Top PDF Prospective teachers’ changing knowledge about teaching science

Prospective teachers’ changing knowledge  about teaching science

Prospective teachers’ changing knowledge about teaching science

PALABRAS CLAVE: conocimiento del profesorado; contenidos escolares de ciencias; metodología de enseñanza; evaluación; enseñanza de las ciencias por investigación. ABSTRACT • This paper describes and analyzes the proposals made by 92 teams of future teachers to teach concrete contents of science when starting and finishing an initial training course of constructiv- ist orientation, taking as reference the model of school research. In order to study the change in their knowledge about science teaching, we have selected four categories: the presentation of the contents to the students, the didactic use of their ideas, the methodological sequence followed and the purpose of the assessment. The results show that less one team, all the others are in an initial situation in a traditional approach to teaching. However, at the end of the course, 55 teams are in transition towards school research with different degrees of progression while 37 teams continue in the first approach. In all of them the methodological sequence is the category that progresses the most, whereas the purpose of the evaluation is the most resistant to change. Finally, we indicate the implications in the initial formation of teachers.
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Prospective and Practicing Middle School Teachers' Knowledge of Curriculum for Teaching Simple Algebraic Equations

Prospective and Practicing Middle School Teachers' Knowledge of Curriculum for Teaching Simple Algebraic Equations

97 examines curriculum knowledge components proposed by Shulman (1986) and Ball & Bass (2009) and the interplay of KCTE and PCK. The findings of this study indicate that “state-level assessments” serve as the most prevailing and prominent factor in teachers’ KCTE. To some extent, the “state-level assessments” component is placed at the center of the participating teachers’ KCTE. In addition, state-level standards are found to provide general guidance for teaching simple algebraic equations. Participating teachers also reported the overwhelmingly massive amount of content contained in the state standards. This result supports the previous research that state standards can help teachers with class preparation and instruction, despite that these standards “included too much content or omitted some important content or both” (Hamilton et al., 2007, p. 59). The mismatch between the state standards and what teachers perceived should be taught implies that professional development regarding standards and the alignment of standards with curricula needs to be further improved.
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Teaching Science with Technology: Case Studies of Science Teachers Development of Technology, Pedagogy, and Content Knowledge

Teaching Science with Technology: Case Studies of Science Teachers Development of Technology, Pedagogy, and Content Knowledge

Implications The findings of this study provide suggestions for designers of professional development programs that aim to improve science teachers’ development of TPACK. Well-developed programs that provide opportunities for participating teachers to build and sustain “learning communities” seem to have positive impacts on science teachers’ technology integration. Continuous support is necessary to help teachers overcome the constraints in incorporating technology. With models such as Loucks-Horsley et al., (2003) and Bell and Gilbert’s (2004), which focus on collaboration among teachers, effective professional development programs can be designed for science teachers to reform their practices. It is important to note that in the summer course we were limited in our ability to address certain aspects of TPACK (content knowledge) and broader, related issues such as school context. The follow-up activities and action research were critical in addressing and developing individual teachers’ classroom practices. In particular, it was found to be necessary to provide teachers follow-up assistance during the time when they were designing and implementing their technology-enriched lessons and action research projects.
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The Effect of Multimedia Cases on Science Teaching Self-Efficacy Beliefs of Prospective Teachers in Kenya

The Effect of Multimedia Cases on Science Teaching Self-Efficacy Beliefs of Prospective Teachers in Kenya

I analyzed the data to answer three research questions. The first question was: what do PTs notice or/and attend to when viewing a multimedia episode of teaching? To answer the question, I analyzed the worksheets that were completed during the intervention lesson as well as the field notes I made after each lesson. First, I developed a survey tool on Qualtrics, a survey and data analysis software free to Syracuse University’s members. I then entered each of the worksheets as a survey. My design of the survey instrument and analysis of the worksheets followed a framing by Roth McDuffie et al. (2013). Roth McDuffie’s framework categorizes participants’ noticing into four lenses: (1) teaching, (2) learning, (3) task, and (4) power and participation. In choosing the framework, I first considered the fact that filming and editing the videos may not always make it possible to focus on the teachers and the students simultaneously, and so the interactions that are visible are limited by the lens of the filming camera, as well as the final editing of the clip. Secondly, the framing allows a comprehensive analysis of data that is collected by watching clips even without other components of the video lesson, such as robust background information of the clip, knowledge of the context of students, and the original instructional objectives of the teacher. Thirdly, the framing comprehensively reflects the stated interests of teacher educators in the study: the teacher’s activities (teaching), learning activities (learning), demonstrable content mastery (tasks), and class control (power and participation).
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The case of prospective teachers’ integration of coding-robotics practices into science teaching with STEM approach

The case of prospective teachers’ integration of coding-robotics practices into science teaching with STEM approach

1201 | MUŞLU KAYGISIZ, ÜZÜMCÜ & UÇAR The case of prospective teachers’ integration of coding-robotics… Thus, many studies have recently examined the different effects of robotic use in various courses on teachers, on prospective teachers or on students. For example, studies show that the use of robotics have positive impacts on mathematics performance of primary and middle school students (Lindh & Holgersson, 2007); science performance of primary (Karahoca, Karahoca & Uzunboylu, 2011) and middle school students as well as prospective teachers (Cuperman & Verner, 2013); engineering designing skills (Larkins, Moore, Rubbo & Covington, 2013) of middle school students and STEM knowledge (Barker, Grandgenett, Nugent & Adamchuk, 2010) of primary and middle school students. In addition, in a study examining the perceptions of teachers on the effects of robotics on students, teachers considered that robotics was an effective tool to prepare for the 21st century and for improving teamwork, communication skills, social skills, problem solving and critical thinking (Khanlari, 2013). Likewise, Kim, Kim, Yuan, Hill, Doshi and Thai (2015) have found that prospective teachers find the use of robotics suitable to increase the STEM participation. This study also revealed that the use of robotics increases affective participation like being interested and enjoying, and that there is an improvement in the lesson plans of prospective teachers for teaching STEM. Rrobotics activities are also found as effective in increasing self- efficacy in teaching science concepts (Jaipla-Jamani & Angeli, 2017) and encouraging computational thinking (Üzümcü, 2019). It is also stated that projects related to robotics improve the education quality in terms of teaching process (Tocháček, Lapeš & Fuglík, 2016). In addition, some studies in which Lego education sets are used as robotics activities show that Lego education sets positively affect the academic process skills of middle school students (Açıslı, 2017; Çavaş, Kesercioğlu, Holbrook, Rannikmae, Özdoğru & Gökler, 2012; Özdoğru, 2013); their academic creativeness (Çavaş et al., 2012); and their attitude towards science courses (Özdoğru, 2013).
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Supporting Teachers In Learning About Inquiry, Nature Of Science, And In Teaching Through Inquiry

Supporting Teachers In Learning About Inquiry, Nature Of Science, And In Teaching Through Inquiry

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Over the past several decades there has been some concern over science and math scores in the United States (US). Test results from the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Studies (TIMSS) and the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) have indicated that U.S. students are falling behind students from other developed nations. The slide in science generally begins at the middle level and is more pronounced by high school. Science education reform documents advocate using an inquiry-based approach to science teaching (American Association for the Advancement of Science [AAAS] 1989, 1993; National Research Council [NRC] 1996, 2000). Inquiry-based instruction shifts the focus from the memorization of facts and concepts and focuses on students seeking answers to scientifically-oriented questions. Inquiry-based activities are thought to have positive effects on students‘ science achievement, cognitive development, and interest (Chang & Mao, 1998; Ertepinar & Geban, 1996; Geban, Askar, & Ozkan, 1992; Gibson & Chase, 2002). Moreover, inquiry-based instruction provides a context to teach about the nature of scientific knowledge [NOS] (Schwartz, Lederman, & Crawford, 2004) another important science teaching objective endorsed by reform-based documents.
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Theory–practice dichotomy: Prospective teachers' evaluations about teaching English to young learners

Theory–practice dichotomy: Prospective teachers' evaluations about teaching English to young learners

A sound pre-existing knowledge and recycled language can be provided to the students by establishing routines (Cameron, 2001; Scott & Ytreberg, 2001). Routine classroom language such as “Good morning!”, “Sit down!”, “Stand up!” “Who wants to play….”, “I want a volunteer!” etc. and routine classroom activities such as “Painting time, “Singing time”, “Story time” can build up a core language at the beginning of the year, which the students can handle and use themselves. Preferably, these routines should be thematically consistent, that is, activities, songs, and stories should be built on recycling the curricular language content in time lapses. Also these routines make students feel secure and maintain motivation as these activities take children‟s attention and ensure the learners to know what is going on, what will come next (Brewster et al., 2004; Scott & Ytreberg, 2001; Shin, 2006). Gradually the students can build on this core language by receiving even richer comprehensible input through listening to/watching teacher while reading or telling a story loudly (Mixon & Temu, 2006). Or especially videos and television can be useful tools in language classes on the condition that they are graded according to the students‟ level, short enough (5-10 minutes), and in the suitable genre such as cartoon, animation etc. (Phillips, 1994).
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The Influence of Instruction in Base 8 on Prospective Teachers\u27 Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching

The Influence of Instruction in Base 8 on Prospective Teachers\u27 Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching

148 whole numbers but did not explain why. By the post-interview, she was able to explain why for all methods. She correctly described why method C was not changing the problem. Neither prospective teacher progressed in CCK, although they began with high CCK, so there was little room to improve. According to the evaluation criteria, Mary progressed in SCK and Dottie did not, and that was because Dottie already had high SCK to begin with. It should be noted that Dottie provided deeply conceptual explanations of why each method would work in every instance by the post-interview. Results showed that a prospective teacher with high CCK and low CCK can benefit greatly from a unit taught in base 8. Since Mary began with high CCK, that could have contributed to her success in developing her SCK. Because she was already proficient in the procedural mathematics, she could focus all of her attention on her conceptual development of the mathematics. Like Safi (2009), results also indicated that a student with high CCK and SCK, Dottie, could progress even further and fill any conceptual gaps upon completing a unit taught entirely in base 8.
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Teaching the mathematics that teachers need to know: Classroom ideas for supporting prospective elementary teachers’ development of mathematical knowledge for teaching

Teaching the mathematics that teachers need to know: Classroom ideas for supporting prospective elementary teachers’ development of mathematical knowledge for teaching

suggestions for how these ideas can be developed through class discussion. We note that in our content courses for PTs, for many activities we do not use manipulatives. Our choice to use them is guided by whether they might contribute in a substantive way to the PTs’ ability to represent information or otherwise understand and think about a problem. Manipulatives that we have found to be useful on a regular basis include fraction tiles, red and black counters, interlocking cubes, pattern blocks, interlocking polygons, fillable solids, dice, and mathematics balances. We recommend that mathematics departments acquire at least a collection of these items. There are several companies with extensive online and print catalogs of mathematics manipulatives, including EAI Education
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Characteristics of Master of Arts in Teaching Preservice Science Teachers’ Pedagogical Content Knowledge during Student Teaching.

Characteristics of Master of Arts in Teaching Preservice Science Teachers’ Pedagogical Content Knowledge during Student Teaching.

PSTs’ Orientations to Teaching Science are Both Informed and Naïve but Can Shift Research involving PSTs’ orientation to teaching science (OTS) suggests that PSTs’ OTS can shift over time and can either be informed or naïve. Lederman, Abd-El-Khalick, Bell, and Schwartz (2002) described both informed and naïve beliefs about science. In their study, many PSTs stated that science is distinguished by the scientific method. An example of naïve beliefs included that knowledge can be gained only through precise experiment, whereas a more informed belief was labeled that experiments are not always critical, such as when teaching evolution, Darwin’s theory cannot be tested experimentally. Some of the earlier literature (Doyle, 1997; Richardson, 1996) discussed how PSTs believed that teaching science is a process of giving and receiving content (Parker & Brindley, 2008); however, more recently, a study conducted by Parker and Brindley (2008) revealed that PSTs in their MAT program possessed more progressive beliefs. These teachers viewed teaching science as engaging and having active learners in the classroom. They were interested in a more student-centered learning orientation, when students are in control of their learning, rather than a teacher-centered, when teachers lead the learning (Parker & Brindley, 2008).
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Prospective Teachers' Subject Matter Knowledge of Similarity

Prospective Teachers' Subject Matter Knowledge of Similarity

There were several common themes among the prospective teachers’ SMK. They all worked with their SMK in ways that many of them had not worked with before, by reflecting on their beliefs, content knowledge, substantive knowledge, and syntactic knowledge of similarity and development of lesson plans. In planning their lessons, the amount of SMK that they relied on increased and varied as the LPS progressed. It seemed that the prospective teachers in question had a grasp of ratio and proportion, and some good ideas about teaching students. However, they seemed to lack exactness in their visual representations and strength in the concept of similarity for any topic other than ratios, proportions, and indirect measurement. The knowledge base that the prospective teachers used varied from their propositional knowledge to instances where their case knowledge yielded different practices. In using their propositional knowledge, the prospective teachers looked at their experiences in their teacher education program or other professional experiences. Their case knowledge was heavily influenced by their experiences as mathematics students, in looking at the ways that they had learned or been taught, and what was appropriate for the LPS. Within these interviews it is easy to see that the prospective teachers began to change their ideas about similarity, thus causing them to rely more heavily on their SMK to generate and explain examples, definitions, and activities.
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Attitudes of Prospective Teachers towards Teaching Profession

Attitudes of Prospective Teachers towards Teaching Profession

* Not significant at .05 level Table No. 4 shows that the calculated value of ‘t’ 1.478 is less than the tabulated value of ‘t’ 1.96, which is statistically not significant at .05 level. This means there is no significant difference in the attitudes of science and social science prospective teachers towards teaching profession. Therefore, the null hypothesis that, there is no statistical significant difference in the attitudes of science and social science prospective teachers towards teaching profession is accepted. It can be said that, there really exists no difference in the attitudes of science and social science prospective teachers towards teaching profession. This is corroborated by the finding of the study conducted by Sharma & Dhaiya (2012) who revealed that Arts and Science B.Ed. students do not differ significantly in attitudes towards teaching profession but, contrary to the finding of Pehlivan (2010) who reported that there is a difference between the attitude of science and social science prospective teachers.
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Learning About Teaching Science: Improving Teachers' Practice Through Collaborative Professional Learning

Learning About Teaching Science: Improving Teachers' Practice Through Collaborative Professional Learning

Collaboration. A feature of professional learning is collaborative participation - referring to multiple teachers from the same school, grade, or department participating in similar learning opportunities (Hochberg & Desimone, 2010; Mokhele, 2013). The concept of collaboration engages teachers, principals, and other administrators in co- learning processes and the opportunity to learn and consider the perspective of others to further refine their understandings (Lee, 2009). Collaborative participation also leads to discourse between educators and possibly administrators, which is a powerful resource for teacher learning (Banilower & Shimkus, 2004; Borko, 2004; Desimone, 2003). The collaborative process of deconstructing and reconstructing knowledge with colleagues signifies how collaboration within collaborative professional learning is designed with a social constructivist approach to learning. The diversity of perspectives and expertise shared helps educators reach better decisions (Surowiecki, 2005). For instance, Wenger (2000), whose work is underpinned by social constructivism, believes that within such collaborative professional learning, practice is developed and refined through the collaboration of teachers sharing common concerns, problems or interests, and who develop their knowledge by continuously and regularly interacting. Also, Vescio, Ross, and Adams (2008) found 11 studies that reported increased collaboration, teacher empowerment, and continuous learning that resulted in increased teacher learning, and that translated into improving teacher instructional practice and student outcomes. Notably, collaboration is easier in theory than in practice because the collaborative process can prove to be demanding and personally challenging (Mandzuk, 1999). Even though collaboration is extremely hard to master, it is key to the implementation of high- quality professional learning given that collaborative inquiry that challenges thinking and practice is the how of teacher professional learning (Katz & Dack, 2013).
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Investigating the Prospective Teachers’ Beliefs About Learning

Investigating the Prospective Teachers’ Beliefs About Learning

Research on learning beliefs has shown that these beliefs are usually examined in two major categories, traditional and constructivist learning beliefs (Chan, 2004; Chan, Tan and Khoo, 2007; Eren, 2009; Bay, et al, 2012 ; Woolley, Benjamin and Woolley, 2004; Duru, 2014; Bay et al., 2014, Kinay and Bağçeci, 2017). Traditional learning is an approach which suggests that behavior develops by establishing a link between stimuli and behavior and that behavior changes through reinforcement (Özden, 2011: 21, Bacanlı, 2012: 29: Erden and Akman, 2009: 128). In the traditional understanding that knowledge is an unchanging and objective characteristic, information is independent from the individual (Yurdakul, 2010: 39), a phenomenon that exists outside of the learners (Özden, 2011: 6, Savaş, 2009: 412). In the traditional approach, education is teacher- centered. In the teacher-student-knowledge triangle, the teacher conveys the knowledge and the student takes the knowledge. In this sense, this approach does not give the student an active role in the formation of knowledge (Özden, 2011: 54). According to this approach, the teacher -as the source of information- is in the focus of teaching activities (Ocak, Koçyiğit and Özermen, 2010: 47). In this case teacher is the source of knowledge and the student is the passive learner in the learning process (Chan and Elliott, 2004: 819, Bramald, Hardman and Leat, 1995: 25, Tezci and Dikici, 2003: 255). The teacher in the role of information source is in this role challenging and restrictive and sets the boundaries of the knowledge that the learner needs to learn on a particular topic and assumes the primary responsibility for transferring it to the student (Tezci and Dikici, 2003: 255).
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Science Teaching, Science Teachers: Differences in Challenges of Urban and Rural Teachers

Science Teaching, Science Teachers: Differences in Challenges of Urban and Rural Teachers

necessary for academic success in science as compared to pupils from urban or city. It is argued that the lack of these resources has a demoralizing effect on teachers to teach science (Fredua-Kwarteng & Ahia, 2005). Science plays an important role in the society including rural and urban communities. The rural community that is always closer to nature needs a scientific knowledge base to involve in more informal conversations and debates on key environmental issues like water pollution, land and forest degradation aside career opportunities. Though, rural pupil may exhibit excitement about science or science programmes, with the given fewer opportunities to school science, might lead them to dislike science even more and the ultimate result may be fewer chances for rural pupils to enter science-based programmes or compete for jobs in the science fields (Zuniga, Olson & Winter, 2005; Coley, 1999). This is likely to lead to marginalisation and perpetuation of a cycle.
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College Student Changing Attitudes and Beliefs About the Nature of and Teaching of Mathematics and Science

College Student Changing Attitudes and Beliefs About the Nature of and Teaching of Mathematics and Science

instructional practices and classroom culture. Classroom culture is defined as the norms and behaviors guiding classroom interactions. In a study by Vinson (2001), it was reported that math anxiety in students, in connection with parental and societal factors, may be a result of math anxious teachers and their traditional instructional methods. Traditional methods, such as drills, flash cards, insistence on only one correct way to complete a problem, and concentration on basic skills rather than on concepts, may lead to overt and convert teacher behaviors increasing students’ math anxiety (Breen, 2003; Gurganus, 2007). Shields (2005) noted that the experience of learning mathematics in a structured, rigid classroom includes little opportunity for debate or discussion and focuses on searching for one right answer. These limited interactions discourage reflection on thinking and expects quick answers emphasized by timed worksheets.
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An Exploration of the Preparation and Organization of Teaching Practice Exercise to Prospective Science and Mathematics Teachers toward Improving Teaching Profession at Morogoro Teachers’ College

An Exploration of the Preparation and Organization of Teaching Practice Exercise to Prospective Science and Mathematics Teachers toward Improving Teaching Profession at Morogoro Teachers’ College

5.3.2 Microteaching, Single Lesson and Peer Teaching The findings from interviewed tutors’ on whether they do conduct microteaching or not, 5 tutors out of 8 indicated that they did; but very rarely due to the lack of time in the college, also when it was conducted it would involve few student teachers due to the fixed timetable. The remaining three tutors said that they did not conduct microteaching at all due to large number of student teachers in the classroom, for example there were up to 73 student teachers in one stream. In the focused group discussions both biology and mathematics groups revealed that they had never attended a microteaching even on a single day although it was written in their course outline. Additionally, both tutors’ interviews and focused group discussions revealed that no single lesson or peer teaching was conducted at college level as one of the strategies to orient student teachers in the selection and use of proper teaching skills. The findings imply that student teachers are oriented to theoretical teaching skills with very few strategies hence cannot implement it during TP. These findings are in line with the findings of Komba and Kira (2013) who conducted their study in Tanzania and found that during teaching practice student teachers showed poor teaching skills due to lack of microteaching during their training.
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Elementary Teachers\u27 Perceptions of Teaching Science to Improve Student Content Knowledge

Elementary Teachers\u27 Perceptions of Teaching Science to Improve Student Content Knowledge

foundation within the sciences, and potentially increase their affinity for the subject matter, which could inspire them to pursue a career in STEM. Second, the findings and subsequent action steps may benefit local elementary teachers by revealing the needs they have to more effectively teach science content and participate in targeted professional development to achieve that goal. Targeted professional learning for elementary science teachers may also influence teachers at the secondary level, who may discover that there is less need to teach lower level science skills to their students, and therefore they can invest in more rigorous science investigations. Third, it may benefit personnel at the local regional education provider organization through the identification of targeted teacher professional development on content and instructional strategies that might help teachers improve student learning. Fourth, local curriculum directors may benefit by being more informed about the challenges and strengths of their existing science curricular programs. The findings could serve as a basis for potential program evaluations or revisions to improve student learning. Fifth, this study may provide useful data to area universities, as colleges of education want to ensure that their elementary education graduates are amply prepared to successfully teach science content.
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An exploration of the Relevance of the Pedagogy and Academic Content Knowledge that are Offered to Prospective Science and Mathematics Teachers in Tanzania Teachers’ colleges

An exploration of the Relevance of the Pedagogy and Academic Content Knowledge that are Offered to Prospective Science and Mathematics Teachers in Tanzania Teachers’ colleges

The data in Table 5.4 show the topics in pedagogical courses and their coverage which are offered to biology diploma student teachers in teacher training colleges. It shows that the course provide all important pedagogical skills required by prospective teachers to acquire prior to teaching practice or to teaching profession. Thus, the course seems to be relevant to student teachers during their training. For example in biology pedagogy the topic of foundation of teaching and learning biology in table 5.4 exposes the student teachers to basic principles of teaching and learning biology in secondary schools, also the topic of assessment in biology exposes the student teachers on how to construct biology test/examination, moderate, standardization and keeping the students’ record of their progress. The rest of the topics follow the same trend in providing useful knowledge and skills to student teachers. The pedagogical courses seem to be relevant to student teachers in that student teachers should be provided with pedagogical skills before teaching practice which will include knowing different teaching methods, techniques and strategies to be used in a classroom situation, for instance the use of discussions, debates, designing experiments that could be exploratory with an inquiry mind, developing or using simulations and organizing workshops, all these methods are within Tables 5.3 and 5.4 suggesting that the content is enough to student teachers at diploma level.
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Science Knowledge for Teaching

Science Knowledge for Teaching

Use their knowledge and understanding of physical phenomena to link cause and effect in simple explanations (e.g. a bulb failing to light because of a break in an electrical circuit, the direction or speed of movement of an object changing because of a push or a pull).

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