Top PDF Properties of sugar palm/glass fibre-reinforced thermoplastic polyurethane composites

Properties of sugar palm/glass fibre-reinforced thermoplastic polyurethane composites

Properties of sugar palm/glass fibre-reinforced thermoplastic polyurethane composites

Sugar palm tree is a promising source of natural fibres which are abundantly available in Southeast Asia, particularly in Malaysia (Sanyang et al., 2016). These fibres are used in many applications due to its superior strength and durability. Among the natural fibres, sugar palm fibres are well known for its high durability and their resistance to seawater (Mukhtar et al., 2016). These two characteristics are the main advantages of sugar palm fibres. Bachtiar et al. (2011) have developed the sugar palm fibre reinforced high impact polystyrene (HIPS) composites and studied its properties, resulting in an improvement on the properties after treatment conducted. Another investigation was carried out by Ishak et al. (2013) on sugar palm fibres, its polymers and composites, in which a number of advantages were observed in order to develop composites materials using the sugar palm fibre (Ishak et al., 2013). Research conducted by Bachtiar et al. (2012b) on untreated short sugar palm fibre/HIPs composites subjected to flexural, impact, and thermal properties, found that the impact performance of these natural fibre composites is poor. The development of the hybrid composites provides a new perspective to the manufacturing industry to reduce the dependency on synthetic fibres which often related to high potential hazard, particularly for human and the environment as well.
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Effects of flame-retardant agents on mechanical properties and flammability of impregnated sugar palm fibre-reinforced polymer composites

Effects of flame-retardant agents on mechanical properties and flammability of impregnated sugar palm fibre-reinforced polymer composites

Numerous studies of the properties of sugar palm fibre reinforced polymer composites have been conducted due to the various advantages of this plant. However, minimal research on the enhancement of the properties of sugar palm fibre after exposure to wet environments is available. Water will react with lignocellulose materials; natural fibres are hygroscopic materials as they contain hydroxyls group in the cell walls of the fibres (Hill, 2006). When natural fibre composites are exposed to high humidity environments, they absorb moisture until they achieve equilibrium with the relative humidity of the environment. However, the mechanical properties of the composites significantly decrease once the fibres begin to absorb moisture (John and Thomas, 2008; Mishra et al., 2001; Chen et al., 2009).
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Thermal properties of alkali-treated sugar palm fibre reinforced high impact polystyrene composites

Thermal properties of alkali-treated sugar palm fibre reinforced high impact polystyrene composites

Recently, the authors reported on the tensile properties (Bachtiar et al., 2011) of short sugar palm fibre reinforced high impact polystyrene composites. However, no work has reported on the thermal properties of these composites. Thermal analysis is an important analytical method in understanding the structure–property relationships and thermal stability of composite materials. Thermal analysis can be used to determine moisture content and volatile component present in composites. Since moisture content and volatile components have deteriorating effects on the properties of the composite, these studies are of great importance. Thermogravimetric (TG) analysis is one of the common methods used in assessing thermal properties of polymeric materials. The data indicate a number of stages of thermal breakdown, weight loss of the material in each stage and threshold temperature. Both TG and derivative thermogravimetry (DTG) provide information about the degree of degradation of the material (Joseph et al., 2003).
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Mechanical properties of sugar palm fibre-reinforced epoxy composites

Mechanical properties of sugar palm fibre-reinforced epoxy composites

Another challenge was to understand the degree of adhesion between the fibre and matrix. The surface properties of the sugar palm fibre were modified using ‘biological’ treatments. In this study sea water, fresh (pond) water and sewage water were used as treatment agents. This led to biological, chemical and water degradation to the sugar palm fibre. Interfacial shear strengths were studied using the single fibre pull out test and the results showed that the fibres treated with sea water exhibited the strongest fibre- matrix bonding. Morphological and structural changes of the fibres were investigated using scanning electron microscope (SEM). It was found that the biological treatments had modified the surface properties of the sugar palm fibre thus resulted in a better adhesion quality as compared to the untreated fibre.
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Properties of resin-impregnated sugar palm fibre- reinforced epoxy composites

Properties of resin-impregnated sugar palm fibre- reinforced epoxy composites

Firstly, the control and resin impregnated sugar palm fibres are tested for its surface morphology and mechanical property. Next is the fabrication of composite using the resin impregnated sugar palm fibres using epoxy as the matrix. The impregnated fibres are in a natural woven formed. Hand layup process along with compression machine is used to fabricate composite panel with a thickness of about 3.2 mm. 30% fibre loading is set for the fabrication of composite as it is found to be the most optimum fibre loading for best results [10]. The properties investigated for the composite are tensile properties, flexural properties, SEM, FT-IR, water absorption, thickness swelling, density, specific gravity and chemical composition.
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Mechanical Properties of Sugar Palm Fibre Reinforced High Impact Polystyrene Composites

Mechanical Properties of Sugar Palm Fibre Reinforced High Impact Polystyrene Composites

This paper presented a study on tensile properties of sugar palm fibre (SPF) reinforced high impact polystyrene (HIPS) composites. Short SPFs were obtained by finely cutting long fibres with pulverisette tool and they were filtered using a sieve to a size of 30-50 mesh. Five different fibre loadings of 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50% by weight were mixed with HIPS polymer to form composites fabricated using melt mixer and hot press. Tensile tests of the composites were carried out using Instron machine. The results showed that the increase of short SPF loading in HIPS matrix improved tensile strength and modulus of the composites.
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Thermal, mechanical, and physical properties of seaweed/sugar palm fibre reinforced thermoplastic sugar palm Starch/Agar hybrid composites

Thermal, mechanical, and physical properties of seaweed/sugar palm fibre reinforced thermoplastic sugar palm Starch/Agar hybrid composites

The aim of this research is to investigate the effect of sugar palm fibre (SPF) on the mechanical, thermal and physical properties of seaweed/thermoplastic sugar palm starch agar (TPSA) composites. Hybridized seaweed/SPF filler at weight ratio of 25:75, 50:50 and 75:25 were prepared using TPSA as a matrix. Mechanical, thermal and physical properties of hybrid composites were carried out. Obtained results indi- cated that hybrid composites display improved tensile and flexural properties accompanied with lower impact resistance. The highest tensile (17.74 MPa) and flexural strength (31.24 MPa) was obtained from hybrid composite with 50:50 ratio of seaweed/SPF. Good fibre-matrix bonding was evident in the scan- ning electron microscopy (SEM) micrograph of the hybrid composites’ tensile fracture. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis showed increase in intermolecular hydrogen bonding following the addition of SPF. Thermal stability of hybrid composites was enhanced, indicated by a higher onset degradation temperature (259 ◦ C) for 25:75 seaweed/SPF composites than the individual seaweed com- posites (253 ◦ C). Water absorption, thickness swelling, water solubility, and soil burial tests showed
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Influence of Fibre Volume Fraction and Vacuum Pressure on the Flexural Properties of Sugar Palm Frond Fibre Reinforced Polyester Composites

Influence of Fibre Volume Fraction and Vacuum Pressure on the Flexural Properties of Sugar Palm Frond Fibre Reinforced Polyester Composites

This presented paper looks at the opportunity to utilise sugar palm frond fibres as reinforcement in natural fibre composites. Most of the recent studies, sugar palm fibre that been used as a reinforcement mostly is the hairy black fibres that cover the trunk of the tree. The fibre is known by several different names including sugar palm fibre, Ijuk, Gomutu, and Gomuti. The aims of this paper is to determine the flexural properties of sugar palm fibre reinforced polyester composites and to explore the suitability to use the fibres as reinforcement in composites. Therefore, the objective of this study is to investigate the effects of fibre loading and process parameters on flexural properties of sugar palm frond fibre reinforced polyester composites.
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Mechanical and thermal properties of short sugar palm (Arenga pinnata MERR.) fibre-reinforced high impact polystrene composites

Mechanical and thermal properties of short sugar palm (Arenga pinnata MERR.) fibre-reinforced high impact polystrene composites

I certify that a Thesis Examination Committee has met on 28 May 2012 to conduct the final examination of Dandi Bachtiar on his thesis entitled "Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Short Sugar Palm (Arenga pinnata Merr.) Fibre-Reinforced High Impact Polystyrene Composites" in accordance with the Universities and University Colleges Act 1971 and the Constitution of the Universiti Putra Malaysia [P.U.(A) 106] 15 March 1998. The Committee recommends that the student be awarded the Doctor of Philosophy.
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Investigation on the mechanical and physical properties of treated and untreated woven sugar palm fibre reinforced composite

Investigation on the mechanical and physical properties of treated and untreated woven sugar palm fibre reinforced composite

Natural fibres offer environmental benefits such as biodegradable and can be obtained from renewable resources. In term of strength, natural fibres are still inferior by the synthetic fibres. However, there is lack of investigations done to characterise and compare different types and orientation done on the natural fibres. The basic purpose of the study is to determine the mechanical and physical properties of sugar-palm fibres under various treatment processes, to analyse the performance of mechanical and physical properties of different type of orientations and to compare the obtained properties with other natural fibres. The study starts with preparation of the sugar-palm fibres, followed by surface treatments by alkali and acid solutions and weaving the fibre into a woven fibre before putting it into the mould. After dried, the composite board was cut into specimens and tested for 3-point flexural test and tensile test. Surface morphological analysis by using SEM machine was done before doing the data analysis. The outcome of the study proved that the chemical treated fibres has higher tensile and flexural properties compared to the untreated fibres where the value of tensile stress for alkali treated, acid treated and untreated fibres are 27.92 MPa, 26.41 MPa and 25.75 MPa respectively. In addition, the value of flexural stress for alkali treated, acid treated
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Mechanical Properties of Alkali-Treated Sugar Palm (Arenga Pinnata) Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Composites

Mechanical Properties of Alkali-Treated Sugar Palm (Arenga Pinnata) Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Composites

I certify that an Examination Committee has met on 30 October 2007 to conduct the final examination of Dandi Bachtiar on his Master of Science thesis entitled “Mechanical Properties Of Alkali-Treated Sugar Palm (Arenga Pinnata) Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Composites” In accordance with Universiti Pertanian Malaysia (Higher Degree) Act 1980 and Universiti Pertanian Malaysia (Higher Degree) Regulation 1981. The Committee recommends that the candidate be awarded the relevant degree.

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Development of sugar palm yarn and woven glass fibre-reinforced unsaturated polyester composites

Development of sugar palm yarn and woven glass fibre-reinforced unsaturated polyester composites

Synthetic fibres like glass, aramid and carbon fibre are widely used as reinforcement fibres in composites, which have been proven to be a good mechanical strength enhancer. The desired tensile strengths and modulus of glass fibres are visibly much higher than natural fibres. The disadvantages of synthetic fibre are that without proper handling, it may cause skin irritation, causing it to be dangerous to human health, and its lack of biodegradability (Van de Velde and Kiekens, 2001). However, differences in the characteristics of glass and natural fibres are important when their applications and costs are taken into account (Bledzki and Gassan, 1999). Synthetic and natural fibres have been used in reinforcing polymers in such a way that fibres with a promising strength and matrix will convey the applied stress to the fibre structures. This combination is called hybridisation of composite materials, which refers to two materials with different properties being combined to produce new materials with novel properties.
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Performance of sugar palm fibre-reinforced vinyl ester composites at different fibre arrangements

Performance of sugar palm fibre-reinforced vinyl ester composites at different fibre arrangements

The scope of research is focusing on the mechanical, physical, water absorption, and morphological properties of long sugar palm fibres reinforced VE composites at different fibre arrangements. The research will be limited to use sugar palm fibres from Kg. Kuala Jempol, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia. Also, the study will be limited to use only 1 wt% of cobalt and 15 wt% of fibre in each composite. The arrangements of fibres were chosen are three including unidirectional (0°), 0°/90° woven and ±45° woven. Tensile test, flexural test and impact test were worked out by following the standard of ASTM D638, ASTM D790 and ASTM D256 respectively. Specimens were repeated for 5 times for every test. Specimens of impact test were observed under scanning electron microscope to describe the relationship between matrix and fibre at event of impact.
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A review of sugar palm (Arenga pinnata): application, fibre characterisation and composites

A review of sugar palm (Arenga pinnata): application, fibre characterisation and composites

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to present the review of natural fibre composites as well as a specific type of fibre, i.e., sugar palm fibre and its composites. Design/methodology/approach – The approach of this review paper is to present previous work on natural fibres and their composites. Then a review of several important aspects such as history, origin, botanic description, distribution, application and characterisation of sugar palm tree, and its fibre is presented. Finally a review of properties and characterisation of sugar palm composites is presented. Findings – Findings of this review include the potential application of natural fibres and their composites for engineering application, the use of sugar palm and its fibres, as well as the suitability of sugar palm composites in engineering application after conducting review of their performance and characterisation. Originality/value – The value of this review is to highlight the potential of natural fibres, natural fibre composites, sugar palm , sugar palm fibres and sugar palm composites as materials for engineering applications. © Emerald Publishing Limited.
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Investigation on the tensile strength of treated and untreated woven sugar palm fibre reinforced composites

Investigation on the tensile strength of treated and untreated woven sugar palm fibre reinforced composites

In term of strength, natural fibres are still inferior by the synthetic fibres. The sugar-palm fibres come out with several types and shapes which are long, short, whiskers, random, woven, etc. Different types and orientations are expected to behave in different characteristics. However, there are less investigation done to characterise and compare the different types and orientation of the natural fibres. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the tensile properties of the woven type and the possible improvement by chemical treatments. In this study, the tensile properties of sugar-palm fibre under various treatment processes were investigated. SEM has been used to investigate the morphology of the fibre surface and the fracture surface of sugar-palm fibre reinforced epoxy composites.
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Mechanical properties of short random oil palm fibre reinforced epoxy composites

Mechanical properties of short random oil palm fibre reinforced epoxy composites

There has been a growing interest in utilizing natural fibres as reinforcements in polymer composite for making low cost construction materials in recent years. Natural fibres are prospective reinforcing materials and their use until now have been more traditional than technical. They have long served many useful purposes but the application of the material for the utilization of natural fibres as reinforcement in polymer matrix took place quite recently (Joseph et al. 1999). Many studies had been carried out on natural fibre likes kenaf, bamboo, jute, hemp, coir, sugar palm and oil palm (Arib et al. 2006; Khairiah & Khairul 2006; Lee et al. 2005; Rozman et al. 2003; Sastra et al. 2005). The advantages of these natural resources are low weight, low cost, low density, high toughness, acceptable specific strength, enhanced energy recovery, recyclability and biodegradability (Lee et al. 2005; Myrtha et al. 2008; Sastra et al. 2005). Natural fibre can be divided into four different types which are leaf, bast, fruit and seed (Khairiah & Khairul 2006; Wollerdorfer & Bader 1998).
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Development of sugar palm fibre reinforced thermoplastic polyurethane composites

Development of sugar palm fibre reinforced thermoplastic polyurethane composites

4.2 Effect of Rotating Speed on Tensile Property of TPU/SPF Composites 90 4.3 Effect of Temperature on Tensile Property of TPU/SPF Composites 91 4.4 Effect of Fibre Size on Mechanical, Thermal and Physicochemical Properties of TPU/SPF Composites

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Mechanical properties of palm fibre reinforced recycled HDPE

Mechanical properties of palm fibre reinforced recycled HDPE

Copyright © 2013 B. Aldousiri et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Recently, recycled thermoplastic polymers become an alternative resource for manufacturing industrial products. However, they have low mechanical properties compared to the thermosets. In this paper, an attempt has been made to enhance the mechanical properties of recycled high density polyethylene (HDPE) with chopped strand mat (CSM) glass fibres as a synthetic reinforcement and with short oil palm fibres as a biodegradable (natural) reinforcement. The effects of volume fraction of both synthetic and natural fibres on tensile, compression, hardness, and flexural properties of the HDPE were investigated. The failure mechanism of the composite was studied with the aid of optical microscopy. Tensile properties of the HDPE composites are greatly affected by the weight fraction of both the synthetic and the natural fibres. The higher strength of the composites was exhibited when at higher weight fraction of both natural and syntactic fibres which was about 50 MPa. Date palm fibre showed good interfacial adhesion to the HDPE despite the untreated condition used. On the other hand, treatment of the fibres is recommended for higher tensile performance of the composites.
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Mechanical Properties of Oil Palm Fibre-Thermoset Composites

Mechanical Properties of Oil Palm Fibre-Thermoset Composites

According to Mohanty et al. (2002), natural fibres likes kenaf, flax, jute, hemp, and sisal have attracted renewed interest to replace the artificial fibres such as carbon, aramid, and glass in the automotive industry. Natural fibres have a few advantages over the manmade fibres such as low cost, low density, acceptable specific strength properties, ease of separation, carbon dioxide sequestration, and biodegradability. The fibres act as reinforcement in the fibre-reinforced composites by giving strength and stiffness to the composite structure.
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Mechanical Properties of Nonwoven Reinforced Thermoplastic Polyurethane Composites

Mechanical Properties of Nonwoven Reinforced Thermoplastic Polyurethane Composites

trend in fibre tensile strength does not correspond to the nonwoven preform tensile strength. At a fixed needle type and needling density, in this instance of 42 punches cm −2 , development of fibre entanglement and the associated increase in network strength depends on the modulus, inter-fibre friction and bending rigidity of the fibres. The oscillation of the barbed needles during needlepunching induces fibre entanglement and increased structural integrity in the preform. The two contributing effects relate to the capstan effect and the fibre-fibre contact pressures. The capstan effect at fibre crossovers and the contact pressure are the result of inter-looping of fibre segments. This restricts the displacement of fibres, increasing resistance to slippage [ 37 ]. Deflection of fibre segments occurs as needle barbs carry the fibre segments and their ability to deflect will depend upon the fibre modulus. For a fibre of circular cross section, the bending stiffness is linearly proportional to the Young’s modulus of the fibre, is affected by fibre length and increases as a function of the fourth power of fibre diameter [ 38 , 39 ]. Therefore, the lyocell fibres produced the strongest nonwoven preforms (Figure 2 ) despite the fact that PPTA fibre exhibited the highest strength and modulus (Figures 1 and 3 ). Furthermore, pre-needled PET preforms containing a range of fibre linear densities exhibited inferior mechanical properties, especially coarse (16.7 dtex) PET fibres did not markedly influence results. The 16.7 dtex fibres were the coarsest among all fibres such that fewer fibre segments could be carried by the needle barbs to effect entanglement of the web. The tensile modulus (Figure 4 ) of the nonwoven preforms exhibited high variation and one-way ANOVA and post-hoc analysis revealed that only the PPTA preform were significantly (p-value 0.000) different, in the MD, from the rest of the samples.
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