This intellectual activity is governed by three motives : (1) thirst for knowledge, (2) love of truth and beauty, (3) desire to interpret and control environment. Of course, the cultivation of these may require certain discrimi- nating abilities and maturity of thought which usually result from the application of more elementary means of motivation. As the student progresses in **learning**, these motives can become increasingly effective in controlling his activity. To make them controlling factors in the **learning** process should be one of the principal aims in teaching.

Show more
10 Read more

Many studies that have investigated use of contexts in **mathematics** teaching and **learning**, for example, Boaler (1993) and Nalube (2007), argue that use of learners’ everyday contexts enhances their understanding and appreciation of **mathematics**. Furthermore many national curricula have relevance as one of their goals of education, for example Malawi’s education goals have relevance as one of the four pillars (others are access, equity and quality) the nation aims to achieve through its education (Government of Malawi, 2008). Use of contexts derived from learners’ real world is one way of achieving this relevance. Decisions about the kind of contexts to use are often made by developers of curriculum materials such as test developers, authors of textbooks and teachers. Very little is known about the contexts that learners would prefer to learn about in **mathematics**. This lack of literature on what **students** would find interesting as contexts in **learning** **mathematics** motivated a multinational study on relevance of school **mathematics** education (ROSME) project (Julie & Holtman, 2008). The ROSME studies have provided information on what **students** in different parts of the world would prefer as contexts; for example in Swaziland (Ngcobo & Julie, 2012), in Zimbabwe (Ndemo & Mtetwa, 2010), in Albania (Kacerja, Julie & Hadjerrouit, 2010; Kacerja, 2011), in South Africa (Julie & Mbekwa, 2005; Julie, 2012) and in South Korea (Kim, 2012). For most of these studies, reasons for the preferences of **students** for particular contexts have been explained in terms of the contemporary issues prevailing in the **students**’ society and through the authors’ insights of the society. Ngcobo and Julie (2012) and Kacerja (2011) explored **students**’ reasons for their preferences, and point to the limited research in this area. The study reported in this paper explored the reasons **students** in Malawi have for their most preferred school **mathematics** contexts, thus the study contributes to filling the gap of limited research in this field.

Show more
Reading Comprehension is a crucial component of second language acquisition. As a core part of language **learning** it is, obviously, not an effortless process. **Students** often complain of not understanding a text, therefore they fail in answering to the comprehensive questions. Unfortunately, this is a reality evidenced and proven from unsatisfactory results of **students** in English Language Matura Exam in Albanian high schools (as these **students** have been the objective of this study). In this context it is very important to reveal why do **students** have difficulties in comprehending a text. At first, it is necessary to detect the **problems** that generally appear along this process. In this context, focus should be given to questionnaires as their results are good detectors of **problems** **encountered** by **students**. This would direct us to a proper strategy for problem solving and improving the situation. The survey in question was submitted to **students** from three different high schools in Albania, using questionnaires, sample texts, observations, focus groups etc. Second, theories related to these **problems** and strategies that could be of help should be provided. Basically, theories and approaches of Reading Comprehension are: 'bottom-up', 'top- down` and ‘the meta cognitive view’. Third, but not less important, focus should be given to questionnaires as their results are good detectors of **problems** **encountered** by **students**. This would direct us to a proper strategy for problem solving and improving the situation. The survey in question was submitted to **students** from three different high schools in Albania, using questionnaires, sample texts, observations, focus groups etc.

Show more
This study aims at investigating **problems** **encountered** by Sudanese university **students** when translating English legal texts. The researcher adopted a descriptive analytical method to collect the data of the study. The tools used for collecting data is a questionnaire for 50 university **students** and teachers of English language, Faculty of Arts at Al Neelain University, International University of Africa, Khartoum University, Sudan University of Science and Technology and Islamic Institute for Translation. To analyze the data, the researcher used the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS). The findings of the study revealed that the majority of Sudanese university **students** EFL faced **problems** in translating legal text. According to the findings of the study, the researcher has recommended the following: mother tongue interference should be taken into consideration when teaching legal text. Teachers should deliver more exercises concerning legal text. **Students** should give more attention to English legal text.

Show more
17 Read more

A survey was conducted in several secondary schools in rural area of one district in Johor to gather information regarding **students**’ perception on teaching and **learning** **mathematics** in English. The instrument used for this study was a set of questionnaire that comprised of two parts. Part one elicited information on the **students**’ background. Part two of the questionnaire comprised sixteen items regarding **students** perception on teaching and **learning** science and mathematic in English. The questionnaire was administered to 279 form one and two **students** of several secondary schools. The respondents were given 40 minutes to complete the questionnaire. The data were analyzed statistically by using SPSSPC software program. The statistical analyses used are frequency, percentage, reliability index and correlation coefficient. The reliability index (Cronbach α) of the study for all the 279 respondents was 0.70. For the qualitative analysis, written responses of the **students** were analysed by listing the **problems** **encountered** by each **students** in his explanation.

Show more
This contemporary research is an attempt to study on **Problems** **Encountered** by Women College **Students**.210 samples were taken for the assessment about the **Problems** **Encountered** by Women College **Students** from government and self-financing colleges. Problem faced by college women **students**’ scale (2017) constructed and standardized by the investigator and research guide is used in this present study. Descriptive analysis, inferential, Correlation analysis and regression were used to analyses the data. The overall result of the study revealed that they are facing moderate level of **problems**. There is significant difference among the College **students** related to personal variables only in their College type, Locality, Department, Mother qualification and No of family members plays significant role in college women student’s **problems**. The prediction model contained 4 of the fourteen predictors and was reached in four steps with 10 variables removed. The model was statistically significant, F (4,205) = 9.909,p < .001, and accounted for approximately 16% of the variance of college women **students** problem (R 2 =.162, Adjusted R 2 =.146). The Department and no of family members were relatively strong indicators of college women student’s problem, and cell phone usage and Mother’s Qualification was a moderate indicator of college women **students**’ problem.

Show more
10 Read more

From the component matrix, the loadings (extracted values of each item under 3 variables) of the eight variables on the three factors extracted. The higher the absolute value of the loading, the more the factor contributes to the variable (We have extracted three variables wherein the 8 items are divided into 3 variables according to most important items which similar responses in component 1 and simultaneously in component 2 and 3). We suppressed all loadings less than 0.5. According to rotated component matrix, it reduces the number factors on which the variables under investigation have high loadings. From the table above, we can see that Course information during PCP, Quality of instructing, Class environment, are substantially loaded on Component 1 (named as communication during course) while support and services, social interaction with other **students** and multimedia instruction are substantially loaded on Component 2 (named as technical support). All the remaining variables are substantially loaded on Component 3 (named as course curriculum).

Show more
Algebra is seen as a difficult subject for which the traditional cure when a student fails is lots of practice exercises. However, we would contend that such exercises may only serve to prolong the misinterpretation that algebra is a menagerie of disconnected rules to deal with different contexts (“collect together like terms”, “turn upside down and multiply”, “do the same thing to both sides”, “change side, change sign”, etc, etc). Tall & Thomas (1991) suggest that there are several cognitive obstacles in the early **learning** of algebra, for instance the fact that an expression is seen as a process to be carried out (2x+3 is “multiply x by 2 and add 3”) and not as an object which can be manipulated. Since the less able are often not willing to accept such an expression as meaningful (because they cannot work it out until they know the value of x and, if they know the value of x they needn’t do algebra, they could do arithmetic), they are uneasy about handling it and sink into the use of (ill-)remembered procedures. Here group L are less secure than group H in carrying out the sequence of manipulations necessary to give the correct result.

Show more
20 Read more

A quasi-experimental pre and posttest method of research with pre and posttest matched group design was used in this study. In this design, two groups are pre tested and matched in terms of certain variables and as in this study, gender and the performance in the pre-test (Calderon, 2013). One group, called the treatment group, was exposed to the use of self-assessment while the other group, called the control group, was exposed to the conventional formative assessment which is the daily quizzes. After the experimental period which covers the whole grading period, the two groups were given the same test covering the subject matter studied during the period (post test). In this study, two experiments were conducted by two different teachers. The four blocks of the grade eight **students** were handled by two teachers with two blocks each. Two experiments were made so as to verify and compares results for a more valid conclusions. In has been ensured that all other variables except the independent variable were kept constant or equal during the experimental period. The excess of the achievement of both groups between the pre and posttest will be attributed to the assessment method and the excess of the achievement of the experimental group over the achievement of the control group is attributed to the experimental factor. The matched group experimental design was employed so as to eliminate one variable which is the sectioning which was believed that may affect the result of the experiment.

Show more
11 Read more

The study also found that more than 80% of the **students** reacted positively to the attitude and commitment of both the lecturers and tutors in conducting tutorial classes and lectures or when attending to **students** who needed help outside the classroom. Although nearly 84% of respondents agreed that the lectures were conducted fast, almost 63% indicated that they could cope up with them. This shows that most **students** did not consider academic staffs as a major factor contributing to the **learning** **problems** for their poor achievements. Although 68% of respondents agreed that the test or quiz questions given during tutorial classes were difficult, they were still able to be completed. 90% agreed that the tutorial questions help them to understand the subject better. Finally, the respondents were asked to give a feedback on(a) the reasons for the difficulties in **learning** **Mathematics** and(b) the real problem faced for not achieving good results.

Show more
The way people view the world is determined wholly or partly by the structure of their native language. Following this way of reasoning, it seems obvious that in a situation when two people being users of different native languages meet, their view of the world, patterns of behavior and beliefs differ. Nowadays, in the era of globalization, more and more people move to another country to work or study and different cultures come into contact. Multiculturalism is an entrenched reality at university nowadays. Those who do not love it bear it, and those who accuse it are few. It defines the core of the moral mission of the contemporary university. **Students**, and also their tutors, seem to encounter **problems** concerning cultural clashes. Teaching and **learning** in a multicultural environment has, undoubtedly, advantages and disadvantages. As far as the negative aspect of **learning** and teaching in a multicultural environment is concerned, there are various **problems** **encountered** while two, or more different cultures come into contact. The **problems** are **encountered** not only by **students**, but by tutors and lecturers as well. As far as it concerns the **students**, and state that **students** enrolled in courses taught by professors coming from different ethnic or linguistic backgrounds experience discomfort, tension and conflict. It also applies to professors who experience such reservations towards foreigners and may encounter **problems** while marking them and trying to be honest. There are **students** who do not appreciate

Show more
many as 63 only 50% who do the exercises. A soft teacher's voice causes **students** to be unable to hear clearly what the teacher is saying. The environment also influences the success of **learning**. **Students** expressed that the **learning** atmosphere that hampered their **learning** was because they did not focus on **learning** because of the non-conducive classroom atmosphere. Some **students** talked about other issues outside the **learning** materials. Another student who asks his or her congressman is annoyed by his concentration while focusing on the material presented by the teacher in front of the class causing the material to be missed. After obtaining the problem through the identification stage, proceed with problem analysis to find out the follow-up process of the solution to be used. Based on the results of interviews with teachers, efforts made to minimize student difficulties can be in conveying difficult mathematical materials, such as trigonometry and probability theory, need to be explained slowly adjusted to the level of the student's ability. In one chapter, do not teach the material in just two meetings, but can be taught with three or four meetings, so that **students** are not overloaded to understand the material. In material probability, **students** can work on short questions only. When it comes to the story they are quite confused even though the subject is contextual, but they are still confused, in which case it is necessary to explain the word per word and what must first be done in answering the question, besides with many repetitions making the **students** understand the intent of the matter. **Students** are given instructions on how to solve **problems** by guiding them to understand the basic concepts that must be mastered. Some

Show more
In this study, the short version of Attitude towards **Mathematics** Inventory (ATMI) developed by Lim & Chapman (2013) was adapted into Bahasa Indone- sia, and used to measure **students**’ attitudes toward **mathematics**. In this inven- tory (in total 19 items) there are four sub-scales, i.e.: self-confidence in mathe- matics (5 items), perceived value of **mathematics** (5 items), **mathematics** enjoy- ment (5 items), and **mathematics** motivation (4 items). Scores of attitudes to- wards **mathematics** is the total score of the four domains in ATMI. The scores on self-confidence in **mathematics** describe **students**’ self-esteem and self-con- cept on their performance in mathematical tasks. The scores on perceived value of **mathematics** describe **students**’ beliefs on the usefulness, relevance and value of **mathematics** in the present life and the future. The scores on enjoyment of **mathematics** describe the pleasure of **students** in **learning** **mathematics** in class. The scores on motivation to do **mathematics** describe **students**’ interest on ma- thematics and willingness to continue their study on **mathematics**. ATMI is a five point Likert scale from strongly disagree, to strongly agree. The **students** were asked to answer their degree of agreement with each statement. ATMI scores obtained by adding the entire item contained in ATMI scale.

Show more
12 Read more

Abstract— Successful online collaboration demands coordination among all the group members. This can be achieved through socially shared regulation of **learning**. Most studies deal with social shared regulation focusing on collective individual regulations during collaboration and absence of one of these processes would affect mathematical problem solving during collaborative **learning**. This study contributes to the emerging research on social shared regulation in collaborative **learning** where collaborative groups are analyzed as the unit of analysis. Participants include 21 **students** who are **learning** **mathematics** at a vocational training institution in an online collaborative **learning** setting. **Students**’ discussion scripts were collected and analyzed to identify the group strategies to regulate **learning** during solving **Mathematics** problem based on a coding scheme. Preliminary findings indicated that content-monitoring, content- evaluation and task-planning were the most frequent applied regulation strategies during online collaborative **learning**. Online collaborative **learning** results in socially shared regulation in groups however co-occurrence of self-, co- and shared regulation in online collaborative **learning** varies in relation to the type of regulation strategies implemented by the group. Future study should investigate on the ways to encourage all forms of regulation to co-occur during online collaborative **learning**. Also, investigation on the quality of socially shared regulation (based on acquisition of mathematical knowledge and content of discussion) during online collaborative **learning** in relation to group **learning** performances should be carried out.

Show more
Physics can predict how nature will behave in one situation on the basis of experimental data obtained from another situation. These predictions place physics at the heart of modern technology, and, therefore, can have a tremendous impact on our lives. Rocketry and the development of space travel have their roots firmly planted in the physical laws of Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) and Isaac Newton (1642-1727). The transportation industry relies heavily on physics in the development of engines and the design of aerodynamic vehicles. Entire electronics and computer industries owe their existence to the invention of the transistor. The telecommunications industry depends extensively on electromagnetic waves, whose existence was predicted by James Clerk Maxwell (1831- 1879) in his theory of electricity and magnetism. The medical profession uses X-ray, ultrasonic, and magnetic resonance methods for obtaining images on the interior of the human body. Perhaps the most widespread impact in modern technology is that due to the laser. Fields ranging from space exploration to medicine benefit from this incredible device, which is a direct application of the principles of atomic physics (Cutnell, 2004). Because physics is so fundamental, it is a required course for **students** in a wide range of major areas. By studying physics, skills that are useful in other disciplines are acquired. These include thinking logically and analytically; solving **problems**; constructing mathematical models; using valid approximations, and making precise definitions (Giambattista, et al, 2007).

Show more
10 Read more

During last three decades researchers have studied **students**’ **problems** with the **learning** of formal algebra, especially at the beginning of the **learning** process when learners are introduced into the subject (see [16]). It is not possible to synthesize results, as those studies were conducted from various theoretical perspectives (e.g., [12], [13]), which are not based on common assumptions, such as the following groups of approaches: (i) Cognitive psychological, which includes Piagetian approaches, embodied cognition, constructivism, and/or those who do not consider any theory; (ii) Sociocultural, which includes Vygotskyan approaches, situated cognition, activity theory, communities in practice, social interactions, socio- semiotic approaches, social psychology and discourse analysis; (iii) Sociological, which includes sociology of education, hermeneutics and critical theory.

Show more
12 Read more

The last finding listed in the previous section, which means in fact a change in the ‘didactic contract’, played an important role in the GALOIS project. The successes with mathematical applets and other ICT tools lead to high expectations of **students** and teachers. For a teacher it would be nice if he or she could review after a computer aided lesson what the **students** actually did, what progress they made, which **problems** arose during **learning** and to which mathematical subjects attention must be paid in the next lessons. Also, if assignments were given outside of class, this mechanism of ‘student tracking’ would aid a teacher in determining student ability. An even more basic advantage would be the possibility of seeing whether a student has actually done his or her homework. This added bonus is often overlooked.

Show more
Individually, **mathematics** connection ability contributes significant effect toward **mathematics** **learning** achievement. Develop the **students**’ ability to connect among concept, material, **mathematics** usage for other subjects (non **mathematics**), and definitely support **students**’ **learning** achievement. Low or high **mathematics** **learning** achievement relies on their **mathematics** connection ability. That is why **students** are given the opportunities for **mathematics** exercising **mathematics** because by developing **students**’ **mathematics** connection ability may support their deeper **mathematics**’ understanding. NCTM (2000:274) affirms that **mathematics** connection ability is one of the important point in comprehending **mathematics** concepts [6]. By comprehending connection, the **mathematics** concepts which ever learnt may encourage **students** to understand new concept. The result of this research has been supported by two previous relevant researches such as research conducted by Hendriana, Slamet, & Sumarmo (2014) where their result shows that **students**’ prior **mathematics** ability affected the attainment of mathematical connection ability. Then, research conducted by Dixon (2012) which found out that higher scores were possible if **students** were given time to prepare for the test, as is usually the norm in schools. The intent, however, was to examine **students**’ ability to make connections under impromptu test conditions. 50th percentile were able to connect **mathematics** and science concepts (16% and 17% respectively) learned in the Project Lead the Way (PLTW) curriculum to the **problems** they that they believed that these concepts were present in the PLTW courses that they had taken. Their recognition of the concepts may have allowed for greater comprehension of the problem, which likely led to more accurate solutions [11]. Thus, **mathematics** **learning** achievement must be supported by their **mathematics** connection ability.

Show more
As for my research orientation, the lessons were considered as an analytical object to be analyzed by using discourse analysis-so called reliable tool as I have ever applied. Thus, the information and conclusions I have acquired was “obedient” to the method (Jardine, 2000, p.116). Therefore, my analysis of the lessons was not designed to educe the possibilities of understanding, but assumed only one possibility of its ground (Jardine, 2000, p. 116) and meanwhile was desired to render the dilemma “objectively presentable” (Jardine, 2000, p. 120) rather than to deeply recognize its “language, culture, history” and discourse way in which Chinese **mathematics** classroom teaching was “irremediably conditioned and contextualized by such phenomena” (Jardine, 2000, p. 121). The mark of good interpretative research is not in the degree to which it follows a specified methodological agenda, but in the degree to which it can show understanding of what it is that is being investigated (Smith, 1991, p. 201).

Show more