on authentic problems to compile their own knowledge, develop inquiry, and ability to think higher, develop independence, self-confidence, and students use their skills such as working together to solve problems (Trianto, 2010). In addition, the problem based learning model is a type of classroom management that is needed to support the constructivism approach in teaching and learning (Hariyanto, 2012).
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Problem-Based Learning On Students Critical Thinking Skills In Teaching Business Education In Malaysia: A Literature Review

Problem-Based Learning On Students Critical Thinking Skills In Teaching Business Education In Malaysia: A Literature Review

Keywords: problem-based learning, critical thinking skills, business education, teaching approach, tertiary education INTRODUCTION raditional education, including tertiary business education, has been criticized in its achievements to help students develop habits of thinking, research skills, and problem solving abilities that will be vital in order to succeed (Dewey, 1944; Delisle, 1997; Lemke, 2001) and developing intelligences (Tan, 2007) in the ever-changing world of the 21 st century. Traditional learning is teacher-centred (Spence, 2004); the teacher provides the student with the correct answer for various circumstances, and student are taught how to use this information as the teachers assign problem applicable for these answers. This type of instruction in higher education for the professions have been criticized for lack of attention to particular issues such as the relevance of subjects, little emphasis on encouraging teamwork, not fully developing skills of enquiry in students, and also for inadequate portrayal of the context of major issues and problem (Boud & Feletti, 1991: 15). One of the goals of the PBL was to increase students‟ active learning and decrease their experience of the sort of passive learning that occurs in lecture (Armstrong, 1991). To improve on this, academics seek to reduce the time spent delivering formal lectures while increasing the time students spend on learning tasks and developing critical thinking skills. This literature review will be focused on Problem-Based Learning (PBL) methodology and critical thinking skills, because critical thinking is a basic to learning process (Phillips, 1997) and it also involves a problem solving process (Clarke, 1990). This method to improve students‟ critical thinking skills gained attention from teaching and learning
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