Top PDF Proposal of High Gain, Reduced Stress with Low Duty Cycle Two Input Boost Converter for Renewable Energy Systems

Proposal of High Gain, Reduced Stress with Low Duty Cycle Two Input Boost Converter for Renewable Energy Systems

Proposal of High Gain, Reduced Stress with Low Duty Cycle Two Input Boost Converter for Renewable Energy Systems

The two-input boost converter without voltage multiplier cell is shown in Figure 1. The circuit is derived from the conventional boost converter. Two converters are connected in parallel for the two inputs. Two power switches S1, S2 in the converter structure are the main controllable elements that control the power flow of the hybrid system. The circuit topology enables the switches to be independently controlled through four indepen- dent duty ratios d1, d2 respectively. The diodes D1 and D2 conduct in complementary manner with switches S1 and S2. In hybrid power systems applications, the main aim is to achieve an acceptable current ripple in order to fix the output power on desired value. So, the current ripple of the input sources is reduced to make power bal- ance among the input and load.
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Three-State Commutation Cell for Battery Charging using PV Panels in a Single Conversion Stage by using High-Voltage Gain Boost Converter

Three-State Commutation Cell for Battery Charging using PV Panels in a Single Conversion Stage by using High-Voltage Gain Boost Converter

Renewable energy attracts interest for power generation since the non-renewable energy like petrol, diesels etc are diminishing and energy crisis is an important issue in most of the nations. Energy production using solar energy could be a solution for the increasing power demands. The photovoltaic generation systems can either be operated as isolated systems or connected to the grid as a part of an integrated system. One of the major advantages of PV technology is that it has no moving parts; it has a long lifetime and low maintenance requirements and most importantly it is one solution that offers eco-friendly power. A maximum power point tracking algorithm is absolutely necessary to increase the efficiency of the solar panel as it has been found that only 30-40% of energy incident is converted into electrical energy. Among all the MPPT methods, Perturb & Observe (P&O) is most commonly used because of its simple implementation [7]. Generally the efficiency of the system depends on the boost converter too. To improve the efficiency of the converter soft switching scheme is used [2] .The solar energy is directly converted into the electric energy by the Photovoltaic (PV) module. A PV module consists of a number of solar cells which when connected in series increases the voltage and when connected in parallel increases the module current. Despite mechanically changing the position of the solar panels, MPPT works automatically to keep the output at the maximum power. The concept in Maximum power point tracking is that when the source impedance matches with the load impedance maximum power transfers from the source to load [6], so the source impedance is varied by varying the duty cycle. In this paper three state switching cell boost converter is used even though conventional boost converters can produce high voltage gain, the gain decreases as the duty cycle approaches unity as proved in [1], when connecting boost converters in series losses will increase due to increase of devices [5]. Depending upon the surrounding conditions such as temperature and irradiation, the output power of the solar cell changes and hence its efficiency is low. Thus for the transmission of the power from PV array to the load, high efficiency is needed for the power conditioning systems (PCS). Generally a single stage PV PCS is composed of two conversion stages namely dc/dc conversion stage and dc/ac conversion stage. The maximum power point tracking is applied to the dc/dc converter topology. To solve this disadvantage, three state switching cell boost converter [4] is used because of its reduced ripple currents in both the input and output circuits and hence there is a decrease in the boost inductor magnetic volume. The power is equally divided between two oppositely coupled inductor the stress across the devices are much low so there is no need for any soft switching scheme [10].
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Interleaved DC DC Boost Converter with High Voltage Gain and Efficiency for Solar Energy Systems

Interleaved DC DC Boost Converter with High Voltage Gain and Efficiency for Solar Energy Systems

The design of interleaved converter from conventional converter is done. The existing conventional converter even though having a similar output voltage has higher ripple values and also at higher duty cycle the converter struggles, and also their efficiency gets reduced due to higher stress for a longer time of operation. While the interleaved boost converter has a higher efficiency with lower losses and ripples values and the converter does not struggle like the conventional step up boost converters. Hence they are very much reliable than the conventional boost converters used for harvesting the solar power.
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Design and Implementation of Charging Circuit for Electric Vehicles

Design and Implementation of Charging Circuit for Electric Vehicles

In general, all the AC/DC converters comprises of a transformer following the input filtering, and then passes to rectifier in order to produce rectified DC. The AC-DC converters use multi-stage conversion topologies [5]. Diode bridge rectifiers conduct current in only one direction and even silicon controlled rectifiers (SCR) and triode for alternating current (TRIAC) are also used as rectifiers. During positive half cycle of the input voltage, the upper end of the transformer secondary winding is positive with respect to the lower end. Thus during the first half cycle diodes D1 and D3 are forward biased and current flows through the load resistance. During this negative half of each input cycle, the diodes D2 and D4 are reverse biased and current is not allowed to flow as shown in Fig.3.During second half cycle of the input voltage, the lower end of the transformer secondary winding is positive with respect to the upper end. Thus diodes D2 and D4 become forward biased and current flows through arm CB, enters the load resistance.
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Effect of Voltage Multiplier Cell in High Gain DC-DC Converter

Effect of Voltage Multiplier Cell in High Gain DC-DC Converter

2) High Gain DC-DC Converter with Voltage Multiplier(Converter II)[5]: The converter is a modification of relift converter in which the energy transferring capacitor C and the diode Do are split into two. The two diode (Do1,Do2)and two capacitor (Ca,Cb) combination act as capacitor diode voltage multiplier cell. The cicuit representation is given in Fig.4.The converter is a single switch topology which consists of two inductors (La,Lb) they act as energy storing device and significantly reduce the current stress in MOSFET switch(S).The input diodes(Di1,Di2) provides a path for the inductor current when the switch is ON. Diodes Do1,Do2 act as energy transferring path for the inductor stored energy when the switch is OFF .The capacitors Ca ,Cb act as energy transferring and storing device during switch ON and switch OFF of MOSFET switch respectively. The diode Dc connect the load during switch ON and disconnect the load during switch OFF from the source .The capacitor (Cf) act as filter capacitor. The working of the converter can be explained in two modes.
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A Solar based High Gain Single–Input Dual–Output Boost Converter

A Solar based High Gain Single–Input Dual–Output Boost Converter

ABSTRACT:In this paper, the proposed SIDO (Single – Input Dual – outputs) DC – DC converter based on coupled inductor. The required controllable high DC voltage and intermediate DC voltage with high voltage gain from low input voltage sources, like renewable energy i.e. PV modules, can be achieved easily from the proposed converter. The high voltage DC bus can be used as the leading power for a DC load and intermediate voltage DC output terminals can charge supplementary power sources like battery modules. This converter operates simply with one power switch. It incorporates the techniques of voltage clamping (VC) and zero current switching (ZCS). The simulation result in PSIM software shows that the aims of high efficiency, high voltage gain, several output voltages with unlike levels, are achieved.
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Modelling and Simulation of New Hybrid Boosting Converter for Photovoltaic System

Modelling and Simulation of New Hybrid Boosting Converter for Photovoltaic System

3)Mode 3[(D+D1)Ts,Ts]:At this condition, the circuit will work under DCM operationmode,thus the third state in Fig.4c.appear.At this state,the switch S is kept OFF.The inductor current has dropped to zero and all the diodes are blocked.TheC2a(eq) and C1a(eq) are in series with input source to power the load.During this time interval,voltage generated at port AO is zero while at OB is V in.

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High Voltage Gain with low Current Stress Interleaved Boost Converter for Photo-voltaic System

High Voltage Gain with low Current Stress Interleaved Boost Converter for Photo-voltaic System

As long as circuit working with the load, series connected isolation switch is in the on state. When the power circuit doesn’t require driving the load, it has to be disconnected. Otherwise passive components, especially inductor should not effect on the source. Hence now the isolation MOSFET disconnects the load from the source. The proposed circuit is same as the two stage IBC with modification such that connecting two switches in parallel. The isolating MOSFET switch is controlled by micro-controller that also monitors the output voltage across the load and input voltage provided by the source.
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Soft–Switched Interleaved Boost Converter with Quadratic Voltage Gain for Renewable Energy Applications

Soft–Switched Interleaved Boost Converter with Quadratic Voltage Gain for Renewable Energy Applications

converter with quadratic voltage gain is presented. Two boost- quadratic-topology switching cells are interleaved to minimize EMI while operating at lower switching frequency and soft switching to minimize losses. The result is a system with high conversion efficiency, able to operate in a pulse-width- modulation (PWM) way. Seven transition states of the soft switching converter in one switching period are described. In order to illustrate the operational principle key implementation details, including simulations, are described. The validity of this converter is guaranteed by the obtained results.
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A DC DC Converter with High Voltage Gain for Motor Applications using Fuel Cell

A DC DC Converter with High Voltage Gain for Motor Applications using Fuel Cell

fuel cell source is typically much lower than the voltage required by the system. A new DC-DC boost converter with a ideal input range and high voltage gain is proposed to act as the required power interface, which reduces the voltage stress across the system. The converter was measured as 95.01% efficiency. A DC motor is connected across the output side and closed loop is performed. Simulation is performed using MATLAB software and simulation result are shown. A simple prototype is shown in open loop .It is mainly used for motor applications and in industrial areas .The output of the motor is connected to PI controller and closed is performed .The closed loop is performed and the motor load does not vary in speed Fuel cell is used in project because it is renewable form of energy .The fuel cell uses hydrogen as fuel which is easily available and the byproduct of the Fuel cell is water .It is far convenient and does not wide open to environment .The usage of Fuel cell in the project opens wide range usage of fuel cell .
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Isolated Full Bridge Soft-Switched Three-Port Converter for Satellite Application

Isolated Full Bridge Soft-Switched Three-Port Converter for Satellite Application

ABSTRACT:A systematic single-stage power conversion method is achieved through a Full Bridge Three-Port DC- DC Converter (TPC) suitable for satellite application. Here, the effective power management is done through the three modes of operation depending on satellite’s one orbital cycle since safety margins are the utmost due to merging of multiple energy sources. Also, in order to decouple the multi-inputs and to regulate the output voltage accurately, duty cycle of the power switches and the phase-shift angle between the midpoints of the full bridge are considered as decoupled control variables to allow separate controller design for the three-port converter. Simulation was carried out to validate the effectiveness of the TPC.
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Hardware Implementation of Interleaved Boost Converter with Voltage Multiplier Cell for PV System

Hardware Implementation of Interleaved Boost Converter with Voltage Multiplier Cell for PV System

A novel high step-up converter, which is suitable for renewable energy system is proposed in this paper. A voltage multiplier cell composed of switched capacitors and diodes. The configuration of the proposed converter not only reduces the current ripple and also increases the life span of converters. Due to the lossless passive clamp circuits, the leakage energy is recycled to the output terminals. Hence large voltage spike is avoided. Even the low voltage stress makes the low-voltage-rated MOSFETs can be adopted for reductions of conduction losses and cost. Efficiency improves because the energy stored in leakage inductances is recycled to the output terminal. This design analysis is simulated using hardware which illustrate the better performance of the converter.
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Closed Loop Control of PV High Voltage Gain Dc-Dc Converter with Two Input Boost Stages

Closed Loop Control of PV High Voltage Gain Dc-Dc Converter with Two Input Boost Stages

History:-For high effectiveness, the SMPS switch must turn on and off rapidly and have low misfortunes. The coming of a business semiconductor switch in the 1950s spoke to a noteworthy turning point that made SMPSs, for example, the lift converter conceivable. The significant DC to DC converters were created in the mid 1960s when semiconductor switches had turned out to be accessible. The air extension industry's requirement for little, lightweight, and productive power converters prompted the converter's fast development. Switched frameworks, for example, SMPS are a test to plan since its model relies upon whether a switch is opened or shut. R. D. Center stream from Caltech in 1977 distributed the models for DC to DC converters utilized today. Center stream arrived at the midpoint of the circuit setups for each switch state in a method called state-space averaging. This improvement lessened two frameworks into one. The new model prompted adroit plan conditions which helped SMPS development.
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A Boost Converter for Renewable Energy Sources

A Boost Converter for Renewable Energy Sources

A multi input boost converter using minimum number of switches has been proposed for instantaneous power management of renewable energy sources. The four input sources have been applied for power management of wind/solar hybrid generation system. The experimental outcomes have been presented to show the validation of the converter. The output voltage is gradually increasing and becomes constant at approximately 123.1V, Output voltage of PV1 and PV2 is approximately 36.6v and 17.7v. The nature of output voltages of WTGs is fluctuating. The advantage of the converter is that it has the capability of MPPT control for different renewable energy sources concurrently. In future, the hybrid energy system can be additionally extended to some other renewable sources like PV-Fuel cell Hybrid Energy System to meet large load depending on an assortment of applications.
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Closed Loop Control of PV High Voltage Gain DC-DC converter with Two-Input Boost-Stages

Closed Loop Control of PV High Voltage Gain DC-DC converter with Two-Input Boost-Stages

Abstract-DC-DC converter is a device which produces a dc output voltage when a dc input is given. If output voltage needed is higher than input voltage we go for boost converter. The conventional boost converter can be used for step up applications because of low conduction loss, simple structure and low cost. However, it is not suitable for high step-up applications. Generally conventional boost converters have been used to obtain higher output voltage than the input voltage. When these boost converters are operated for high ratios it leads to high voltage and current stress on the switch. Hence an interleaving technique of boost converter has been presented. This method of approach can be used in high power applications to produce high voltage gain when compared to the conventional boost converter. A simple dc-dc boost converter are unable to provide high step-up voltage gains due to the effect of power switches, rectifier diodes, and the equivalent series resistance of inductor and capacitors. In this paper proposes new dc-dc converter to achieve high voltage gain without an extremely high duty ratio. In the proposed converters, two inductors with the same level of inductance are charged in parallel during the switch –on period and are discharged in series during the switch-off period. In this converter mainly proposed converter. That is used for PV system. To achieve high-voltage conversion ratios, a new family of high-voltage-gain dc–dc power electronic converters has been introduced. The proposed converter can be used to draw power from two independent dc sources as a multiport converter or one source in an interleaved manner. They draw continuous input current from both the input sources with low current ripple which is required in many applications, e.g., solar. Several diode-capacitor stages are cascaded together to boost up the voltage which limits the voltage stresses on the switches, diodes, and capacitors.
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A high power factor rectifier based on buck converter operating in discontinuous inductor current mode

A high power factor rectifier based on buck converter operating in discontinuous inductor current mode

and the voltage across it can be discontinuous. Then a high-power-factor can be obtained by a simple constant duty ratio PWM control. However, the voltage stress across switch(S in Figure 1) and diode (D in Figure 1) imposes major restrictions as the peak value of Vc 1 is

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High Step-Up Power Conversion for Photovoltaic Applications.

High Step-Up Power Conversion for Photovoltaic Applications.

(3.35) According to [126], if a non-unity element of (3.28) is difficult to realize, it is usually easy to realize its inverse in (3.34) or (3.35). The realization of the simplified decoupler is easier than other decouplers, but the diagonal elements of GG * are still a bit complicated. It is suggested in [125] to approximate each element by a simpler transfer function to reduce the difficulty of controller tuning. RHP zeros can be commonly seen in many practical MIMO systems. The limitations they impose are similar to those for SISO systems, although often not quite so serious because they only apply in particular directions [127]. A RHP zero is expected to limit the bandwidth of the closed-loop system. In most cases, the steady-state decoupling will be beneficial to reduce the interaction between the control loops. For MIMO plants, one can often move most of the deteriorating effect (e.g. inverse response) of a RHP- zero to a particular output [127]. In addition, a new design method is proposed in [128] to reduce the coupling factor and achieve stability by adding integrator-based controllers into the transfer functions. The methods proposed in [127]-[128] provide guidance in dealing with the limitation imposed by the RHP zeros.
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A SEPIC Based Dual Output DC-DC Converter for Solar Applications

A SEPIC Based Dual Output DC-DC Converter for Solar Applications

The proposed converter is designed for 12V input supply with rated output parameters 180W, 230V and 50W, 36V. Switching frequency of applied gate pulse is 50KHz with 75% duty cycle. Simulation results of proposed converter are verified through MATLAB/SIMULINK. Table shows the specification of proposed converter.

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Dual Input DC-DC Boost Converter with High Gain and Two Boost Stages for Microgrid Applications

Dual Input DC-DC Boost Converter with High Gain and Two Boost Stages for Microgrid Applications

The increasing of world energy,air pollution global warming and extension of fosil fuels have made it necessary to look towards renewable sources as a future energy solution.Various renewable sources such as solar energy, wind energy,geothermal energy etc are harnessed for electric energy. The output voltage from most renewable energy sources like photovoltaic, fuel cells or energy storage devices such as super capacitors and batteries deliver output voltage at very low ranges which are not useful for commercial usage. In order to make them to use we have to step up these levels to grid voltage level.With the increased penetration of renewable energy sources and energy storage, high- voltage-gain dc–dc power electronic converters find increased applications in green energy systems. They can be used to interface low voltage sources like fuel cells, photovoltaic (PV) panels, batteries, etc.to the bus in a dc microgrid system . They also find applications in different types of electronic equipment such as high-intensity-discharge lamps for automobile head lamps, servo-motor drives, X-ray power generators, computer periphery power supplies, and uninterruptible power supplies. Typically high-frequency transformers or coupled inductors are used to achieve high- voltage conversion ratios .The transformer design is complicated and the leakage inductances increase for achieving larger gains, as it requires higher number of winding turns. Consequently, it makes the design more complicated. To achieve high-voltage conversion ratios, a new family of high-voltage-gain dc–dc power electronic converters has been introduced.
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A Parallel Input Series Output  DC/DC Converter with High Voltage Gain

A Parallel Input Series Output  DC/DC Converter with High Voltage Gain

An parallel input series output DC/DC converter using dual coupled inductors is found to be a good candidate for low input voltage, high voltage gain applications. The converter can achieve a much higher voltage gain and avoid operating at extreme duty cycle and numerous turn's ratios. A voltage gain of 10 is obtained by operating at a duty ratio of 0.6 with turns ratio 1. The voltage stresses of the power switches are very low, which is 25% of the output voltage. Interleaved control reduces the input current ripple effectively. The output voltage ripple is calculated as 0.02%. The simulation results show that main switches can be turned on at zero current.
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