Culture is by and large invisible to individuals. Even though it affects all employee behaviors, thinking, and behavioral patterns, individuals tend to become more aware of their organization’s culture when they have the opportunity to compare it to other organizations. If you have worked in multiple organizations, you can attest to this. Maybe the first organization you worked was a place where employees dressed formally. It was completely inappropriate to question your boss in a meeting; such behaviors would only be acceptable in private. It was important to check your e-mail at night as well as during weekends or else you would face questions on Monday about where you were and whether you were sick. Contrast this company to a second organization where employees dress more casually. You are encouraged to raise issues and question your boss or peers, even in front of clients. What is more important is not to maintain impressions but to arrive at the best solution to any problem. It is widely known that family life is very important, so it is acceptable to leave work a bit early to go to a family event. Additionally, you are not expected to do work at night or over the weekends unless there is a deadline. These two hypothetical organizations illustrate that organizations have different cultures, and culture dictates what is right and what is acceptable behavior as well as what is wrong and unacceptable.
members rather than as guides for instructors (Dufrene & Lehman, 2002; Smith 2000; Strbiak & Paul, 1998). This paper presents a brief instructor’s guide to managing team assignments when little class time can be devoted to providing explicit instruction in team- work skills. Section II describes a simple but effective approach to team formation and offers suggestions re- garding optimal team size, criteria to use when form- ing teams, and procedures for dissolving and reform- ing teams. Section III deals with ways to help student groups learn to function effectively in teams, including setting guidelines for team functioning, having the stu- dents establish common expectations of one another, and presenting strategies for avoiding problems with team functioning and dealing with problems that oc- cur. Section IV describes a peer rating system for teams and a procedure for using the ratings to adjust group grades for individual performance. Section V offers answers to several frequently asked questions about team formation and management, and Section VI sum- marizes the main ideas of the paper. Forms and hand- outs to assist in implementing the team formation and management procedures described in the paper are re-
Teams performing cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) have to act quickly and engage in effective teamwork to increase survival chances of the patient. Not only technical skills identified by protocol are relevant in CPR, but teamwork skills are required as well. Part of these teamwork skills is interaction. So far, not a lot of research has ben done about what types of interaction leads to higher team performance in CPR. Earlier research in other domains showed that more cohesive teams perform better and certain types of interaction lead to higher team performance, this study tried to establish whether this also accounts for CPR teams. From literature, planning, decision-making, and information sharing were identified as problem-solving strategies in interaction. It was hypothesized that more cohesive teams would perform better than less cohesive teams, and that this relation would be mediated using problem-solving strategies. In this observational study, video data of 17 student teams performing CPR in a simulated setting was coded. Also, team members filled in a scale on team cohesion and team performance was assessed by two expert raters. There was little variance on team cohesion, which was high for all teams. It was therefore not surprising that team cohesion did not predict team performance or the use of problem-solving strategies. Lag sequential analysis showed little differences in problem-solving strategies between high and low performing teams. Furthermore, mediation analysis showed no mediating effect for all problem-solving strategies in the team cohesion – team performance relation. Findings from this study indicate that much is still unclear regarding effective interaction in high performing CPR teams and the role of team cohesion. Perhaps the time that students spend on practicing during the course, could be a contributing factor.
Over the past 3 years we have been introducing hardware-based activities into a third level engineering problemsolving course which caters for teams of on-campus and external students. During this time we have been asserting that hardware-based problemsolving activities for external and on-campus student teams should be promoted within engineering programs because: (1) the synthesis of experimental observations and theoretical analyses is an important skill for professional engineers; (2) courses with a laboratory component can positively affect the learning outcomes of engineering students; and (3) there has been a trend towards reducing or partitioning of laboratory components in some engineering programs.
occurred in mono-disciplinary research and development environments, today typical problem-solvingteams include engineers from various backgrounds . Teams working together in Global Design projects are a blueprint of diversity in terms of problemsolving, the core feature of industrial design. While projects involving more than one discipline become more and more frequent, these are at the same time limited in a number of ways, regarding factors such as time, budget, complexity avoidance or lack of integration . This leaves room to scrutinise ongoing educational projects regarding the environment in which work in multidisciplinary teams can develop while at the same time comparing project setup, characteristics of multi- and interdisciplinary work and the designed artefacts.
The mean RAS and PSI scores in terms of the demographic characteristics of the midwives are given in Table 3. The mean assertiveness scores received bythe midwives revealed that of the midwives, those who were single, had no children, and had a master degree were found to have higher assertiveness mean scores (P < 0.05). When the mean scores midwives obtained from the problemsolving skills subscale were analyzed, those who were in the 20‑29 age group, were single, had a nuclear family, had no children, and/or had a graduate or master degree were found to have lower scores (P < 0.05), which indicates that midwives with lower scores had better problemsolving skills [Table 3]. The mean scores of RAS and PSI according to occupational characteristics of midwives are given in Table 4. The RAS mean scores showed statistically significant differences in terms of marital status, having children, income, education, career choice, supporting educational and scientific activities of the institution where she works, length of employment, weekly working hours, accepting herself as a member in the health team, expressing themselves within the health care team, saying “no” when necessary, cooperating with her colleagues and taking part in problem‑solving skills. PSI mean scores showed statistically significant differences in terms of age groups, marital status, having children, education, career choice, supporting educational and scientific activities of the institution where she works, length of employment, the number of appointments to new positions, weekly working hours, considering herself
Another issue that is worth considering is the question of when students should engage in word problems. Word problems are usually treated as application problems since they are given after certain mathematical concepts are introduced, with the aim of using the concepts in solving the problems. On the other hand, word problems may be taught in context, i.e. they may be used to teach a mathematical idea or process. According to Laughbaum (1999) “[t]eaching in context also uses problems or situations, but they are used at the beginning of a math topic for the purpose of helping students understand the mathematics to be taught, or to create a motivating experience of the mathematics to follow” (p.1). Certain groups looked into the effects of application problems to the development of the skills of the learners. One such group called the Cognition and Technology Group of Vanderbilt (CTGV) identified the shortcomings of the application problems and came up with efficient ways of teaching word problems in context. The CTGV has these to say about application problems:
This is a highly polymorphic region of the genome, conferring susceptibility to a range of diseases. HLA-DR3 is the most useful marker. Among patients with Graves’ disease 40–50% are HLA-DR3 positive, compared with 15–30% of the general population. Recent studies have identified associations with other HLA alleles, most notably DQA1*0501. HLA is probably important in all ethnic groups, but the precise associations in non-Caucasians differ from the above. Cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4), located at chromosome 2q33, is a costimulatory molecule involved in interaction between T lymphocytes and antigen-presenting cells. At least four polymorphisms have been identified and confer susceptibility to autoimmune endocrine disease. 6 Together,
results are varied (Avouris, Dimitracopoulou, & Komis, 2003; F. Kirschner, Paas, & Kirschner, 2011; Retnowati & Aqiila, 2017; Retnowati, Ayres, & Sweller, 2010, 2016). Kirschner, Paas, and Kirschner (2011) compared instruction with individual to with group on problemsolving methods (jigsaw). During the instruction phase,students were given problem-solving tasks that were either solved individually or in groups of three students (jigsaw group). In the jigsaw group, students were designed with peer guided instruction, as each group member had only one-third of all information, so the students had to exchange information to solve the problem. Forindividual instruction, each student was presented with all necessary information to solve the problem alone. The results showed that the group instruction was more effective than the individual. However, when conventional groups of three to four students was used, the contrasting result was shown (Retnowati et al., 2010), as well as when using dyads (Retnowati & Aqiila, 2017), where notably the subjects were novice students. It is assumed that the presentation of information from others during solving a challenging problem caused high extraneous cognitive load. As the theory of expertise reversal describe that the problemsolving method is efficient for students with high prior knowledge; students with low prior knowledge will experience high cognitive load resulting in low learning outcomes (Sweller et al., 2011). Consequently, teachers must ensure the level of knowledge base before applying a problemsolving method in the classroom, whether students learn alone or in small groups. It should be noted that a conventional small group consists of three to five students who meet face-to-face to solve the same problem through discussion or knowledge sharing. Such instructional strategy sounds beneficial because students could help in other during learning (Arterberry et al., 2007; Hmelo- Silver, 2004). Such comparison will be useful to generate conclusion what instruction is best applied for learning mathematics individually or in small groups when students have sufficient prior knowledge. Therefore, this study was specifically aimed to test three hypotheses: 1) When students have sufficient prior
Automating database deployment processes brings further benefit too. Continuous integration and continuous delivery for databases encourage an iterative approach to development. Smaller, more frequent database changes mean that database development teams integrate their work sooner, see test results and feedback earlier, easily identify the cause of any failures, and are therefore better able to resolve any issues. This level of automation, combined with an agile approach to development, means teams also have a greater ability to release database changes frequently and faster. Changes get into the hands of users sooner, providing value to the business earlier in the project lifecycle.
Dahiya and Verma considered a class of the capacitated transportation problems with bounds on total availabilities at sources and total destination requirements . They obtained an equivalent balanced capacitated transportation problem for this class of problems. There are several methods for constructing initial basic feasible solutions for transportation problem, i.e. allocating m n 1 basic variables which satisfy all constraint equations (e.g. [4, 5, 10, 11]). In capacitated transportation, we have some extra capacity constraints , and the mentioned methods should be modified in order to encase these constraints. We present a modification of three well known methods. In these modified methods, size of the problem does not change, unlike  which added a row and a column to the transportation tableau.
A prudent expenditure of time includes monitoring the process of solving. Effective problem solvers do not set out on a path to a solution and then wait until they have reached the end of the path to check where they are (Schoenfeld, 1981). Rather, they check up on themselves all along the way, to make sure that they are getting closer to their goal. If the are not, they reassess what they are doing, perhaps concluding that they made a false start, that they got off track somewhere along the way, or even that they see a more promising path if they take a new direction.
diagram to scale using a relationship such as 1 cm " 1 km, and you will see a space remaining between where the Matons began their trip and where they ended. Because you are solving this exercise graphically, measure with a ruler the length of the remaining space and convert your measurement back into km. This is the resultant displacement. (Hint: You may find it easier to use graph paper for your drawing so that you can have 1 km equal to a certain number of squares.)
reliable testing of differences in performance between conditions. Experiment 4 did feature a problem - the Engineering Problem - which proved less than adequate. This issue was considered in Chapter 4, Section 4.2.4. Discussion. The Sad that the Engineering Problem was less than adequate does highlight a problem particular to research concerning analogical problemsolving, namely the difficulty of inventing novel materials. The Radiation Problem, which features in so much research on analogical problemsolving is dependable: it has matching source analogue without which it is extremely difficult to solve. However, findings derived from research using it need to be supplemented with equivalent research using different but comparable problems; that is, ill-defined problems with multiple possible solutions. This demand requires that such problems be devised, but this is no easy task: there's no guarantee that such problems can be devised on demand. Put singly, such problems are difficult to think up. This accounts for the fact that Duncker’s Radiation Problem has proved so popular for so lœig. While this is an apparent^ trivial point it has broader implications. Any findings associated with the Radiation Problem may be a function of the properties of the problem itself. To determine whether any findings generalise requires the rephcation of e?q)eriments involving Duncker's Radiation Problem using alternative problems.
LANGUAGE LEARNING AS PROBLEM SOLVING LANGUAGE LEARNING AS PROBLEM SOLVING Modelling logical aspects of Inductive learning to generate sentences in French by ma n and machine M i c h a e l Z O C K Gil[.]
during the Usability Benchmarking Sessions, we were able to not only gather baseline measurements, but also to see specific problem areas within the scenario workflows. For example, while testing three scenarios for completing a Superbill, we immediately noticed several areas of concern. one area of concern was that the time to complete a Superbill doubled when a physician had to add an additional procedure to the bill. this gave us not only a basis on which to improve task times, error rates, and satisfaction, but a specific area on which to focus our initial improvement efforts.