Top PDF Protein and energy nutrition of brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis (Mitchill, 1814)

Protein and energy nutrition of brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis (Mitchill, 1814)

Protein and energy nutrition of brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis (Mitchill, 1814)

74 Novoa et al., 2004), Atlantic halibut, Hippoglossus hippoglossus (Hatlen et al., 2005), sunshine bass, Morone chrysops ♀ x M saxatilis ♂ (Hutchins et al., 1998), European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax (Moreira et al., 2008) and perch, Perca fluviatilis (Borrebaek et al., 2003). Some omnivorous fish fed diets rich in carbohydrate showed hypertrophy in hepatocytes and vacuolation in the liver (Mohapatra et al., 2003; Kumar et al., 2005; Yengkokpam et al., 2005). Higher dietary carbohydrate caused histological damage in the liver of carnivorous fish which was related to ruptured hepatocyte membranes, swelling and vacuolation of the hepatocytes (Cheng et al., 2007). Necrotic hepatocytes in the liver of piscivorous largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides was attributed to progressive accumulation of glycogen in liver (Goodwin et al., 2002). Temperature affects the carbohydrate utilisation and hepatic enzyme activity. High temperature enhanced liver glycolytic, gluconeogenic and lipogenic capacities of European sea bass and gilthead sea bream indicating that those two species utilised carbohydrate efficiently at high temperature (Enes et al., 2006b; Enes et al., 2008c). Glucokinase enzyme activities of gilthead sea bream was higher at 25°C than 18°C (Enes et al., 2008b). Similarly, glycolytic enzyme activity of European sea bass and gilthead sea bream was higher at high temperature, where as FBPase, G6PDH and GDH was not affected by temperature (Couto et al., 2008; Moreira et al., 2008). Starch is better utilised than glucose by grouper, Epinephelus malabaricus when reared at 23°C due to the increased activity of GK (Shiau and Lin, 2002). Rainbow trout could utilise more carbohydrate at 15°C than 10°C (Hilton et al., 1982). Again, this fish was able to utilise more dietary carbohydrate for energy at 18°C in comparison to 8°C (Brauge et al., 1995).
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Evaluation of Meat Yield, Proximate Composition and Fatty Acid Profile of Cultured Brook Trout (Salvelinus fontinalis Mitchill, 1814) and Black Sea Trout (Salmo trutta labrax Pallas, 1811) in Comparison with their Hybrid

Evaluation of Meat Yield, Proximate Composition and Fatty Acid Profile of Cultured Brook Trout (Salvelinus fontinalis Mitchill, 1814) and Black Sea Trout (Salmo trutta labrax Pallas, 1811) in Comparison with their Hybrid

Çalışmada, kültür şartlarında yetiştirilen kaynak alabalığı (Salvelinus fontinalis), Karadeniz alabalığı (Salmo trutta labrax) ve hibritlerinin et verimi, biyokimyasal ve yağ asidi kompozisyonları karşılaştırılmıştır. Hibrit balıkların karkas ve et verimi değerleri, kaynak ve Karadeniz alabalıklarından önemli oranda yüksektir. Balıklarda, baş ve kemik ağırlıklarının yüzdeleri (kaynak alabalığı: 13,14, %1,66, Karadeniz Alabalığı: 13,52, %1,22 ve hibrit: 13,92, %1,44) benzer olmasına rağmen yüzgeç, karkas, gonad, karaciğer, iç organlar ve et verimi birbirlerinden önemli oranda farklıdır (P<0,05). En yüksek protein ve yağ içeriği Karadeniz alabalığında bulunmasıyla birlikte; protein, yağ (P<0,001) ve kül miktarları (P<0,05) arasında önemli varyasyon gözlenmiştir. Cinsiyetler arasında toplam doymuş yağ asitleri (ΣDYA) açısından bazı varyasyonlar meydana gelmesine (P<0,05) rağmen, alabalık örnekleri arasında tüm değerler içerisinde önemli bir farklılık yoktur. En yüksek DYA %22,04 olarak Karadeniz alabalığında bulunmuştur. Hibrit örnekler %27,14 ile en düşük toplam tekli doymamış yağ asidi (ΣTDYA) içermektedir ve kaynak alabalığından önemli derecede farklıdır. En yüksek çoklu doymamış yağ asidi değerleri hibrit bireylerde %39,41 olarak bulunmuştur. Hibritlerin, eikosapentaenoik asit, (EPA, 20:5 n-3), dokosahekzaenoik Asit (DHA 22:6 n-3) ve Σn3 değerleri diğerleriyle karşılaştırıldığında istatistiksel olarak önemli oranda yüksek bulunmuştur ve miktarları sırasıyla %4,27, 18,48 ve 24,98 şeklindedir. n3/n6 oranı en yüksek hibritlerde bulunmasıyla birlikte örnekler arasında önemli değişimler (1.41-1.89) sergilemiştir. Hibrit örnekler, kaynak alabalığı ve Karadeniz alabalığı ile karşılaştırıldığında daha iyi et verimi ve yağ asidi profili sergilemektedir. Bu nedenle Salvelinus fontinalis x Salmo trutta labrax hibritlerinin kültüre alınması yetiştiricilik açısından faydalı olacak ve daha yüksek ekonomik değer sunacaktır.
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Reproductive biology and maturation control of Brook Trout (Salvelinus fontinalis, Mitchill) in Tasmania

Reproductive biology and maturation control of Brook Trout (Salvelinus fontinalis, Mitchill) in Tasmania

Since the start of Tasmanian salmonid farming in 1998, production has increased significantly with the Tasmanian Aquacult. industry now producing 97% of Australia’s total salmonid production (ABARES, 2010). Rainbow trout (Onchorhynchus mykiss) and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) farming contributes the most to total salmonid production. To ensure sustainability and commercial diversity of these species, brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis, Mitchill, 1814) is a potential alternative for industry. Brook trout was introduced to Tasmania in 1962 from Nova Scotia, Canada (Clements,1988) and stocked into suitable ponds, lagoons, lakes (MacCrimm and Campbell, 1969) and farms for recreational fishing stocking purposes and supply for brood stock to commercial producers (S. Chilcott, Inland Fisheries Service, Pers. Comm.). Due to its potential importance in Tasmanian Aquacult. and the fact that no information has been reported on the reproductive biology of brook trout under Tasmanian environmental conditions this study aimed at describing the gonadal development during the first two years of life to study puberty and annual reproductive cycle.
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Upper thermal limits of growth in brook trout and their relationship to stress physiology

Upper thermal limits of growth in brook trout and their relationship to stress physiology

The eastern brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis (Mitchill 1814), is an iconic cold-water species of North America and, for many stream systems, the most abundant vertebrate. Brook trout may be particularly sensitive to increased water temperatures in response to climate change, as local populations are spatially constrained to stream networks. Previous brook trout habitat models suggest global warming will lead to a significant loss of habitat throughout the species range, with increasing impacts felt by southern populations (Meisner, 1990; Flebbe et al., 2006). These models currently rely on untested assumptions of the upper temperature limit of persistence and would be improved with information on the upper thermal limits for growth in this species. There are well-defined effects of temperature on growth rates for most freshwater salmonids (Brett, 1979), and a number of studies have found 13 – 16°C to be optimal for brook trout growth (Baldwin, 1956; McCormick et al., 1972; Hokanson et al., 1973; Dwyer et al., 1983; McMahon et al., 2007), but the upper limits for growth in brook trout have yet to be determined. Recent field studies indicate that brook trout are not present in waters above a 24-day mean maximum temperature of 22°C (Wehrly et al., 2007). Additional work in a lentic system suggests that populations are limited by temperatures above 20°C (Robinson et al., 2010). Laboratory and field-based studies suggest the upper incipient lethal temperature for brook trout is 25.3°C (Fry et al., 1946; Fry, 1951; Wehrly et al., 2007). The disparity between the lethal temperature and the temperature limits seen in nature suggests that sublethal temperature effects play a crucial role in limiting fish populations, perhaps through their impact on food consumption and growth.
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Infections with Gyrodactylus spp  (Monogenea) in Romanian fish farms: Gyrodactylus salaris Malmberg, 1957 extends its range

Infections with Gyrodactylus spp (Monogenea) in Romanian fish farms: Gyrodactylus salaris Malmberg, 1957 extends its range

Gyrodactylus salaris is known to infect a number of host species in addition to its type-host, the Atlantic sal- mon, although generally without causing disease (see [1] for a review). Both the rainbow trout, Onchorhyncus mykiss Walbaum, 1792, and Arctic char, Salvelinus alpinus L., seem to be suitable hosts that can sustain infections for long periods [4, 5], but G. salaris has also experimentally been shown to live and reproduce on several other fish hosts, such as e.g. the brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis Mitchill, 1814, lake trout Salvelinus namaycush Walbaum, 1792, grayling Thymallus thymallus L., and brown trout Salmo trutta L. [1, 6]. In recent years, non-pathogenic strains of G. salaris have also been reported [7, 8]. The parasite is par- ticularly common on rainbow trout [2, 3, 9, 10] and due to the risk of introduction to new regions, trade in live suscep- tible species of listed diseases is only permitted between countries, zones or compartments of equivalent health sta- tus (or from higher to lower status) (EU L 328/14).
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Quantification of Astaxanthin and Canthaxanthin in Muscle Tissues of Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss and Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis

Quantification of Astaxanthin and Canthaxanthin in Muscle Tissues of Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss and Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis

200 mg Vit E. The digestible energy is 19,8 MJ. The raw materials used for the feed production are: fish meal, animal proteins, fish oil, sunflower concentrate, colza oil, wheat, wheat meal, powdered hemoglobin and colza expeller. This feed was picked because of the following advantages: extruded and slowly sinking; suitable for growing up fish; high content of fish meal, animal proteins and fish oil of great quality; high digestibility; low water pollution and no content of GMOs, according Regulation (EC) 1829/2003. The diet plan is in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations, which are consistent with the size of the fish and the water temperature.
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Seasonal variation and the effects of inbreeding on sperm quality in Lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush)

Seasonal variation and the effects of inbreeding on sperm quality in Lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush)

The effects of inbreeding, the mating between relatives, in both captive and wild species have been reported to negatively affect a wide variety of life history traits related to survivorship, known as inbreeding depression. More recently however, the effects of inbreeding on reproductive traits such as male sperm quality have become of particular interest (primarily in mammals while studies on other taxa are lacking) because of their direct role in competitive fertilization success. The objective of this study was to test the inbreeding depression hypothesis as it relates to sperm quality metrics using sexually mature males from a captive population of experimentally inbred and outbred lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush. I found that sperm quality metrics (including velocity, motility, linearity, longevity and concentration) of moderately (whose parents were maternal and paternal half siblings) and highly (whose parents were full siblings) inbred males, did not differ significantly from outbred males, providing no support for the predictions of the inbreeding depression hypothesis. The lack of differences in sperm quality traits can likely be explained by several factors including no inbreeding depression in the
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Relationship between individual variation in morphological characters and
swimming costs in brook charr (Salvelinus fontinalis) and yellow
perch (Perca flavescens)

Relationship between individual variation in morphological characters and swimming costs in brook charr (Salvelinus fontinalis) and yellow perch (Perca flavescens)

related to thrust production and to drag forces such as body shape, caudal peduncle depth, the size and aspect ratio of the caudal fin (Webb, 1982; Webb and Weihs, 1986). Of these, the overall body shape of fishes is particularly interesting because of its possible link with energy reserves. The accumulation of energy reserves may lead to an overall body shape that is more stout and less elongated, which can potentially increase drag forces and, as a consequence, swimming costs. Such a conflict between the accumulation of energy reserves and locomotor efficiency is well documented in small birds, where the accumulation of fat causes an increase in the energetic cost of flight (Chai and Millard, 1997), which may even lead to an increase in mortality caused by predation (Gosler et al., 1995).
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Social and spatial structure in brook chars (Salvelinus fontinalis) under competition for food and shelter/shade

Social and spatial structure in brook chars (Salvelinus fontinalis) under competition for food and shelter/shade

One might criticize also on the fact that the present study did not distinguish between resting and feeding sites as did Fausch and White (1981). These authors have compared brook trout position characteristics before and after brown trout removal, using water velocity difference, proximity of stream bed, being or not under submerged cover, and shade as criteria of quality. Fish holding positions beneath submerged cover which was 15 cm or closer to the stream bed were judged occupying a "resting" position. All other fish positions were classed as occupying a "feeding" position. Although their definitions of "resting" and "feeding" positions are quite questionable, their results agree with the basic regularities found in the present study. After brown trout removal, brook trout larger than 15 cm chose resting positions with more favorable velocity characteristics and more often in shade. "Feeding" positions of brook trout changed little upon brown trout removal. The shift in resting positions of brook chars after release from competition with brown trouts suggested that brown trouts excluded brook trouts from preferred resting positions, the critical and scarce resource.
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SPONTANEOUS SWIMMING ACTIVITY OF ATLANTIC COD GADUS MORHUA EXPOSED TO GRADED HYPOXIA AT THREE TEMPERATURES

SPONTANEOUS SWIMMING ACTIVITY OF ATLANTIC COD GADUS MORHUA EXPOSED TO GRADED HYPOXIA AT THREE TEMPERATURES

hypoxic water was found for these fishes. Other investigations with roach Rutilus rutilus (Stott and Cross, 1973) and brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis (Spoor, 1990) in oxygen gradients showed that these fish did not avoid hypoxic water completely but spent less time in the deoxygenated region of the gradient. The different responses reported in these studies may partly be due to the different experimental methods and conditions, but may also be ascribed to different strategies used by fish under hypoxic conditions. While an increase in activity level enhances a fish’s probability of encountering better-oxygenated water, it also increases its oxygen requirements. Conversely, a reduction in activity in response to hypoxia, while decreasing the fish’s oxygen requirements, also reduces its chances of reaching a more favourable environment.
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Kinematic analysis of a novel feeding mechanism in the brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis (Teleostei: Salmonidae): behavioral modulation of a functional novelty

Kinematic analysis of a novel feeding mechanism in the brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis (Teleostei: Salmonidae): behavioral modulation of a functional novelty

The results of this study confirm that the tongue-bite apparatus (TBA) of Salvelinus fontinalis has two identifiable post-capture feeding behaviors associated with it, raking and open-mouth chewing. During a feeding bout, these behaviors are common, occurring almost 100 % of the time, and are repeated several times before swallowing. Raking and open-mouth chewing are significantly different from one another in the kinematic variables measured (Table 2). In spite of these differences, both behaviors are characterized by movements of the hyoid, neurocranial elevation and pectoral girdle retraction. However, raking seems to involve greater excursions of the neurocranium and pectoral girdle (Table 1, Fig. 5), while movement of the hyoid away from the lower jaw seems to dominate open-mouth chewing. Neurocranial elevation is particularly notable during raking (36 ° compared with 16 ° during open-mouth chewing). During the strike of prey capture in Salvelinus fontinalis, Lauder and Liem (1980) report a neurocranial elevation of approximately 10 °, which is much less than recorded here for either post-capture behavior.
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Predicting the Distribution of Eastern Brook Trout, Rainbow Trout and Brown Trout in the Southern Appalachian Mountains of Western North Carolina Using GIS-derived Landscape Descriptor Variables.

Predicting the Distribution of Eastern Brook Trout, Rainbow Trout and Brown Trout in the Southern Appalachian Mountains of Western North Carolina Using GIS-derived Landscape Descriptor Variables.

We applied a multiple logistic regression approach to a GIS to predict the distributions of brook trout, rainbow trout, and brown trout. Logistic regression allows for the interaction of multiple predictor variables and produces predicted probabilities that are typically converted into two possible outcomes (i.e. presence and absence). Overall, about 7 of 10 predictions were accurate for the occurrence models, which suggests that landscape-scale variables alone can be used to predict occurrence of wild trout species in western North Carolina when comprehensive local-scale data are not available. While it would be preferable to create models that incorporate both landscape- and local-scale metrics, we indirectly modeled a number of local-scale mechanisms because many of our landscape-scale variables affect local conditions. Since it was not feasible to measure local-scale variables throughout a study area as large as western North Carolina, we did not directly capture the variability in local conditions in our models (Steen et al. 2008). However, since landscape ecology research has shown landscape-scale variables to be highly correlated with local-scale variables, we believe using landscape variables was the best approach for meeting the goals of our study at this broad spatial scale (Schlosser 1991; Wiley et al. 1997; Fausch et al. 2002; Allan 2004).
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Hydrogeochemical controls on brook trout spawning habitats in a coastal stream

Hydrogeochemical controls on brook trout spawning habitats in a coastal stream

For example, dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration must be sufficiently high for cold groundwater seepage to provide support for fish life processes at the direct point of discharge to surface water (Ebersole et al., 2003), which is not apparent from thermal analysis alone. During warm summer periods in systems with suboxic groundwater, cold-water fish species such as salmonids can face a tradeoff between occupying dis- crete zones of preferred water temperatures with near-lethal DO levels and stream sections that are too warm for long- term survival (Matthews and Berg, 1997). The use of ground- water upwelling zones as thermal refugia is further com- plicated by competition with aggressive invasive species (to the northeastern USA) such as brown trout, which compete with native trout for resources (Hitt et al., 2017). Streams at higher elevations may support the persistence of reach- scale cold-water habitats where point-scale thermal refugia are not needed under current climatic conditions, serving as vital “climate refugia” against rising air temperatures (Isaak et al., 2015). In systems with reliably cold channel water in summer, which can also exist at low elevations when heavily influenced by discharging groundwater, salmonid fish may directly use groundwater-seepage zones for spawning rather than thermal refuge.
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Variation in salinity tolerance, gill
Na+/K+ ATPase,
Na+/K+/2Cl– cotransporter and
mitochondria rich cell distribution in three salmonids Salvelinus
namaycush, Salvelinus fontinalis and Salmo salar

Variation in salinity tolerance, gill Na+/K+ ATPase, Na+/K+/2Cl– cotransporter and mitochondria rich cell distribution in three salmonids Salvelinus namaycush, Salvelinus fontinalis and Salmo salar

A direct transfer experiment from freshwater (0·p.p.t.; parts per thousand) to seawater (30·p.p.t.) and a gradual transfer experiment from 0·p.p.t. to 10, 20 and 30·p.p.t. were conducted in May and June 2001, with 1-year old lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush Walbaum), brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis Mitchill) and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar Linnaeus). Lake trout were obtained from the Salisbury State Fish Hatchery (Salisbury, VT, USA) and brook trout were a non-anadromous form obtained from the Sunderland State Fish Hatchery (Sunderland, MA, USA). Atlantic salmon were obtained as parr from the White River National Fish Hatchery (Bethel, VT, USA) and were smolt during the transfer experiments. Total length of all three species used in these experiments ranged from 15 to 20·cm. All fish were acclimatized to laboratory conditions with flow through Connecticut river water for at least 2·weeks prior to experiments. Dechlorinated tapwater was used during all experiments and seawater was produced by dissolving Instant Ocean (Marine Enterprises International, Baltimore, MD, USA) in dechlorinated tapwater. For the direct
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Mechanisms controlling the microchemistry and composition of fish otoliths

Mechanisms controlling the microchemistry and composition of fish otoliths

Figure 2.1: Sagittal otoliths from age-11 lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) that spent their entire existence in captivity, (a) Otolith with vaterite growth being greater than aragonit[r]

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Windfall Lake trout-char population estimate_1998

Windfall Lake trout-char population estimate_1998

Sport Fish Division staff from the Alaska Department of Fish and Game operated a weir to count outmigrating cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clurki and Dolly Varden Salvelinus malma [r]

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Q BAND CHROMOSOMAL POLYMORPHISMS IN LAKE TROUT (SALVELINUS NAMAYCUSH)

Q BAND CHROMOSOMAL POLYMORPHISMS IN LAKE TROUT (SALVELINUS NAMAYCUSH)

Since all of the fish examined had con- sistent heteromorphisms at several of the quinacrine bright bands, these chro- mosome markers should be useful in genetic compa[r]

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Diversifying a Tourist Destination through Experiences: The Case of Long Lake, the Adirondack Park, New York

Diversifying a Tourist Destination through Experiences: The Case of Long Lake, the Adirondack Park, New York

Diversifying ~ ~ ~ Newcomb Lake Moose Pond Fly-in which ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ is fishing brook trout Bridge Brook Big in Upper Sargent Pond - Lower Sargent Pond First Lake ~ Pine Lake ~ Rock Lake ~ [r]

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Linkage Relationships Reflecting Ancestral Tetraploidy in Salmonid Fish

Linkage Relationships Reflecting Ancestral Tetraploidy in Salmonid Fish

Distribution of marked loci among the chromosomes of western Salmo (rainbow trout, cutthroat trout, and cutbow hybrids) and Saluelinus (brook trout, splake hybrids, splake X[r]

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Hydrodynamic function of dorsal and anal fins in brook trout
(Salvelinus fontinalis)

Hydrodynamic function of dorsal and anal fins in brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis)

The plateau pattern of fin oscillation, velocity and acceleration is also common during manoeuvres (Fig.·6). Asymmetry between dorsal and anal fin amplitudes and resultant jets are extremely variable and make it difficult to summarize manoeuvres using mean values. The most telling measurements for manoeuvres are the large s.e.m. for each mean value. Trout can control dorsal and anal fins independently from one another, as has previously been seen in bluegill sunfish kinematics where fish controlled dorsal and anal fin shape and surface area differently during manoeuvres (Standen and Lauder, 2005). Standen and Lauder hypothesized that kinematic asymmetry produces unbalanced torques on the fish’s body allowing for concise control of body position during a manoeuvre (Standen and Lauder, 2005); flow visualization of trout dorsal and anal fins during manoeuvres indeed show large differences in jet velocity and resultant torques (Table·3), supporting this hypothesis as well as the hypothesis put forth by the present paper that dorsal and anal fins have distinct functional repertoires.
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