The reforms that have been introduced – revised professional standards, reformed ITE, the introduction of a ‘learning passport’ – have the potential to create a supportive national environment. But for them to be successful they need to be reinforced by other interventions at regional, school and individual-levels. One aspect of this will be providing easy access to relevant research-based evidence; but there is strong evidence to show that traditional communication and dissemination strategies do not work in isolation. Schools and teachers need support to translate and adopt the findings into everyday practice; although doing this at scale can be resource intensive. Focusing on increasing capacity for evidence-informed school improvement – building on the ‘self-improving school’ model – might offer a way of developing the skills and capacity for this translation role in schools themselves. To pursue this, it would be necessary to identify any potential barriers (e.g. time and resource
Background: This paper defends the ethical and empirical significance of direct engagement with terminally ill children and adolescents in PPC research on health-related quality of life. Clinical trials and other forms of health research have resulted in tremendous progress for improving clinical outcomes among children and adolescents diagnosed with a life-threatening illness. Less attention has been paid, however, to engaging this patient population directly in studies aimed at optimizing health-related quality of life in PPC. Though not restricted to care at the end of life, PPC — and by extension PPC research — is in part dependent on recognizing the social complexities of death and dying and where health-related quality of life is a fundamental element. To explore these complexities in depth requires partnership with terminally ill children and adolescents, and acknowledgement of their active social and moral agency in research.
These aspects were also integral to the assessment task design. Both assessment tasks engage students meaningfully with place-based learning by mobilising them in their local
environment through inquiry. This finding has applicability to other learning areas in teacher education that call for active, learner-centred, experiential and praxis-orientated pedagogies in an online or blended learning environment, such as the Arts, Technology, and Health and Physical Education. A powerful blended learning design can be achieved by using online affordances to facilitate students’ learning in their physical environment; for example, by thoughtfully selecting experiential activities that students can perform themselves with readily accessible materials; by scaffolding and structuring such activities in the LMS so that students feel supported and enabled; and by considering how a subject’s assessment tasks can offer opportunities to engage meaningfully with their local environment. Although not
As previously mentioned a number of teachers in their pre-study interviews identified using lollipop sticks in their EQ practice. In the researcher’s post-study interview with T3 they explained how frequently they use lollipop sticks to select students when asking question, ensuring they ‘give them say 30 second wait time’ and then proceed to ‘pick any lollipop stick with their name on it, um just so they are aware that any of them could be asked’. This comment suggests that lollipop sticks may be being used for classroom management. While an end result of using lollipop sticks may be an increase in active student engagement, is this the sole reason teachers use lollipop sticks when engaging in questioning practices? Or are teachers using lollipop sticks as a strategy to ensure all students are provided an equal opportunity to participate or are staying alert in class? The following comments from the researcher’s discussion within the student focus groups provide students’ perspectives on teachers’ use and purpose for using lollipop sticks.
dealing with change. This type of leadership is said to be The research presented here examines the more sensitive to the promotion of organisational relationship between transformational leadership practices learning, building a collective vision and practicing shared and the development of strong learning organisations in leadership. These are very important elements in ensuring cluster secondary schools. Cluster schools in the organisational excellence [8, 9]. Malaysian education context are schools which have According to , it is still vague how principals play been identified as being excellent within their cluster from their role in supporting the improvement of teachers’ the perspective of school management and student instructional practices and professional excellence. The establishment of schools that will be development/teacher learning. Despite the apparent need recognised as cluster schools and the development of for reform, little attention has been paid by educational already existing schools as cluster schools are aimed at authorities and school administrators to the issue of how propelling the excellence of educational institutions in the teachers learn and implement new instructional practices. Malaysian education system and developing model Most principals expect teachers to produce new, schools that can serve as benchmarks for other schools innovative ideas, but are not engaged with the learning within and outside the cluster. The research was based on process themselves. Likewise, teachers have high the underlying assumption that transformational expectations with regard to student grades, but on the leadership and strong learning organisation development whole hardly develop themselves as learners. Other among principals and teachers, respectively, in cluster relevant issues include lack of time for interaction and schools, do exist and make them able to contribute to the collaboration, lack of focus on the core business of continuous improvement of the schools in order to teaching and learning due to various extracurricular sustain their excellence.
There were obvious changes in class structure when implementing the “mobilized curriculum”
. Teacher Grace used to be under pressure to cover the essential learning points through teacher-centered approach lesson by lesson. Supported by part of the “Structure”—the research team, she learned to consider teaching a topic as a small project that lasted for several periods. Now she was able to switch her didactic teaching to student-centered learning. She was inclined to give students more time to construct their understanding rather than feeding them with information. With more time to observe students learning with mobile devices, she learned to identify student learning difficulties when she facilitated student learning (see Fig. 3). The use of the designed MLE lessons gave the teacher more breathing space and she was able to focus on the natural flow of the lessons. In the past, she was task- oriented and aimed to finish predefined drill-and-practice activities in stipulated time. When implementing MLE lessons, she instructed when the situation called for it and she spent more time facilitating the learning processes rather than providing answers. As a result of using the redesigned curriculum using the mobile devices, the teacher shared with the researcher that she had more time to reflect on her lessons even during class. She could think on her feet and improvise on the lessons in real time. This was another instance to show how teacher Grace was able to demonstrate her agency because she was in charge of her class teaching. She had to make decisions from moment to moment. On the other hand, the changed class structure and the curriculum had been changed to be unit-based vs. lesson-based enabled her to have different practices as she had before.
The principles didn’t hit us in sudden
“Eureka” bursts; rather, we watched themes and overlapping findings emerge.
Often they chimed with what we knew from prior research. For instance, the SPRinG project on what makes effective groupwork was built on the Oracle project of the 1970s, and their findings support the old cliché that two (or even more) heads are better than one. The value of thinking with other people is demonstrated throughout TLRP’s work, from the high quality talk which characterises the best early years practice, as shown by the Effective Pre- school and Primary Education project, to the benefits of peer review found by Towards Evidence-Based Science Education. It’s through communication that we find out what we think.
RRI provides a strong foundation in dealing with the issues that affect sustainable development such as digital divisions, inaccessible knowledge and social inequalities (Giovannini et al., 2015). RRI fosters the engagement of stakeholders in different initiatives, including organisations such as Gramshree. There are several reasons why stakeholders’ engagement is important. The first reason is one of knowledge co- production between stakeholders. This co-production of knowledge is often a result of active input from different stakeholders, which facilitates mutual learning (Chilvers, 2013). In the case of initiatives such as Gramshree, stakeholders influence the success of the initiative by bringing a wider input based on their different disciplines and backgrounds. The engaged stakeholders combine their knowledge on artisan craftsmanship and how ICT could be leveraged in promoting their sustainable development. Secondly, different stakeholders contribute to increasing the legitimacy of the initiative. Results from initiatives or organisations that engage different stakeholders claim legitimacy compared to ones that do not engage a range of stakeholders (Spitzeck & Hansen, 2010) therefore increasing buying-in and pride of ownership of the activities and the outcomes resulting from them. Thirdly, stakeholder engagement facilitates accountability of significant uncertainties that occur in initiatives and inform policy formulation and implementation guidelines that support and maintains the relevance of the initiative to communities (Webler, Kastenholz, & Renn, 1995; Webler, Tuler, & Krueger, 2001).
In this research we set out to identify the situational variables and/or leadership traits necessary for creating the capacity for change and improvement in an educational context. The success of our
research and our endeavours can be measured in the development of our school. In addition to receiving the School Achievement Award and being invited to join the Most Improved Schools in England Club, Ofsted re-designated our category, stating that “Lord Grey is a good school with a good sixth form.” In their Inspection report, published in March 2003, Ofsted stated that “Lord Grey has made rapid and significant progress since its last Ofsted inspection. The strength of the school lies in its leadership and management and its committed and enthusiastic staff, who work successfully in teams focused on learning. Most categories by which the inspectors make their judgements are graded as “good” or “very good”.” The inspectors concluded: “very good leadership has resulted in a strong focus on learning and a significant improvement in standards”.
Capacity building, whether at a sector or institutional level, is dependent on a number of factors. At a team and individual level there are several reasons why teacher educators wish to develop their knowledge and understanding of the research process, and numerous ways in which this can be done. In this paper, we have explored why providing collaborative experiences for teacher educators to develop understanding, confidence and skills in research is valuable. Not only does it build on research skills, in our study it also helped participants develop their professional identity, and reflect upon and re- engage with their practice. Cochran-Smith and Lytle (2004) argue that the division between being a researcher and a practitioner is a blurring of enquiry, action, analysis and theorising – not a division. In our small-scale study three teacher educators new to research experienced this ‘blurring’ first hand – and used their own reflections as a learning process. In doing so, one outcome was that they reported being able to identify with the role of researcher, whereas before this seemed something done by ‘others’.
instructional formats that do not neatly fit the categories in this study’s ESF. It might even be valuable, in a larger study, to add a component of classroom observation or to validate an ESF question on instructional formats with classroom observation.
Other recommendations. Future research studies should be extremely careful in conceptualizing work engagement. As discussed earlier in this study, there are large questions around consistent use of terminology. Questions of terminology affect the conceptualizations related to work and teacherengagement. The debate in the literature between trait and state work engagement is one example of an issue that will benefit from research questions that are very precise. Less addressed in the present study are questions around the factors that comprise teacherengagement. This study implicitly resolved these questions in its choice of usable instruments, especially the Engaged Teachers Scale (ETS). The field will benefit from further refinement of the teacherengagement construct.
The PACT assessments or teaching events (TEs) use multiple sources of data (teacher plans, teacher artifacts, student work samples, video clips of teaching, and personal reflections and commentaries) that are organized on four categories of teaching: planning, instruction, assessment, and reflection (PIAR). The PACT assessments build on efforts by the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards and the Interstate New Teacher Assessment and Support Consortium, which developed perfor- mance assessments for use with expert and beginning teachers. Like these earlier assess- ments, the focus of the PACT assessments is on candidates’ application of subject-specific ped- agogical knowledge that research finds to be associated with successful teaching (Bransford, Brown, & Cocking, 1999; Darling-Hammond, 1998; Fennema et al., 1996; Grossman, 1990; Por- ter, 1988; Shulman, 1987). What distinguishes the PACT assessments from the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards assess- ments is that the TE tasks are more integrated (capturing a unified learning segment), are designed to measure teacher performance at the preservice level, and have no assessment center components. Moreover, the PACT assessment system also uses a multiple measures approach to assessing teacher competence through the use of course-embedded signature assessments (described below).
to it by Erykah Badu; “Simone” by comedian Tracey Morgan and Lady Gaga’s “Til it Happens to You”. On the second day a sex educator from Love Matters came in and students could ask her everything they had always wanted to know about sex. This was followed by ‘free writing’ on the subject of sex, responding to the research themes. Writing “free” means writing whatever comes to mind in one flow for 10 minutes, preferably without stopping. At the end of the day some students had written complete lyrics. On the third day students worked to- gether to put these songs onto music with coaching by the director of the academy, a highly respected teacher and talent coach in Kenya. This intense production process was quite emotional at times with students sharing sometimes painful but also funny stories about their sexual adventures. After the workshop we gave the students two days to complete the songs before recording and publishing them on YouTube. To give each student an equal chance students recorded without a visual backdrop and only live musical support with a camera posi- tioned at the same place using the same lighting. The themes of the 15 recorded songs on Love Matters You- Tube channel covered everything from how society deals with the internet and the rise of a digital generation, and rape, to individual longing to have sex after a dry spell.
director and still actively plays her instrument, speak about how she was active in almost every sport possible throughout her time in high school, was very meaningful for the students who may be struggling to find their niche and/or wondering if they will be able to be successful with many activities. If I were to assign a title to the conversation based on the themes that emerged, I would title it: “How music can be a fun part of a long, active life.” The students seemed most interested in the many different activities and hobbies that the adults have, as well as why and how music was still important to them. They enjoyed hearing stories about how community band rehearsal is Beth’s emotional release, and how Catherine still enjoys social gatherings with her band friends. The students seemed genuinely sad when class was over. In summary, I think the classroom discussion adequately provided students with an understanding of what influenced the community musicians to value lifelong music engagement.
Centre for Applied Linguistics, University of Warwick
With the growing international market for pre-experience MA in ELT/TESOL programmes, a key curriculum design issue is how to help students develop as learners of teaching through and beyond their formal academic studies. We report here on our attempts at the University of Warwick to address this issue, and consider wider implications for research and practice in initial language teacher education. At the Centre for Applied Linguistics at the University of Warwick, we run a suite of MA programmes for English language teaching professionals from around the world. Most of these courses are for students with prior teaching experience, but our MA in English Language Studies and Methods (ELSM) programme is designed for students with less than two years’ experience and, in fact, the majority enrol straight after completing their undergraduate studies in their home countries.
Interpersonal, interpretive, and presentational communication skills develop independently based on varied factors such as opportunities for practice and interactions with native speakers and authentic materials. In their research on the integrated performance assessment, Glisan, Uribe, and Adair-Hauck (2007) examined students’ performance in three modes of communication with advanced Spanish classes and reported that students performed better during presentational communication than interpersonal communication. Adair‐Hauck and Troyan (2013) noted that language instructors use presentational tasks more frequently than the other two modes, making it the predominant mode assessed in language classrooms. The spontaneous nature of interpersonal tasks makes this mode challenging for language instructors to teach, model, and assess (Glisan, Uribe, & Adair-Hauck, 2007; Wu, Childs & Hsu, 2018). Glisan, Uribe, and Adair-Hauck (2007) reported that students failed to perform well in the interpretive mode due to comparatively limited exposure to listening input. Such findings indicated that more effective tools and instructional strategies were needed to support learners to develop interpretive and interpersonal communicative skills. In order to address these needs, this paper explores effective technology tools and provides real-classroom examples to assist language teachers in integrating innovative technology to ensure student engagement when developing communicative proficiency.
We do not assume that it is desirable or possible to increase academic publication indefinitely; our concern and inquiry are focused on those academics who want to write but find that they cannot. In the current competitive publishing culture it would be unethical not to address this problem, given the serious consequences for academic careers of failing to publish. Realistically, there may never be enough journal space for every academic to publish four articles in every assessment cycle (as was expected by the UK’s Research Assessment Exercise) but surely we would not attempt to limit outputs by withdrawing support? There will always be selectivity, but it should not be assumed that academics are all equally prepared for the selection process. A key function of writing retreat is to provide a forum for discussing these issues.
Promoting Sales of Online Games through Customer Engagement Abstract
With keen competition in the online game industry, game developers and publishers are finding new ways to induce players’ to spend money on subscriptions and virtual items. As the online game itself provides a highly engaging environment, this study examines online sales from the perspective of customer engagement. We propose a research model that examines why game players actively engage in playing online games, and how such engagement can contribute to sales of online games, empirically testing the model using 377 online game players. The results support our research hypotheses and illustrate the effect of customer psychological engagement on stimulating game players’ spending in online games. In particular, both psychological and behavioral engagement exerted a positive influence on online sales, and the dimensions and antecedents of psychological engagement were also identified. The findings of this study are expected to provide some suggestions for game developers and publishers on promoting the sales of digital items/goods. This study also adds to the current understanding of customer psychological engagement by identifying its antecedents and consequences in the context of online games.
There are other potential limitations to this study. First, self-report measures are subject to social desirability responding. For monitors, this threat to the internal validity of the responses may be mitigated by the fact that monitors regularly collect and share information as part of their job expectations. Also, monitors were involved in developing the survey and knew that the results would not be used to evaluate them individually. For the students, however, despite assurances that their responses were confidential, their responses may have been affected by the presence of another adult involved with the Check & Connect program or a concern that negative responses would somehow harm their monitor. Finally, the lower response rate on the Engagement in School—Teacher Rating Scale and the corresponding reduced number of subjects and the exclusion of a small group of students who did not show an improvement or decline in attendance warrant caution for interpreting these results.
Business Plan activities during 2014-15
i By 16th May 2014, submit to DE draft 2013-14 accounts in accordance with the Accounts Direction.
ii By September 2014, implement an approved staffing re-structure.
iii By October 2014 research, scope and prepare business case for approval for GTCNI long terms accommodation needs.