processes) that might enable or impede the success of these types of intervention. There is a rich and diverse literature on this aspect of research use and relevant literature reviews, including recent work by the National Foundation for Educational Research (NFER) (Nelson & O’Beirne 2014) and Department for Education (DfE) (Coldwell et al. 2017) were examined for these insights. The enquiry by Coldwell and colleagues, a two-year study to assess progress towards an evidence-informed teaching system in England, was significant as the evaluation combined an overview of influential research with the findings from a series of qualitative interviews with senior leaders and teachers and a content analysis to examine the extent to which evidence-informed teaching is discussed in the public domain. Teachers and schools were selected to give a range of levels of engagement with research. A summary of the factors most strongly supported in the literature located through our search strategy is presented in table 1 (see Annex 4 for full list of work examined).
6.19 The evidence presented above suggests that the successful engagement of parents is considered to be of great importance where children’s language development is concerned: 8 out of 11 interventions 10 attempted to engage parents in some way. Parental engagement is not a necessary part of successful interventions (four of classroom-based interventions reviewed here did not engage parents at all); however, practitioners recognise that a home environment that supports effective language development is important in order to ensure that the effects of interventions among children are sustained over the longer term. For this reason, even interventions delivered in the classroom directly to children often seek to engage children’s families and give them some knowledge of the content and the importance of the interventions (e.g. Aram et al. 2004, Bernhard et al., 2008).
In an ethnographic study, Kruse (2009) studied the Cosmopolitan Music Society in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, and the New Horizons Band in East Lansing, Michigan. The researcher defined the term andragogy as “self-directed learning behaviours that may indicate that independent musicianship has evolved and has manifested in self-governing actions in respect to specific musical settings” (p. 216). With the methods of observations, interviews, artifact collection, and immersion, Kruse studied these two groups of musicians and developed the themes of “inspiration for pursuing music, denied or delayed access to music instruction, motivation, flow, personal wellness and being part of a community” (p. 217). However, Kruse chose to focus on the challenges the adults faced while studying music, bringing to the forefront “several confounding musical characteristics that may be elusive to our students, and, perhaps, elusive even to us, those who work with adult musicians in community settings and who take special interest in promoting lifelong music making” (p. 217). General challenges reported in adult music participation included: establishing a self-concept as a musician, power sharing, and self-directed behaviors and beliefs. “The degree to which individuals were satisfied with musical experiences depended on the level of musical difficulty, the teaching styles of instructors, the ownership and sense of belonging to the larger community and a strong awareness of reciprocity within that community” (Kruse, 2009, p. 222). The author emphasized the importance of music educators applying lessons drawn from studies of adult music learning including:
A major finding of this study, utilizing the qualitative methodology was that language goal orientation enhances teacher professional development. This is consistent with the results of previous studies including Brett and VandeWalle (1999) and Park (2011) who found the critical role of learning goal orientation in enhancing teacher development. Learning goal orientation has been related to engagement in self regulated learning activities including the employment of cognitive strategies, monitoring, asking for feedback, help seeking, and planning ( Meece, Blaumenfield, and Hoyle, 1988). Research shows that learning goal orientation as compared to performance goal orientation does not only affect teacher learning, but also it influences the transfer of learned knowledge (Kraiger, Ford, Salas, 1993).
Teachers in a number of TLRP studies believed progress was being made despite government policy rather than because of it. The Learning How to Learn studies, for example, found that “The current performance-orientated climate in schools in England seems to make it difficult for teachers to practice what they value.” And the Inclusion study concluded that school leaders should be selected and developed not only on the basis of their managerial skills, but on their values. It said national policy should support teachers who are working collaboratively to use a range of evidence about their teaching (including pupils’ attitudes and engagement) “which goes beyond a relatively narrow range of
Individuals were conscious of the need for implementa- tion strategies to be adequately resourced [48–50, 55, 56, 58, 59, 61]. There was anxiety in the study by Döpp et al. around promotingresearch implementation programs, due to the fear of receiving more referrals than could be handled with current resourcing . Managers mention service pressures as a major barrier in changing practice, with implementation research involvement dependent on workload and other professional commitments [50, 56]. Lack of time prevented evidence reviews being performed, and varied access to human resources such as librarians were also identified as barriers [58, 59]. Policy-makers and managers appreciated links to expert researchers, espe- cially those who had infrequent or irregular contact with the academic sector previously . Managers typically viewed engagement with research implementation as a transactional idea, wanting funding for time release (be- yond salary costs), while researchers and others from the academic sector consider knowledge exchange inherently valuable . Vulnerability around leadership skills and knowledge in the study by Kitson et al. exposed the im- portance of training, education, and professional develop- ment opportunities. Ongoing training in critical appraisal of research literature was viewed as a predictor of whether systematic reviews influenced program planning .
An extensive list of facilitators to researchengagement is proposed in the literature. For example, it is argued that research findings should be more accessible (Hemsley-Brown & Sharp, 2003; Macaro, 2003); the reward structures in university centers should be re-framed (Gore & Giltin, 2004, Mehrani & Khodi, 2014); alternative publishing venues should be developed to target users (Carlile, 2004); and academic jargon should be reduced (Burkhardt & Schoenfeld, 2003). Some authors discuss that teachers and policy-makers do learn from research but research utilization works best in settings of collaboration and mutual support (Block, 2000). On this basis, effective programs for promoting the use of research should be utilitarian and inspirational. In such programs, the immediate and local needs of teachers should also be met (Hemsley-Brown, 2005). Other factors which can facilitate research utilization include making specialist expertise available to practitioners, enabling teachers to spend time on reading and doing research, providing practitioners with research and evidence of the benefits of using research, and ensuring that research is convincing and offers pedagogical implications (Borg, 2010).
chapter as there is a link between teachers’ perceptions of added motivation at a personal level and how this directly related to the action research model providing a more relevant and meaningful experience. In addition, the personal impact is also related to the value of collaboration and collaborative learning to teachers and their motivations. Personalisation and relevance appear to be important factors in engaging all teachers. Figure 6.1 demonstrates that for teachers in this study, reflections were made about colleagues learning in different ways and preferred learning styles. This was also interpreted in terms of the extent to which some colleagues were viewed as having negative attitudes to learning or not having an open mind to new learning experiences. Evidence presented in this small-scale study is not conclusive enough to suggest that individual dispositions, in terms of their prior life and work experiences and attitudes to learning, will fundamentally impact upon all teachers’ engagement in professional learning. However, there was enough evidence in teachers’ responses in these two schools to indicate that attitudes to learning and individual personalities are perceived to be important in influencing teachers’ engagement in learning (Marsick, 2009). In the literature review, evidence was presented to demonstrate that these individual dispositions were not fixed and attitudes to learning could shift and develop as part of their work and life experiences (Billett, 2001). In addition, research literature (Gewirtz et al, 2009) suggested that engagement in action research enabled the development of individual dispositions as teachers gained confidence and became more positive about their learning. The evidence available from teacher responses in this study appears to suggest that this was also the case for a number of teachers in these two schools. Examples included a teacher who had ‘gained more confidence from various experiences’ (B3) and another who had ‘to learn to become more collaborative’ (B4).
DOI: 10.4236/ce.2019.107104 1401 Creative Education the courses of action required to produce given attainments has received much attention in educational research the past couple of decades. Researchevidence reveals that teacher self-efficacy is related to several positive outcomes, for in- stance, higher levels of teacherengagement and job-satisfaction and lower levels of stress and burnout (Aldridge & Fraser, 2016; Aloe, Amo, & Shanahan, 2014; Shoji et al., 2016; Stephanou & Oikonomou, 2018). Less attention has been given to collective teacher efficacy, which refers to teachers’ “beliefs about the ability both of the team and of the faculty of teachers at the school to execute courses of action required to produce given attainments” (Skaalvik & Skaalvik, 2007: p. 613). Nevertheless, the available research indicates that collective teacher efficacy is also positively related to teacher motivation and job satisfaction and negatively related to teacher burnout (Klassen, Usher, & Bong, 2010; Stephanou & Oiko- nomou, 2018). However, studies of the relative impact of these constructs on teachers’ feeling of belonging and engagement are scarce (Stephanou & Oiko- nomou, 2018). The purpose of the present study was to explore the relation be- tween collective teacher efficacy and teacher self-efficacy and how these con- structs were related to teachers’ perceptions of the working environment at school, teachers feeling of belonging and teacherengagement.
Research on peer educators has shown that the development of critical thinking and empowerment are key pre- conditions for successful collaborations (Campbella & MacPhailb, 2002). As we were working with young mu- sicians we felt it might be useful to make sure they learned about the different forms of engagement that their peers-that is other musicians-had taken on sexuality, the key issues that young Kenyans face with regards to pleasure and sexuality and creative methods to work with one’s own emotional affective experiences to create songs that engage audiences. Therefore we organized a three-day workshop that is described in more detail by the artists (Peeters, 2015a). To help students reflect on engaged art we showed on the first day some video ex- amples of music that effectively addressed a range of issues related to sexuality such as “Tyrone”, the “answer” to it by Erykah Badu; “Simone” by comedian Tracey Morgan and Lady Gaga’s “Til it Happens to You”. On the second day a sex educator from Love Matters came in and students could ask her everything they had always wanted to know about sex. This was followed by ‘free writing’ on the subject of sex, responding to the research themes. Writing “free” means writing whatever comes to mind in one flow for 10 minutes, preferably without stopping. At the end of the day some students had written complete lyrics. On the third day students worked to- gether to put these songs onto music with coaching by the director of the academy, a highly respected teacher and talent coach in Kenya. This intense production process was quite emotional at times with students sharing sometimes painful but also funny stories about their sexual adventures. After the workshop we gave the students two days to complete the songs before recording and publishing them on YouTube. To give each student an equal chance students recorded without a visual backdrop and only live musical support with a camera posi- tioned at the same place using the same lighting. The themes of the 15 recorded songs on Love Matters You- Tube channel covered everything from how society deals with the internet and the rise of a digital generation, and rape, to individual longing to have sex after a dry spell.
which combines the Delphi survey method of eliciting anonymous opinions from people who are geographi- cally dispersed with the opportunity for debate provided by the nominal group technique. This new approach was explicitly intended for use in situations where the evidence base is weak, but there is a need to make recommendations for improve- ments in clinical practice and research. In this situation, the evidence base must be supplemented by a consensus based on the subjective views of those working in the field, making this process explicit and transparent by reporting aspects of the consultation process such as the degree of consensus and reasons for disagreement. We utilised this approach for the development of our recommendations, modifying the method to fit the requirements of our particular context. The aim of this paper is to describe the process and outcomes of developing recommendations for promoting the engagement of older people in falls prevention.
collaboration that may take place within any given CPD model and the benefits and limitations that may be identified within discipline specific and interdisciplinary collaboration. Sandholtz’s (2000: 45) research affiliated with a teacher education partnership at the University of California, Riverside explored four approaches to collaborative team teaching. Each approach including different variables that impacted upon student teachers’ engagement and collaboration with cooperating teachers. An element of interdisciplinary collaboration was introduced in the second approach, but became the focus in the fourth and final approach, as the feedback received from its first implementation demonstrated how “those in interdisciplinary assignments pointed out the value of being exposed to another discipline and learning how other classes operate”. Zorfass’ (1999: 202) work which considers professional development through interdisciplinary curriculum design corroborates Sandholtz’s research on the value placed on teacherengagement in learning environments that fosters interdisciplinary collarboration. “The creation of interdisciplinary teams, …provide a meaningful context for teaching, and learning that connects, rather than separates, disciplines”.
engagement and learning. In reviewing the literature for this study, we found that research papers concerned with online pedagogies tended to focus on a specific technological platform or tool in a specific context, demonstrate the tool’s effectiveness and then seek to generalise the tool’s effectiveness in all contexts – a kind of ‘one-size-fits-all’ approach (Knight & Gandomi, 2010). For example, there are numerous studies on the benefits and limitations of blogs for teaching and learning (see Koschman, Kelson, Feltovich, & Barrows, 1996; Oravec, 2002; Saeed, Yang, & Sinnappan, 2009; Williams & Jacobs, 2004). However, within the LMS used for FSE, there are multiple tools that students engage with. Instead of focusing on the technological affordances of each tool or design feature, we have chosen to focus on students’ perceptions of their learning processes and levels of engagement in an online delivery that draws upon a variety of learning technologies. This approach allowed us to privilege the students’ voice so as to understand their learning experience while avoiding technological determinism wherein learning is tied to a specific technological platform or tool.
are diverted away from instructional provisions and forging connections with colleagues and students to classroom management issues (Rey et al., 2012). Notably, the present findings extend prior work by demonstrating effects of teaching level on specific engagement with students after appropriately disentangling variance in general engagement from the specific engagement constructs. Greater time spent with students in primary classes and the greater emphasis on basic caregiving in primary schools may require primary teachers to be more aware of students’ feelings and show greater empathic understanding. Furthermore, primary teachers tend to report higher self-efficacy for student engagement (Klassen & Chiu, 2010; Wolters & Daugherty, 2007), which may lead them to perceive greater engagement with their students. Evidence was also obtained for a plausible latent mean difference in engagement as a function of gender. Female teachers were lower in specific emotional engagement, which was found to generalize across the teaching levels. This finding is consistent with previous research showing that female teachers report greater emotional exhaustion and workload stress than male teachers (Antoniou et al., 2006; Klassen & Chiu, 2010; Lau et al., 2005). Lower positive emotional engagement in females may be attributed to gender differences in domestic caring responsibilities, which may impose demands on female teachers in addition to work demands (Byrne, 1991; Greenglass &Burke, 2003). These dual demands—or as Byrne (1991) notes “double dose of caring” (p. 205)—may lead to female teachers’ emotional disengagement from work (Byrne, 1991; Grayson & Alvarez, 2008).
Discussion: Principles of pediatric research ethics, theoretical tenets of the “ new sociology of the child(hood), ” and human rights codified in the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC) underpin the position that a more engagement-centered approach is needed in PPC research. The ethics, sociologies and human rights of engagement will each be discussed as they relate to research with terminally ill children and adolescents in PPC. Qualitative method(ologies) presented in this paper, such as deliberative stakeholder consultations and phenomenology of practice can serve as meaningful vehicles for achieving i) participation among terminally ill children and adolescents; ii) evidence-bases for PPC best practices; and iii) fulfillment of research ethics principles. Conclusion: PPC research based on direct engagement with PPC patients better reflects their unique expertise and social epistemologies of terminal illness. Such an approach to research would strengthen both the ethical and methodological soundness of HRQoL inquiry in PPC.
As an integral part of our own reflective practice, we have researched the effectiveness of this course design, using conventional course evaluation mechanisms as well as tools of inquiry such as I-statement analysis of students’ reflective writing and repertory grid techniques to explore students’ personal constructs. Our research has shown empirical evidence of growth in teacher–learner autonomy among our students through this action research cycle (Smith et al. 2003; Brown, Smith & Ushioda 2007; Smith & Erdo˘gan 2008).
Teachers’ knowledge base relies on the input of new research information. Through academic reading, teachers can keep up to date with new insights and developments influencing their professional field, new teaching and pedagogical approaches, and also new societal developments which impact education (Kwakman, 2003). In their synthesis of researchevidence that aims to explain what works in improving education outcomes and why, Timperley, Wilson, Barrar and Fung (2007) identified seven critical elements of professional learning. These include focusing on reviewed academic readings that provide substantive new learning around content, skills and/or ways to think about existing teaching practices, content having some consistency with wider trends in policy and research, and challenging prevailing thinking. Consequently, it is surprising to find that academic reading is given little explicit attention in the large field of teacher professional development literature or school improvement/reform literature (for example: Borko & Putnam, 1996; Darling-Hammond, 1998). Kwakman’s (2003) large study in the Netherlands into factors affecting teacher learning is one with an explicit focus on teacher reading. That study’s findings suggest that teacher participation in
open access, online journal, publishing original research, reports, reviews and commentaries on all areas of academic and professional pharmacy practice. This journal aims to represent the academic output of pharmacists and pharmacy practice with particular focus on integrated care. All papers are carefully peer reviewed
At the end of the 5 th month, each small group submitted between 7 and 15, actionable, evidence-based behaviors to the Best Practices List. The study PI compiled the behav- iors and distributed them to all participants for review and comment. Two rounds of review and comment were con- ducted online. Next, the list was sent for external review by experts selected by participants. Expert feedback was incorporated into the Best Practices List and, at the end of the 6 th month, participants attended a final two hour meeting to review and discuss each behavior. Edits were made until all participants were satisfied that they could adhere to the recommended practice. At the conclusion of this final meeting the study participants gave verbal af- firmation that they agreed with and would follow the behaviors outlined in the Best Practices List. This final list (Additional file 1) was published in booklet form and dis- tributed electronically and in hard copy to all participants.
ways. In both examples it is possible to see the dissonance created between ideal and real life teaching and learning, and the impetus for inquiry that was created, as well as the way different approaches can facilitate productive talk about what works and how we know it did. Dot’s whole-school intervention of Lollipop Partners – in which children’s names are written on lollipop sticks and partners drawn at random – was initially devised as both a short-term and long- term solution to the relational problems of group work. Random assignment and short periods working on defined tasks minimised immediate ‘fuss’ and also sent a signal about expectations – everyone has something to offer. Children and adults began to experience new groups and to challenge their assumptions both about what they liked and what was useful for their learning. The year-long study used a range of observational and qualitative interview data, triangulated with the school’s existing behaviour management logs to track incidents of conflict, bullying or social isolation. Meanwhile Dave conducted a classic experiment, using pre- and post-tests of algebra to track the knowledge and skills gained by individuals compared to the completion of the in-class tasks, test of self-concept to exclude the possibility that one class had a stronger or weaker ‘maths identity’ and observations of the classes. One study produced rich qualitative data, the other a significant effect size, both shed light on the value and process of group work and highlight the complementarity of practitioner research case studies.