Top PDF Public art and the making of urban space

Public art and the making of urban space

Public art and the making of urban space

The statue was a present—a poisoned one, that is for sure—to the Detroit Institute of Art (DIA) from Sports Illustrated magazine. From the solemn day of its inauguration in 1986 onward, the magazine sponsors every year the “Joe Louis” prize to the city’s best sportsman, who is awarded a miniature version of “The Fist”. Therefore, the public is here presented as: 1) a “democratic” culmination of a classic tradition which sees relevant historical events as deeds that carry eternal values, accomplished by great men, “chosen by destiny” o (god, hero, Caesar, condottiero, nineteenth century soldier, fascist leader and boxer); 2) a symbol of social cohesion: the work is at the public’s service, so that they learn to imitate the genius loci; 3) a paradigm of figurative, mimetic art; the public “understands” what they are seeing: it is a left arm as every man’s, only bigger, solid and black; 4) a good pretext for publicizing a sports magazine, which, the moment it donates it to the DIA is ipso facto coated in “academic” dignity (substituting the old alliance between arms and letters for the one between the ring and plastic arts). Finally, its size and its location do not disturb the traffic or the passersby, but neither do they “open space” or irradiate places, pointing to possible ways of life: this gigantic sculpture could be here or anywhere else in the city. And those who contemplate it are exempted from thinking or reminding the—racial, political, mafia-related, etc.—circumstances surrounding Joe Louis’ career. The monument does it for them, preventing them from being conscious of their place in the world as members of a community, belonging to a particular race and social condition, etc. The iconic appearance of the monument conceals the meaning of its referent. The ideal projection of the past into the future, urging aemulatio, prevents us from thinking about history. That is kitsch.
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Making sense of the city : representing the multi-modality of urban space

Making sense of the city : representing the multi-modality of urban space

one in particular, that of representing urban space in a multisensory manner' was rhe subject of a successful second-round grant application from the Departments of Architecture and Desi[r]

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Making public space. About the same or about difference?

Making public space. About the same or about difference?

city’s predominant image… …we are compelled to designate all types of space between buildings in towns and other localities as urban space…it is a continuous flow of negative volume between buildings…geometrically bounded by a variety of elevations. Every building must create coherent and well-shaped public space next to it…pedestrian space, gardens, streets, and parking spaces…[must be] formed by the buildings, not vice-versa. If architecture is both concept and experience, space and use, structure and superficial image (non-hierarchically), then architecture should cease to separate these categories and…merge them into unprecedented combinations of programmes and spaces. Live streets and piazzas create the outer frame for the social activities…Inherent in them is the quality that people are enabled to meet. We shall emphasize image—image over process or form—in asserting that architecture depends in its perception and creation on past experience and emotional association. Symbol dominates space. Architecture is not enough…[it] becomes symbol in space rather than form in space.
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People’s interaction with attributes of public art in urban spaces

People’s interaction with attributes of public art in urban spaces

The fitting of public art in towns and cities around the world has become favourable and has gradually been used in urban regeneration schemes. As today people begin to appreciate public artworks by interacting with it. This study explores public art in palpable forms namely sculpture, mural and street furniture. Many researchers have studied on the value of art in public realm and its artistry toward aesthetic, economic, social and cultural claims. Several studies have been conducted on attributes of the artworks such as attractiveness, size, material composition, placement and its social identity. However, there is still a lack of study namely on size, material composition and the placement of public art that can contribute to people’s interaction, be it active or passive. This study began with an observation at Georgetown, Penang to garner a prerequisite understanding of the site and followed up with survey questionnaires (N=211) to generate the results of public art attributes, and eventually interviews (N=5) were adopted to strengthen the findings. The questionnaires were analysed using SPSS (Chi-square test) and AMOS (Confirmatory Factor Analysis) and observation and interview data were content analysed. The result suggests that people like to interact with a life-size public artwork, fabricated from natural and non-natural materials which located at streets, squares, plaza or parks. For those who took photos, touched or observed the artwork attentively, they are infused with positive vibes such as feeling pleasant, contented and excited. Whenever they felt positive, they are subsequently motivated to recommend their friends, family or relatives to visit the artworks. This research allows landscape architect, architect, urban planner, artwork producer, artist and local authority to understand the significance of adapting public art’s attributes structurally and socially that can contribute to the renewal of urban space.
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Creative Interventions and Urban Revitalization

Creative Interventions and Urban Revitalization

creative talent.” 87 He discusses the importance of public art in presenting city officials with viable alternatives to capital investments (such as stadiums, performing arts centres or convention centres), which tend to cost tax payers large amounts of money but do not enhance creative or economic growth in the long run. Florida acknowledges that physical beauty and placemaking are crucial to attracting the creative class. 88 In order to inspire a sense of place, public art must be authentic to the specific city, which explains why the metal trees are effective in London, for they represent a key characteristic of its identity in an animated, creative way. Florida’s concept of public art and subsequently, his sense of place and place attachment in relation to the individual is more inclusive than some of his other ideas about the creative class. I take issue, however, with his view of who the creative class is exactly and who is excluded from this category. Works like Hodgson’s trees were not created with the hopes of attracting a specific type of person to this city but exist to celebrate one of London’s key differentiators, being the Forest City. Similarly, they are widely dispersed, publicly accessible, and have begun a necessary shift towards using public urban space differently, inclusively, and purposefully. In other words, they promote a positive sense of place for the community at large.
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Making Maker Space: An exploration of lively things, urban placemaking and organisation

Making Maker Space: An exploration of lively things, urban placemaking and organisation

This visual ethnographic study, which was conducted at Newcastle upon Tyne’s Maker Space, explores the organisational and placemaking processes that emerge from a passion for making things. Placing a particular emphasis on this lively engagement, it examines how makers get beneath the surface of everyday objects and perceive their potential for transformation. Tracing the intimacy that makers develop with materials and the surrounding sense of social vitality and possibility that this gives rise to, the study examines how place and organisation are continually renegotiated and given new meaning. The analysis contributes to the literature on sustainable ways of organizing that emerge from the interstices of everyday life and adds to a growing literature on space and organization. It infuses the metaphor of ‘parkour organisation’ (where parkour is conceived as a disruptive and sensual mind-body engagement with urban space) with a material sensibility drawn from scholarship on lively materials (a fluid conception of things as materials in movement) and ecological sustainability. The organisation that emerges from the needs of makers to engage in a fluid conversation with materials is posited as a sometimes tense yet fruitful negotiation that characterises Maker Space as vibrant and distinctly alive. This process is evaluated as in keeping with approaches to urban development that disrupt ‘non-place’, promoting critical awareness of one’s surroundings, and of civic life, through sensual, richly textured engagement.
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Public art and the art of the public : after the creative city

Public art and the art of the public : after the creative city

My objective in summarising the recent history of public art’s urban policy appropriation is not just to show how Labour’s ‘social instrumentalism’, combined with culture-led urban regeneration, positioned it firmly within other political agendas. For it was through the experience of policy appropriation that public art developed an extraordinary range of reference and professional capability. Considering this history raises some interesting questions, which in turn provoke some ideas on public art’s own possible ‘public’ agenda. While public art is not a unified artistic practice, with established forms of professional representation (unlike architecture, media, or acting and theatre) it does, at least potentially, have a unifying principle in its ‘public’ mandate. Internal to public art and its history in civic monuments and commemorative sculpture is an engagement with the symbolic language of civic power, public interest and cultural identity (whether the nation state, local city municipality, multi-ethnic Europe or global citizenship), and this has been very useful to cities and their strategic use of culture. The Creative City, above all, was a vision for a public city. It was so enchanted with how creativity could make cities more exciting and vibrant places that it neglected to develop the political potential of creativity. Yet the idea lives on – art and creative practice is a model and leader for urban development. Public art can be such a catalyst for developing models of urban change, grounded as it is in the politics of urban space. It is not simply ‘artists working in the public realm’, but the space of cities define a distinct realm of cultural production and action, quite separate
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Wasted Space: performance, public space, urban renewal and identity.

Wasted Space: performance, public space, urban renewal and identity.

Akademia Ruchu are a performance art collective which formed in Warsaw, Poland, in 1973. They refer to themselves as a “theatre of behaviour” although their work incorporates many different mediums including theatre, visual art, performance and film. Fundamentally, their creative processes are concerned with ‘movement, space and social message.’ 179 Their most prominent work has involved excursions into the practices of everyday life and actions in public spaces, which they refer to as the ‘field of action’ 180 : a space for activity and change, a contested reality whose system of significations is transformed by the process of performance and social engagement. Some their work has consisted of the simplest of performative acts, such as Stumble, in which ‘seemingly accidental’ passersby would trip or stumble in the middle of a conspicuous public space, 181 or Man and his things, where a half-naked man stands, mostly motionless, for a whole day in a public space surround by an inventory of the banal and tawdry everyday objects typically seen as indispensable to the average person. More recently, in The market for toys, 182 they spent four hours standing around in Times Square, New York, wearing high-visibility vests that had “Observer” printed on the back: in one of the most frenetically spectacularised spaces in the world, they stood still and drew attention to the simple act of observation. These simple actions are not intended as mirrors or interventions in the “real”, but as encounters in everyday life and public space that open a discourse on the “real” and its significations. Also, the element of duration is important in a lot of their work, which recognises that a continued presence is just as important, if not more effective, than a “pop-up” or short intervention, in the engagement of art in everyday life.
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New Forms of Place Making and Public Space in Contemporary Urban Development in Seoul, South Korea

New Forms of Place Making and Public Space in Contemporary Urban Development in Seoul, South Korea

As described in Seoul urban development by Seon (2003), following the libe- ration and independence from Japan in 1945, Seoul experienced extremely rapid urban construction that further broke away from the traditional concepts of geomancy and embraced modern designs and international influences. Howev- er, detailed research into the history of the urban development of Seoul is hin- dered by the fact that through the period of Japanese colonization (1910-1945) and the Korean War (1950-1953) most of the historical urban development and policy documents relating to Seoul were burned or destroyed. Consequently the surviving documentation recording how Seoul has changed and developed is li- mited (Seon, 2003). Currently, only a small number of authors (Seon, 2003; Lee, 1994; Kim, 1991) have published accounts of Seoul’s urban development and transformation, based on the limited written history and oral accounts from government officials and private developers.
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Appropriate urban public open space

Appropriate urban public open space

People's role in the making of Malaysian great cities (Johan Azmir Anis, 2000: 11) is the concern of this research, yet, another thorny issue that has been propagated by the local media is the lack of social harmony and integration among various races in Malaysia (Ashraf Abdullah, 2000: 1) also will be briefly clarified. Through the Dasar Ekonomi Baru, or New Economic Policy, now in the middle of its Ninth Edition, the government tries to bridge the economic and social gaps between the three major races, namely the Malay, the Chinese and the Indians with the aim to promote racial integration. In 2001, Deputy Prime Minister then, Datuk Seri Abdullah Ahmad Badawi, expressed that the nation took national unity into account when it implemented the development plans right from the time of independence until now (The Sun, 2001: 6). He, now the Prime Minister, has reiterated the same agenda when revealing the latest edition of the plan in early 2006. Urban design and planning wise, however, the effort has been ineffective since most new urban developments, especially of public open spaces that have been taking place in Malaysian major towns, merely reflect political and architectural concerns without thorough investigation of users’ behavior and activities (Ahmad Bashri Sulaiman, 2000). Mohd Khalid Harun (2000), Vice President of Real Estate and Housing Developers’ Association of Malaysia, stated that in a multi­ racial, multi-cultural and multi-religious society like Malaysia, the city must fulfill an important role of maintaining racial harmony and unity. Although he did not refer to specific typological urban generation, he inferred to the importance of urban environment that prioritizes public open space development, which is capable of stimulating and mustering social interaction.
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Analysing Chowk as an Urban Public Space A Case of Lucknow

Analysing Chowk as an Urban Public Space A Case of Lucknow

Physical attributes of a place plays a major role on making an impact on one’s mind. As physical qualities gives a high probability of remembering a place it makes a strong image on the observer, which is basically called imageability. We remember a place just by the arrangement pattern, the building styles, any repetitive element, any foci , any structure at the junctions, by the fragrance we get by entering any place that’s creates the imageability of a place. He used five basic elements which people use to construct their mental image of a city, that are-
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A spatial strategy for the production of place in two German cities - Urban design interventions as a driver for spatial transformation

A spatial strategy for the production of place in two German cities - Urban design interventions as a driver for spatial transformation

Place making is a highly complex task due to the inter- relatedness of physical space and non-physical activities and due to the interdependency of multiple places across space and time. Therefore, urban designers must ac- knowledge the fact that master planning, as a static shaping of the physical dimensions of a place, cannot prepare urban development for dealing with all contin- gencies. Handling future challenges requires the dialogue between disciplines and the focal point of the debate must be the transformation of place rather than norma- tive concept. Urban design teams must bring together the competencies to understand and allocate all place- specific and global resources. Design has to be under- stood in a broader sense. It is not only about designing a place but also about designing its spatial transformation process. It is thereby part of the public discourse, in
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Urban visions for the architectural project of public space

Urban visions for the architectural project of public space

This idea has been applied to all kinds of designs and interventions. We consider that the Grands Travaux follow this urban acupuncture approach. These were a series of works of a cultural nature that were promoted from 1981 onwards by François Mitterrand, the president of France at the time, in order to democratise cultural and artistic heritage and make it accessible. They were specific interventions that put different districts of the city on the map. Such districts had been remote and forgotten until the intervention gave them a certain image or transformed them into a landmark. Projects such as the Parc de la Villette reactivated the surrounding urban fabric. The National Library of France, by Dominique Perrault, achieved the same in Tolbiac. There are many other examples. Mitterrand also applied this practice to different parts of the country: he commissioned Ciriani to design an archaeology museum in Arles and Norman Foster to design the Carré d’Art – Museum of Modern Art in Nîmes. This unprecedented and strategic creation of facilities implicitly lifted the city beyond its usual area of influence. The strategy was repeated in different French cities.
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Street Art: Its Display in Public Space and Issues within a Municipality

Street Art: Its Display in Public Space and Issues within a Municipality

motivation and think of other implications in society for the research. Due to the illegal nature of the art form, many of the planning tactics usually utilized in graffiti deterrence such as forums, negotiations, public hearings and legal walls do not translate to street art. I would argue that cities have neglected to understand street art before trying to "deal" with it. To employ an urban program to encourage approved street art would be faced with countless obstacles, difficulty and run counter intuitive to the elements and framework that make up the art form. I believe with increased understanding it becomes possible, even necessary for city officials to engage and promote this grassroots culture. Current understanding fails to recognize the entire spectrum from Harsh to Banksy which proves difficult for a city and criminal justice advocates to not only classify but show sound judgment in what should be eradicated, granted permits or allowed to stay without permitting.
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The Making of Audubon Park: Competing Ideologies for Public Space

The Making of Audubon Park: Competing Ideologies for Public Space

Audubon Park‟s transformation paralleled the changes taking place in cultural institutions across America. Museums and libraries, for example, played a significant part in Victorian cultural reform efforts and both institutions sought, like Olmsted‟s parks, to “civilize” the working class into Victorian respectability. At first, museums attempted to instill religious obedience by closing on Sunday. 124 They also prohibited canes in order to protect the art from vandalism 125 . The general public, however, had to work six days a week. If the museum was closed Sunday, their only day off, the very people the museum intended to civilize would not be able to visit. Museums eventually recognized the need to accommodate the working class and opened on Sundays. Similarly, the genteel guardians of public libraries originally tried to instill Victorian morality by banning a number of popular books deemed improper due to their portrayal of women as a powerful and often sexual protagonist. 126 The public responded to this attempt to control their reading choices by not going to the library and eventually the libraries, like the museums, decided it was necessary to loosen their grip. By 1900, “public library leaders had all but given up an attempt to discredit best-selling fiction.” 127
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Influence of urban waterfront appearance on public space functions

Influence of urban waterfront appearance on public space functions

The urban structure is mostly infl uenced by the presence of water in the form of a river. Its importance and infl uence on the public space and the inner relations within the city organism vary with the size and width of the watercourse, the nature of the banks, architectural layout of the waterfront and division of functions. Urban rivers can, however, have more shapes. They can exist in their basic form when the river fl ow as a linear town-making element holds a dominant position adopting a function of city artery as it happens in most European cities (Fig. 4, 5, 6). Watercourses can also take a form of canals, which are characteristic of Amsterdam, Venice, St. Petersburg, etc. Canals may form a complete network intertwining through the urban development or they can have only
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Making Public Pasts: Cultural Dialogue and Negotiation in Public Space

Making Public Pasts: Cultural Dialogue and Negotiation in Public Space

The legacy of the Vietnam Veterans Memorial continues to the present day, with abstraction being the default aesthetic for public commemoration in the West. Clay Risen, in a New York Observer article, described the influence of Maya Lin, a jury member for the National September 11 Memorial Competition, as embodying a dogma (2003). While abstraction continues to be the dominant aesthetic for public commemoration, particularly the memorialisation of problematic pasts, the figurative impulse is still evident. It is interesting, for example, to compare the winning designs for the two most recent design competitions for memorials on Anzac Parade, Canberra. The 2008 design for the Australian Peacekeeping Memorial, featuring a black monolithic form, is a starkly minimalist scheme in the contemporary mode of abstract commemorative art, while the 2011 design for the Boer War Memorial, with its focus on four horse sculptures, is overtly figurative in its approach.
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Sound art and the making of public space

Sound art and the making of public space

We had originally intended to have the Great Court as the site of the recordings and the performances. However, on visiting the Museum, both when it was open to the public and when it was empty, and only the low and droning noise of humming machines could be heard, it became clear that it would be very difficult to capture the room tone or room sound. The sound of the fridges overwhelmed all other sounds and was also unpleasant to listen to. What Ain wanted was to capture the sound acoustics without humans in the room and although it could be said that the sound of the fridges was part of that room tone it was both a dominating sound and one that is not specific to that room. In most other rooms in the British Museum the dominant sound was of air- conditioners which effectively smothered all other sounds. The sounds of the Great Hall, contrary to our expectations, were not adequate for a project of assembling a space of congregation because of the dominance of the mechanical sounds. As Ain notes on her blog: ‘The sound of the museum almost breathing. In reality it was the sound of fridges, the overly bright lights of the bookshop, a strange intermittent beeping, the scratchings of the feet of birds hanging out on the glass roof - and that was just The Great Court’. After walking around several of the collections, including the Egyptian rooms, Ain decided that the China, South Asia and South East Asia gallery, Room 33, would be the best space to record and perform in. This was mainly because it was one of the only rooms without air-conditioning, a sound which would otherwise dominate and overwhelm the room sound. Ain also liked that it has a large space in the centre that 4
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Facilitating Spatial Negotiation: a pragmatic approach to understanding public space

Facilitating Spatial Negotiation: a pragmatic approach to understanding public space

The workshop ‘Facilitating Spatial Negotiation’, which took place as part of the ‘Past, Present and Future of Public Space’ International conference on Art, Architecture and Urban Design that took place in Bologna (2014), promoted by City Space Architecture, demonstrates a pragmatic approach to understanding how public space can be realised. The method of collaborative painting is employed within a participatory practice that adopts tactics from spatial agency and critical spatial practice. First, this paper provides a descriptive and visual insight into the discussion between six participants on the topic of the street as a public space, in light of the Social Street movement. Then, it sets out how the session can be understood, through analogy, as a creative exercise in performing a common space. By reflecting upon this event through the framework of participatory practice, the focus is on how conflict is revealed and negotiated within the group. Two instants of conflict are discussed, which raise the critical question whether people are, in fact, interested in working together towards the production and use of common space. It is suggested that the implications of this workshop are twofold. First, a truly public space cannot be realised if the principles of common space are not adopted within the process of its negotiation. Secondly, the finding of a common language in the process of
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Practice of Creating Urban Public Space Cultural Atmosphere in Xi'an Chanba Ecological Area

Practice of Creating Urban Public Space Cultural Atmosphere in Xi'an Chanba Ecological Area

The creation of a unified city image is to unify the design and construction of urban sculpture systems, city guidance systems, public art landscape facilities, environmental labeling systems, transportation service facilities, information facilities, sanitation facilities, and so on. In order to integrate into cultural elements organically, it is significant to strengthen the cultural display of commercial agglomeration areas, and use various commercial activities and marketing platforms. The cultural elements include art exhibitions, performing arts, intangible displays, and group activities. Besides, it is necessary to strengthen the cultural style design and layout of public areas such as street light boxes, street lamps, public chairs, flagpole advertisements, and shop windows in major neighborhoods.
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