Biodiesel (fatty acid methyl esters or FAME) an alternative fuel to substitute diesel oil or diesel fuel made from oils or fats of vegetable or animal. Oils commonly used for biodiesel fuel, among others palmoil. Biodiesel is produced through the transesterification of oils or esterification of fatty acids. The research objective was to determine the quality of biodieselfrompalmoil reflux results through the process of esterification and transesterification. Transesterification reaction is the formation of esters and glycerol from trigliserin (fat/oil) with methanol. Transesterification is a type of equilibrium reaction (reversible, where the addition of NaOH catalyst (chemical catalysts) can accelerate the achievement of a state of equilibrium. The results showed that rendamen biodiesel was obtained by 77% and quality parameters that defined American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM D6751) has meet the standards in terms of density of 0.8654 g/mL, saponification 5.2979 mg KOH /g of oil, iodine number 18.9184 g I2/100g. Keywords: Quality, biodiesel, palmoil
In recent years, global interest in biodiesel production and utilization has increased significantly due to the international energy crisis, global warming and climate change, as well as fossil fuel depletion . Biodiesels, which are fatty acid methyl or ethyl esters made from biomass vegetable oils, are non-polluting fuels and a renewable energy source. Biodiesels are recognized as a viable substitutes for diesel fuel which can be produced with similar functional properties as fossil fuels from local feedstocks. A variety of feedstocks can be employed for biodiesel production like rapeseed, soybean, palmoil and jatropha . Palmoil, as one of the main agricultural products in Malaysia, is mostly applied for biodiesel production in that region. Palmoil-based biofuel could generate a similar efficiency as diesel fuel with lower pollutant emissions, but with higher specific fuel consumption. Moreover, palmoil-based biofuel can be applied in compression ignition (diesel) engines without significant modifications. It also can be blended at any percentage level with petroleum diesel to create biodiesel blends . Biodiesel can be produced frompalmoil through a transesterification process, in which the triglycerides (free fatty acid and water contents) frompalmoil react with an alcohol (ethanol or methanol) to form ethyl or methyl esters (biodiesel) and glycerol. The fleshy inner wall of the palm fruit called mesocarp is processed to obtain the palmoil. The step by step process of crude palmoil (CPO) and finally palmoil-based biodiesel production is illustrated in Figure 1. CPO is produced from the mesocarp through refining and kernel processing. Approximately 25%–28% of CPO can be produced from a palm bunch. CPO is processed into refined palmoil which can then be
MATERIALS AND METHODS Chemicals and Materials
Certified reference materials (CRM) for MGs consisting of monomiristin (1-C14:0), monopalmitin (1-C16:0), monosteara- tin (1-C18:0), monononadecanoin (1- C19:0) and monoarachidin (1-C20:0), plus n-methyl-n-(trimethylsilyl)-trifluoro- acetamide (MSTFA) as silylation agent, pyridine and n-hexane as solvent, were purchased from Merck. Samples of crude palmoil (CPO), olein, refined bleached deodorized palmoil (RBDPO) and stea- rin as biodiesel raw materials and 2 palmoil biodiesels were supplied as courtesy by the Indonesian association of biofu- el producers (asosiasi produsen biofuel Indonesia APROBI).
In this research, the ignition delay and emission are investigated with different injection pressure and constant ambient temperature. The blending machine used for fuel preparation. This experiment was performed in Rapid Compression Machine (RCM). The result from the experiment was compared with results fromPalm-Oilbiodiesel, Algae biodiesel, Jatropha biodiesel for validation purpose and to find the difference between Waste Cooking Oilbiodiesel and different biodiesel.
A sustained 30 percent increase in biodiesel demand of counterfactual analysis predicted a direct effect of a 27.94 percent increase in Malaysian domestic palmoil price. The domestic price acted as a transmission channel which results in a 1.18 percent increase in crude palmoil production, 0.45 percent decrease in domestic consumption, 0.43 percent increase in stock, 20.77 percent decrease in world price, 2.52 percent increase in export of palmoil for biodiesel and a 12.95 percent increase in imports. An ex-ante simulation suggests that the directions are consistent with the theory and counterfactual analysis but the magnitude of changes are smaller.
Abstract: The sustainability of petroleum-based fuel supply has gained broad attention from the global community due to the increase of usage in various sectors, depletion of petroleum resources, and uncertain around crude oil market prices. Additionally, environmental problems have also arisen from the increasing emissions of harmful pollutants and greenhouse gases. Therefore, the use of clean energy sources including biodiesel is crucial. Biodiesel is mainly produced from unlimited natural resources through a transesterification process. It presents various advantages over petro-diesel; for instance, it is non-toxic, biodegradable, and contains less air pollutant per net energy produced with low sulphur and aromatic content, apart from being safe. Considering the importance of this topic, this paper focuses on the use of palmoil, its by-products, and mill effluent for biodiesel production. Palmoil is known as an excellent raw material because biodiesel has similar properties to the regular petro-diesel. Due to the debate on the usage of palmoil as food versus fuel, extensive studies have been conducted to utilise its by-products and mill effluent as raw materials. This paper also discusses the properties of biodiesel, the difference between palm-biodiesel and other biodiesel sources, and the feasibility of using palmoil as a primary source for future alternative and sustainable energy sources.
Fuel- The study used three kinds of BDF derived from CPO which provided by Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM) biodiesel pilot-plant. The particulars of the tested fuels are detailed in Table 1. The fuels tested were a grade II diesel (STD) and blends of B5, B10 and B15 palmoil with the diesel fuel. The ordinary gas oil with the grade II diesel designated as a reference standard fuel (STD). Thus, the results for all the BDF conditions were compared with baseline operating conditions of standard diesel (STD). In this research, the kinematic viscosity of palmoil blend was measured by Viscolite 700 model VL700-T15. The density properties was measured by Metter Toledo Diamond Scale modeled JB703-C/AF. The water content in biodiesel sample measured by Volumetric KF Titrator model v20. The flash point measured by Pensky-Martens PMA 4. The engine fuel consumption are acquired with a precision ONOSOKKI volumetric fuel flow meter, and are pegged between the fuel tank and the fuel pump.
The catalyst used in the transesterification process will determine the process routes for the biodiesel production. In this study, the raw material, refined palmoil does not contain free fatty acids in its composition . Therefore, alkali catalyzed process is used. Alcohol and catalyst are mixed initially before entering the transesterification reactor together with oil. Methanol enters at a 6:1 molar ratio with respect to the oil (twice the stoichiometric re- quirement) allowing the equilibrium to be shifted to- wards biodiesel production. After that, the product mix- ture is sent to a distillation tower to recycle excess meth- anol. The bottom product is then washed with water in a liquid-liquid extraction tower to separate polar and non-polar substances. Zhang et al.  recommended 11 kg of wash water per 1050 kg fresh oil feed and the use of a second unspecified purification unit. However, in this study, the amount of water used is increased to 154 kg to achieve separation in a single step. The polar sub- stances such as glycerol, salts and residual substances are then neutralized with acid. The product from this neu- tralization process, sodium phosphate can be used as artificial fertilizer or to be dispose off and the non-polar product phase is purified by distillation.
Almeida et al. (2002) studied the performance and the exhaust gas emissions of a naturally aspirated MWM 229 direct injection four-stroke, 70 kW diesel-generator, fuelled with preheated palmoil and diesel fuel. The tests showed that, when the engine was operating with palmoil, exhaust temperature increased with load and specific fuel consumption was almost 10% higher at low loads. It was also observed for both fuels that, increasing the load, the CO emission also increased. Tests also showed that: the HC emissions of both fuels were low (up to 75% of the load) but tended to increase at higher loads; NOx emissions increased as the load increased and, compared with diesel fuel, NOx emissions were lower when the engine was fueled with palmoil; the levels of CO 2 and O 2 emissions were almost the same, regardless the engine was operating with diesel or biodiesel; and
fuel . A good qualitybiodiesel can be produced from crude palmoil by base catalysed transesterification, after a simple and cheap oil purification accompanied by acid esterification pretreatment to reduce FFA content . This technology was applied on a pilot plant scale with an automated biodiesel processor machine in Rwanda and showed to be promising. In this plant, biodiesel is produced with a yield of 90.4% and laboratory analyses have proved its quality to be acceptable on common biodiesel parameters. This was also confirmed by end users survey which showed their high satisfaction in various dimensions such as low carbon emissions, engine performance, and local cold weather operability. In all, the findings are industrially applicable, economically viable and repeatable. For a landlocked country like Rwanda, which doesn’t possess any petroleum resources, biodiesel production from low cost raw materials (crude palmoil) even abundant in the region, may constitute a promising alternative to its energy security.
Continued use of petroleum sourced fuels is now widely recognized as unsustainable because of depleting supplies and the contribution of these fuels to the accumulation of carbon dioxide in the environment. Renewable, carbon neutral, transport fuels are necessary for environmental and economic sustainability. Biodiesel derived fromoil crops is a potential renewable and carbon neutral alternative to petroleum fuels. The recent trend is attempt to develop biodieselfromoil crops oil. This work investigates the effects of MgO nanoparticles on the physical properties of palmoil. The crude palmoil was purified, trans-eterified and nanoparticles were dispersed in the trans-eterified oil with concentration ranging from 0.25% to 1.0% in 0.25% interval. Fourier Transform Infrared spectra (FTIR) was used to examine the structures of the samples, The viscosity, pour point and the flash point were studied. It was found out among other things that small amount of (MgO0.5%) nanoparticles in the oil could improve the physical properties of the fluid. The nanofluid with 0.5% concentration of MgO appears to have optimum physical property.
The high level of oil consumption may pose problems in the future. Twenty years from now, provided the trend in oil consumption grows at the present rate and there is no new oil discovery other than the published proven reserves, Indonesia will no longer be in a position as a net oil producing country (US Embassy Jakarta, 2001). The increasing use of oil for domestic purposes is partially due to the previous government policy of subsidizing this fuel. The subsidy has put a burden on the national budget. Although it has been reduced drastically, the 2002 budget has allocated 32 trillion Rupiah (US$ 3.5 billion) to the fuel subsidy (Jakarta Post, 2002). The reduction of the fuel subsidy, not only will give the GOI more money to finance the development of education, health security and economic infrastructure, but also more money to support the development of various renewable energy sources. For the purpose of energy security and the reduction of palmoil stock, the favourable actions of GOI policy to remove the fuel subsidy may allow biodieselfrompalmoil to emerge as an alternative fuel for Indonesia.
Abstract—This paper presents the Black-box modelling of automotive diesel engine fuelled with palmoilbiodiesel (PalmOil Methyl Ester). The aim of the work described in this paper is to obtain linear dynamic model of the palmoilbiodieselfrom test data. Assuming a discrete time form for the system model, an Autoregressive Moving Average with eXogenous input (ARMAX) model structures was selected in this work. A Pseudo-Random Binary Sequence (PRBS) with maximum lengths sequence of 31 has been used as the test input signal to the engine at the speed range around 2100 rpm. The input and output signals were interfaced to the plant via Matlab programming. Recursive estimation algorithm, Recursive Extended Least Squares (RELS), is used to estimate the model parameters. Finally, model validation was done by comparing the output predicted by the model against the measured output and also by error analysis. The mathematical model developed in this study present an analysis and simulation tools of engine dynamic system that forms the foundation for a systematic approach to the analysis, simulation and synthesis of the automotive palmoilbiodiesel engine control systems. The model derived in this work is intended for the development of self-tuning engine speed controller in future work.
Table 3 shows the properties of the biodiesel product were meet the parameters standard in SNI 7182:2015. Calcium oxide based quail eggshell as catalyst for biodiesel production was a heterogeneous system. The transesterification reaction mechanism of biodiesel production using waste palmoil containing triglyceride and methanol is illustrated in Figure 6. The formation of biodieselfrom glyceride involved three steps reaction mechanisms i.e. methoxide ion reacts with the catalyst (step 1), reaction of carbonyl carbon of triglyceride with step 1 to form a tetrahedral intermediate (step 2), and the intermediate forms a mole of methyl ester and diglyceride anion (step 3). The reaction was repeated to form three moles of methyl ester (biodiesel) [31,32].
Abstract. Biodiesel based on vegetable oil is an alternative that had various advantage in term of sustainability and environmental attractive compare to others conventional diesel. Biodiesel is product of any fat or oil that derived from any organic sources through a refinery process called transesterification process. This research investigates the effects of storage duration and variant ambient condition on the biodiesel properties and characteristics. In this study, there are three types of blending which is 5vol% blends ( 5vol% plant oil 95vol% diesel), 10vol% blending (10vol% plant oil and 90vol% diesel) and 15vol% blending (15vol% plant oil and 85vol% diesel) each called CPO5 (crude palmoil 5vol%), CPO10 (crude palmoil 10vol%),CPO15 (crude palmoil 15vol%), JO5 (jatropha oil 5vol%), JO10 (jatropha oil 10vol%),and JO15 (jatropha oil 15vol%) respectively. Biodiesel samples were stored at indoor condition and outdoor condition for a 3 months period. The fuel properties such as acid value, viscosity, density, water content and flash point are observed with the laboratory instrument. Flash point value and water content increased under both of indoor and outdoor condition and a steady data for viscosity and density. However, acid value at indoor condition nearly constant but increased dramatically for outdoor condition over the time.
Engineering decision support system (DSS) agro-industry strategy to overcome the risk of palm-based biodiesel can improve the effectiveness of risk management. This study uses a systems approach to the output of a conceptual model to overcome the risk of biodieselpalmoil -based agro- industry. In particular, this model is constructed by soft system methodology , particularly using Analytical Hirarchy Process (AHP). This method uses knowledge as a tool of analysis and interpretation , produces Biodiesel marketing DSS software is useful for marketing analysis and risk management. Each risk analysis model using fuzzy non- numeric method of Multiple Criteria Decision Making Multi Person. At the risk of agro-industry of biodiesel marketing, occurred at the highest risk elements of government policy. Factors that influence government policy of AHP analysis results in a row is market demand (0.33), the availability of quality raw materials ( 0.26), the price of raw materials (0:17), biodieselquality standards (0:13), and infrastructure (0:08).
ABSTRACT: The biodiesel are widely used in continually depleting with increasing consumption and price day to day .There is need to find out an alternative fuel to fulfill the energy demand of the world. An experimental investigation has been carried out to analyze the performance and emission characteristics of a compression ignition engine fuelled with biodiesel (make use palmoil). The biodiesel making process is two major steps, Frist preheating process and second convert to biodiesel preheating of palmoil to heat 70 to 80ºc And convert the biodiesel by using trans esterification method. Take methanol and catalyst KoH or NaOH with net amount of the palmoil, The effect of temperature on the viscosity of palmoil has also been investigated. Generally Fuel preheating for reducing viscosity of oils and blends has been done by a specially designed hot plate magnetic stirrer apparatus, with and without preheating is have been conducted using each of the above fuel. The performance characteristics evaluated include thermal efficiency, brake power, specific fuel consumption (SFC), And exhaust emissions include mass emissions of CO, HC, NOx and smoke opacity.
The reaction time affects the conversion efficiency of the trans- esterification process of converting oil to biodiesel. In this study, the effect of reaction time at different time interval on biodiesel yield was examined. Bio-oil was extracted frompalmoil mill effluent (POME) using soxhlet extraction apparatus. The feed oil to solvent ratio used was 3:1. N-hexane reagent of 80 ml was added to 240 ml of feed oil collected from a local palmoil mill in Ogbomoso and heated for 60 minutes to a temperature of 75 o C. Biodiesel was produced from the trans-esterification reaction of 150 ml bio-oil with 0.046 g of potassium hydroxide as catalyst and 25 ml of ethanol which serves as the limiting reagent at a reaction temperature of 65 o C. The reaction time was varied over a range of 60, 90, 120 and 150 minutes. The results indicated that optimal reaction time was 120 minutes with maximum percentage yield of 80%. The properties of biodiesel produced in this study meet the specification of ASTM and EN standards. This study has therefore indicated the influence of reaction time to achieve highest production of biodieselfrom POME.
Introduction Methods Results and discussion Conclusions
• Measure GHG budgets in young and mature oilpalm plantations
• Compare GHG budgets for oilpalm plantations in mineral and peat soils • Provide the first LCA for palm-oilbiodiesel based on field measured data for
Carlo analysis), 98% higher than reference fossil fuel emissions (Fig. 2 ).
For our enhanced LCA, we included the measured GHG ﬂuxes during the cultivation phase of a ﬁrst rotation-cycle oilpalm plantation on mineral soil (hereafter referred to as business-as- usual scenario; Fig. 3 ). This business-as-usual LCA indicates that the production of 1 MJ of biodieselfrompalmoil results in total net emissions of 216 (201, 230) gCO 2 eq. MJ −1 , suggesting that the traditional LCA underestimates GHG emissions by 14%. Our traditional LCA resulted in similar GHG emissions for palmoilbiodiesel than previous analyses for Jambi 36 , but our enhanced LCA (business-as-usual) led to 20% higher GHG emissions, conﬁrming that the C neutrality assumption does not reﬂect real ecosystem emissions. Both traditional and enhanced LCA point to no GHG emissions savings compared with fossil fuel (Fig. 2 ). This is mainly due to high land-use change-related emissions of 156 gCO 2 -eq. MJ −1 (Fig. 3 ). Therein, land-use change emissions were calculated from C stock losses after forest conversion to oilpalm plantations in the region 30 , and forgone forest C sequestration 39 was derived from literature 51 . According to the enhanced LCA, oilpalm cultivation, milling, biodiesel production and combustion, use of ﬁbres and shells and production-related processes such as waste-washing water (palmoil milling efﬂuent, POME) result in emissions of 136 gCO 2 -eq MJ −1 . These land-use change and life cycle emissions are only partially offset by the ecosystem capture of 77 gCO 2 -eq. MJ −1 (sink, Figs. 2 and 3 ; Supplementary Table 3).