The education institution needs to transform in order to cope with the competition and globalization issue. The transformation process requires full participation and commitment from the entire members in the institution. Hence, it is important for organization to utilize their human resources in order to ensure effective operation Employees in the organization should be able to realize the organization transformation mission in order to achieve transformation process. As such, organizationalcitizenship behaviour (OCB) is crucial to be identified because the OCB would have a positive impact on the organizational performance and effectiveness. The success of OCB will be more effective when the OCB becomes the culture in an organization rather than as individual initiative. Failures to have a collective OCB may affect the organizational transformation process. The collective working environment can be enhanced through collaborative working approach. The professionallearningcommunities (PLC) are professional development approach which focuses on collaborative effort and effective strategy for school positive changes and improvement. The five dimensions of PLC will be employed in this study namely, supportive and shared leadership, collective learning, aim mission and vision, supportive condition and shared personal practice (Hord, 2004). Therefore, this study attempts to investigate the PLC influence teacher’s OCB in the school context.
Organizations expects from their employees to behave in favor of their organization beyond their work contract and voluntarily in order to reach strategic goals. In this context, OCB is seen to be an important concept contributing to the performance of an organization . Organ  defined OCB as “individual behavior that is discretionary, not directly or explicitly recognized by the formal reward system, and that in the aggregate promotes the effective functioning of the organization” (p.4). More employees displaying OCB will provide more contribution to the organizational performance . Organ  examined OCB in five dimensions: altruism, conscientiousness, courtesy, sportsmanship, and civic virtue. Altruism refers to help another person (ie, colleagues, clients, or boss) having a work related problem voluntarily; conscientiousness is going beyond to the minimum requirements of the rolebehavior (working overtime to finish the job, using resources efficiently, etc.); courtesy represents the preventive behaviors providing employees to avoid problems that will affect their works; sportsmanship refers to be tolerant against difficulties face in work environment and continuing as willing to work without complaining; civic virtue, corresponds to support the organization’s policies and participating in activities for the development of the organization .
Chen et al. (1998) conceptualized levels of OCB performance as a behavioral predictor of employee turnover and empirically examined the strength of this relationship. Our findings are inconsistent with Chen’s. We found that the highest level of OCB and organizational justice perception was in the workers who were working in this hospital for four years maximum. Sahin and Taskaya (2010) found that procedural and distributional justice levels were lower than the levels of other subdomains of justice in health professionals. They also found that organizational justice perception was significantly related to educational status, duration of work in this institution, number of night shifts per month, having managerial tasks and the number of patients seen per day. Our findings are consistent with this study. The study of Moorman (1991) showed that the workers perceiving fair practices of managers provide more OCB. According to Ortiz (2006), the consciousness of OCB depends primarily on the organizational justice perception. Konovsky and Pugh (1994) conclude that the trust toward managers strengthen the relationship between procedural justice and OCB. The interactional justice perception is an important tool to forecast the practices of citizenship behaviors (2005). Our finding suggests that organizational justice perception has a meaningful correlation with OCB and this agrees with Cropanzano’s study (2007). Williams and others (2002) determined positive and significant relationship between formal procedural justice, distributive justice and interactional justice and OCB intent of workers in various sectors including manufacturing, finance, ICT, banking in a city at the southwest of USA. In another survey, Blakely and others (2005) asserted that there is a positive relationship between organizational justice perception and OCB among full time personnel in different organizations. Chiaburu and Lim (2008) found out that there is a positive relationship between procedural justice and OCB among employees in a firm in USA. Chegini (2009) determined high correlation between
The first dimension on which networks can be distinguished is that of goals and activities. In contrast to views of networking as being necessarily concerned with learning and school improvement, other goals are both theoretically possible and present in the education system. For example, a renewed emphasis on full-service schools and multi-agency working has in many countries led to schools collaborating with each other and with external agencies to be able to provide a full service to pupils, addressing the social, health, and psychological needs of pupils in ways that would not be possible for individual schools (Sailor, 2002). Schools can also network, in the way businesses often do, to save material and staff costs and to apply for funding through joint bids (Nooteboom, 2004) or for the provision of more effective and scalable Continuing Professional Development (CPD) activities (Hadfield, 2005).
OCB is not related with formal organizational policies rather it is demonstrated at employee’s will (Organ, 1988). The implementation of high-performance work systems (HPWS) indicates that organizations value their employees, thus resulting in OCB (Sun et al., 2007). Positive relationships between HPWS and OCB have been observed in many studies like, in India Biswas et al. (2007) found the positive effect of HPWS on OCB. Similar findings have been found in Dutch employees by Boselie (2010) and Boon et al. (2011), in USA by Kehoe and Wright (2013), in England by Snape and Redman (2010) and Alfes et al. (2012), and in Malaysia and Wales by Gould-Williams and Mohamed (2010).
According to Kanfer, Wanberg, and Kantrowitz (2001), job search refers to a “volitional pattern of action that begins with the identification and commitment to pursuing an employment goal. The employment goal, in turn, activates search behavior designed to bring about the goal.” Focusing on job-search behaviour may improve our understanding of the links between OCB, intention to leave the employer and intention to leave the profession. Job search provides useful information and data about job markets that help the employee to make the decision to leave an employer (Steel, 2004). Active job search occurs when an employee believes that he will easily be able to find a new job. A successful job search increases the likelihood of intention to leave the current employer or the current profession. A number of empirical studies have suggested that OCB plays a key role in turnover cognitions. A negative correlation between perceived job alternatives and OCB was shown (Thau, Bennett, Stahlberg and Werner, 2004), indicating that employees continue to engage in OCB when they perceive job mobility as being poor (low job alternatives). While the effect of perceived job alternatives on OCB is known, the literature has yet to provide any conclusive data on the links between OCB and job-search activity. Robust data drawn from previous studies (Mowday, Koberg and MacArtur, 1984; Sager, Griffeth and Hom, 1998) indicate that job search serves to highlight the links between perceived job alternatives and intention to leave the employer. In other words, in a process known as ‘turnover cognitions’, perceived job alternatives and turnover intentions are related through job search. If perceived job alternatives (not examined in the present study) are related to job search, and if perceived job alternatives have a direct effect on OCB, then we may infer a relationship between OCB, job search and intention to leave the employer and the profession. Therefore, we hypothesize the following:
As a result of the performed analyses, it is confirmed that the POB variable dimensions “optimism” and “hope” have a significant positive explanatory power on perceived organizational support, whereas boredom proneness has a negative significant explanatory power. Employees whose optimism levels and hope increase have an increased level of perceived organizational support, while in individuals prone to boredom the perceived level of support decreases. Considering that perceived organizational support has important outcomes such as higher organizational commitment, job satisfaction, work performance and organizationalcitizenshipbehavior and lower tendency to quit the job, the importance of managers to have optimistic and hopeful and to create a positive work climate is understood better.
For the reasons discussed in the last two sections, there is limited evidence in the transcript data that the observations and debrief are used for theory building. Schools B and D focus on auditing the frequency with which prescribed ‘good practice’ is being used without focusing on the effects of what teachers are doing and how variations in that alter the effects. In School C the participants are picking up classroom techniques that they might choose to use themselves but these insights are not integrated into any developing theory of teaching and learning in the classroom. In school A, there is evidence that detailed consideration of different approaches to implementing what is considered to be good practice could refine a theory of how particular teachers actions affects what and how pupils learn. However, by the end of this transcript, these fledgling insights have not been captured collectively.
reached by the group . The conclusion that can be drawn is that Servant leadership is a style of leadership that prioritizes service to others, is very concerned about others and encourages others to have the character of 'serving' with the aim of achieving common prosperity. So far there have been a number of studies that have asked servant leadership by involving many formulations for the construct of its dimensions. The author quotes a summary compiled by Vondey in his research  and then chooses to cite the construct dimension which was compiled from the research of Barbuto and Wheleer (2006)  with the reason because it is considered the most appropriate background to the research problem. The dimensions of servant leadership as call altruism: a strong desire to make positive changes in the lives of others and put other people's interests ahead of oneself. Emotional healing: the commitment and skill of a leader to be able to listen to subordinates' complaints very empathically so that they can increase and restore morale to their employees. Wisdom: wisdom in understanding a situation and its effects from that situation. High wisdom is intelligent and practical in understanding situations and containing anticipations. Persuasive mapping: the extent to which leaders have the skills to map problems and conceptualize the highest likelihood that will occur and persuade someone to do something when articulating opportunities. Organizational Stewardship: the extent to which leaders prepare organizations to make positive contributions to their environment.
Umar (2010) states that organizational culture is a value system and shared beliefs taken from the behavior patterns and basic philosophies of its founders which then interact to become norms, where these norms are used as guidelines for ways of thinking and acting. In other words, organizational culture is a value in an organization that can be internalized by its employees, in order to achieve organizational goals. In line with G. Graham and Siswadi (2012), which states that organizational culture are the norms, beliefs, attitudes, and organizational philosophy. From some of the definitions above, it can be perceived that organizational culture is a pattern of beliefs and organizational values that are internalized by each employee in carrying out their duties and responsibilities.
A servant leader is a person who stimulates trust, praise, and loyalty of the subordinates. Trust makes them regard decisions adopted by their managers fair because they believe that their manager takes in mind their rights. So, another outcome of servant leadership is organizational justice (9). Organizational justice indicates the staff perceptions of fair treatment of the organization with them (10). In the 1980s, the focus of studies on justice was drawn to the procedures by which outcomes are allocated. In other words, if people feel that they have not received desirable outcomes, but at the same time they believe that the procedures by which these outcomes are allocated are in accordance with justice and are based on accurate and acceptable principles, they will feel satisfied with the received outcome (11).
To ensure the insensitivity of the response to changes in demographical characteristics, non- parametric tests were conducted to test of significant differences in responses within these characteristics. Specifically, given their general potential to inflate or suppress the particular outcome variables used in this study (Staines, Pottick, and Fudge 1986), four demographical characteristics: gender, nation, tenure, and age were tested. Results in Table 3 show that there is a significant difference between Kuwaitis and non-Kuwaitis in terms of affective commitment. Affective commitment among Kuwaitis (mean = 112) is higher than non-Kuwaitis (mean = 92). The results, reported in Tables 3, reveal that there are no significant differences between different categories of gender, tenure, and age in adherence to rules, organizational commitment, organizationalcitizenshipbehavior OCBO, organizational trust, and procedural justice.
with personal stresses – a dynamic very common to online health support groups, for instance (e.g., Lasker et al. , 2005). When participants in online communities experience new (or deal with existing, but newly salient) taint, they tend to draw on the same set of practices and values that they produced when the community members were not yet threatened. Unlike organizations and professional societies that have developed practices and have resources for dealing with external constituents (e.g., sales, marketing, lobbying), online occupational communities have no such practices to draw upon. In some sense, they act as a professional club whose sole purpose is informational exchange and social networking working towards developing and protecting its identity rather than critical reflection and change. This club became a shelter – a protective “bubble” shielding members facing new taint from confronting it directly. We depict this metaphor of moving from a club to a shelter in Figure 4.
Today, with the rapid changes around all organizations, especially universities, which are responsible for education and wisdom in society, leadership has become a vital issue. Leadership can provide the conditions for improving the faculty and development of university professors by developing the necessary mechanisms. In fact, today's social, economic, political, and technological changes have changed the concept of leadership. University leadership must have learned many different skills, techniques and strategies for guidance and leadership and focus on design and planning processes, communication skills, organization, conclusions, awareness and understanding of the circumstances and conditions that members The group is able to execute their performance, be dominant in Agote, Aramburu, Lines (2016). In addition to influencing the resources of the universities that help the leadership. The type of pattern used by leaders is also important. Today, due to environmental changes, leaders must use modern, up-to-date patterns. It is time for the use of authoritarian and grammatical patterns to be over, and the organizational environment requires that more patterns of behavior be used. Choosing or forming a leadership style at university depends on the organizational maturity of the university and its nature (Del Baldo M. 2017). Transformational, task-oriented, law-abiding, noble, ethical, and so forth leadership styles have been introduced, among which the authentic leadership style is due to its proximity to humanism and ethics in the present study. it has been used. Genuine leadership is, in fact, deeply aware of its values and beliefs, confident, honest, and trustworthy. This type of leadership focuses on empowering its employees and followers and strives to expand their employees' thinking and build an organization with positive, responsible employees (Klein, 2017). According to the definition of Kok, McDonald, 2017). (This type of leadership is one of the leadership models that develops both positive psychosocial abilities and ethical ethics in the university. These types of leaders include self-awareness, vision, internal ethics, relationship transparency, information, transparency in relationships. A human being between himself and his followers and positivist development are at the heart of their work.
Rastogi and Garg (2011) added that loyalty factor has already existed in positive organizational outcomes such as fairness in the workplace, organizational commitment and additional work. This means that in this case the feeling of being accepted in the organization can build mutual respect and can be trusted by other members. On the other hand, Jahangir, et al (2004) explained voluntary behavior helps individual behavior when experiencing assistance or problems. This is done in OCB behavior which derives from conscience that wants to do what is right and appropriate for the public interest and not a specific purpose.
In this sample, the affective and continuance commitments were correlated with both helping and compliance dimensions of OCBs, but it was opposite for continuance and normative commitment with helping dimension of OCBs. The employees with high affective commitment are likely to support their colleagues by voluntarily helping them. Contrary to most of the western countries, Pakistan (where these relationships were explored) is not only more strongly collectivist but also possesses a hierarchical social structure formally imposed from outside based on a risk-averse attitude and demanding normative commitment. This type of risk-aversive normative commitment gives rise to citizenship behaviors like sportsmanship (associated with a strong sense of obligation and duty) than most the western contexts. The fact that normative commitment was correlated with sportsmanship also supported this expectation of risk-aversive normative commitment is associated with sportsmanship dimension of OCBs in Pakistani culture.
In organizations and industries as well as in other sectors of society, each new member hopes to face a suitable climate in the first professional contact with the workplace in order to meet its economic, social and psychological needs in a desirable way .One’s perception of organizational variables that make up his/ her psychological climate leads to his/ her mental imagination of the organization. The psychological climate refers to perceptions and interpretations of manpower from the workplace. Each employee creates a psychological climate by interpreting one’s perceptions in a meaningful way. The psychological climate can be conceived as a person’s representativeness of the workplace (Ragazoni, 2002, Parker et al, 2003). The psychological climate is also a perceptual intermediate through which environmental influences are applied on attitudes and behavioral paths (Schneider, 1990). There are three conceptual approaches in this regard (Pin & Peg, 1976):
Studies examining job burnout and its outcomes have mostly been carried out in the Western societies. Despite the significance of burnout towards organizational performance, researches that investigate the relationship between burnout and OCB are scarce, particularly with the inclusion on flow as a mediator. There is a need to investigate OCB considering the different cultural views on flow in the banking sector (Podsakoff, Mackenzie, Paine & Bachrach, 2000). Bankers have to work longer hours per week, requiring high levels of mental energy even though they are given inadequate compensation. As most bankers deal directly with customers, dissatisfied bankers have a high tendency to experience burnout, which will negatively affect their interaction with customers (Jaramillo, Prakash Mulki & Boles, 2011). This experience may lead to loss of customers (Jaramillo, Prakash Mulki & Boles, 2011), a noticeable decline in the quality of service, job turnover, absenteeism, poor morale, and impaired performance (Maslach & Jackson, 1981; Acker, 1999). Such unfavourable working conditions lead to burnout among bank employees and this decreases their level of OCB.
(2.61-3.40). The fact that the perceptions of participants related to effective school characteristic of schools they worked at is “somewhat agree” shows that educational research, whose fundamental aim is to make schools more effective, need to focus more on this area and more commitment should be collectively made by society to make them more effective. It is important to improve effectiveness properties of schools, which are important part of the education system, to ensure that students participate in the society as qualified individuals and meet more of societal needs. Establishment of an effective school atmosphere primarily depends on the improvements in the relationship between school and family. Students, who are accepted as a measure of school output and effectiveness, are expected to graduate with the highest possible grades amongst peers, ascend to the upper levels or fuse with the society. This can only be achieved if school management works in coordination with parents and the vicinity of the school.
So far, broad studies throughout the years have centred more on identifying stressors (Paillé, 2011; Brynien & Igoe, 2016). The literature further reveals that most studies conducted on occupational stress have concentrated on determinants. As opposed to outcomes such as employee performance, turnover intention, turnover behavior and employee productivity (American Psychological Association, 2013; Goh, Pfeiffer & Zenios, 2015), hence, few scientific investigations have been conducted to devise psychological intervention strategies to ameliorate the situation and ensure organizationalcitizenshipbehavior (Ahmad, Hussain, Saleem, Qureshi & Mufti, 2015; Niks, de Jonge, Gevers & Houtman, 2018). Furthermore, though there is increasing consideration of the phenomenon of organizationalcitizenshipbehavior by researchers, a thorough review of the literature shows a lack of agreement about the scope of the concept (Farzianpour, Foroushani, Kamjoo & Hosseini, 2011). However, the current study sought to fill the existing vacuum identified in the literature through the research purpose stated below. The purpose of the study is in twofold; firstly, to empirically examine the relationship between occupational stress and organizationalcitizenshipbehavior. Secondly, to empirically investigate if emotional intelligence would moderate the relationship between occupational stress and organizationalcitizenshipbehavior.