Oda et al. ( 2019 ) compare ODIAC (Open-source Data Inventory for Anthropogenic CO 2 ) with GESAPU, a high-resolution, spatially explicit emission inventory —here, the one provid- ed by Bun et al. ( 2018 ) for Poland. ODIAC is itself a global inventory with a spatial resolution of 1 km × 1 km, based on the disaggregation of the national annual fossil-fuel CO 2 emission estimates provided by the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center. To achieve that high spatial resolution, ODIAC uses point source information (source points’ geographical location and CO 2 emissions) and satellite nightlight (radiance) data. Because of its greater local “realism”, GESAPU is used as a reference in this comparison. The difference between the two inventories is understood to serve as a proxy for errors and uncertainties associated with ODIAC. This difference is small for total emission estimates of countries (2.2%), point sources (0.1%), and non-point sources (4.5%). However, it increases toward smaller spatial scales, indicating that disaggregation error and uncertainty increase. Oda et al. find a difference (relative at the pixel level) of typically about 30% for urban areas, up to 90 –100% for urban-rural transition areas, and 10% for remote areas. The difference decreases with increas- ing spatial aggregation by approximately 70% for spatial scales, which are typical for global and regional transport models (50 km and greater). Based on their findings for Poland, the authors envisage using ODIAC globally to support monitoring verification and even at subnational levels —it is not unusual for countries to run emission inventories at the state or provincial levels while reporting only national emissions to the UNFCCC. However, as noted by the authors, such a request would need to accompany concerted global actions, ranging from the collection and reporting of data, through monitoring, to international governance.
This section provides guidance on how to quantify emissions from transit, including direct emissions from mobile source combustion (Scope 1) and indirect emissions from electricity purchases (Scope 2). It also discusses how to quantify emissions from transit capital projects. This guidance is designed to be applicable for all transit agencies, whether or not they register their emissions with The Climate Registry or a similar body or belong to the Chicago Climate Exchange. However, some agencies may want, or be required through state regulations, to join The Climate Registry. For this reason, the guidance is compatible with The Climate Registry General Reporting Protocol v1.0, and the more recent version of the protocol is incorporated into this guidance by reference. The principles of developing an emissions inventory are already well- established; this section aims to provide a high-level overview for transit agencies and to interpret the guidance in terms of specific challenges faced by the transit industry.
dating from the mid-1990s, when the introduction of these technologies began in the U.S. Table A8-11 in the NIR also contains emission factors for propane and natural gas vehicles, motorcycles (“Non-Catalytic Controlled”), off-road vehicles, gasoline boats, diesel ships, aviation gasoline and turbo fuel and renewable or biofuels (biodiesel and ethanol). In practice, biofuels are blended with fossil fuels, specifically gasoline or diesel, in varying proportions (e.g., E10, B5, B20), so that the actual emission factor is a weighted average of the biofuel and fossil fuel factors. However, since international rules require the separate reporting of biogenic emissions from
While Denmead (2008) comments on the advantages of use of flow through chambers Denmeade‘s review quotes no papers that use this technique. A major disadvantage of flow through steady state chambers is that related to the pressure gradient that may be induced by the air flow through the chambers (Rochette and Hutchinson 2005). Even small gradients of less than 4 Pa have been demonstrated to result in a several fold increase in CO2 emission (Kanemasu et al. 1974). Indeed, it has been demonstrated that pressure gradients must be maintained below 0.2 Pa for accurate determinations (Fang and Moncrieff 1996). The theoretical advantages of these chambers over non- steady state or non-flow through techniques theoretically include: an ability to maintain headspace gas species at pre-deployment concentrations, control of temperature, and control of humidity. However, it has proven difficult or impossible to capitalise on the theoretical advantages of this form of chamber in many situations. If emissions are large relative to the background atmospheric concentrations, it may be impossible even to maintain headspace gas concentrations at close to pre- deployment concentrations.
The US must reduce GHG emissions from the transportation sector substantially within 2050. So that the US transportation to be more energy efficient and less carbon-intensive, which reduce its GHG emissions from transportation sector. The dependence on petroleum the US transportation system makes the US economy vulnerable to significant excess economic costs on the order of hundreds of billions of dollars per year (Greene 2010). Mitigating transportation’s GHG emissions can save about 70% US petroleum use (EIA 2009). To buy gasoline US loss hundreds of billions of dollars each year which effects in economic development. In only 2008 the estimated economic cost of oil dependence was half a trillion dollars ($350 billion in wealth transfer, $150 billion in lost GDP) (Greene and Hopson 2009). All kinds of light-, medium-, and heavy-duty highway vehicles dominate the U.S. transportation sector’s energy consumption and CO 2 emissions (EIA 2009). In an
The amount of GHG emissions is obviously a function of the composition of the electricity sector. Figure 4 shows how the composition is evolving along the stochastic event tree. As the figures show, the composition does almost not react in advance of stochastic event nodes. Hence, the benefits from hedging against a potential regulation are smaller than the costs of this more expensive technologies. Changes in the composition starts only after the the introduction of binding emission reduction measures. In this case, the share of coal-fired power plants quickly decreases and hydro-electricity and to a smaller degree, nuclear and wind power increases their share. However, the transition in the energy sector takes only about ten to fifteen years, depending on the scenario. This might be a rather small period and obviously underestimates the long lead times for building, which are characteristic for most power plant projects. We let the consideration oft the “time to build” open for further research and concentrate us now on the evolving of composition of energy production.
emissions; P is total population or urbanization; A is GDP per capita; T is energy intensity, defined as the share of energy use on GDP, and the percentage of value added from the manufacturing sector in total value added; Commitment is a dummy variable, which is one after the year countries ratified the Kyoto Protocol and approved to meet quantified emission limitation or reduction commitments; and e is the random error term. The details of the data definitions and sources are illustrated in Appendix A2.
Looking at these methods can provide us invaluable advice on how to go about conducting our inventories. For example the Tuft’s inventory advises us to be cautious when looking at fuel data used by the university. They say in order to get more accurate results we should take our data from the amount of fuel consumed and not the amount of fuel bought because schools like to stockpile fuel certain years which would lead to much higher emissions one year and drastically lower emissions the following year. It is also encouraged that in order to complete a thorough greenhousegasemissions inventory non-carbon gases must also be taken into account. These gases included methane, nitrous oxides and sulfur hexafluoride. Methane mostly arises from solid waste, which we will try to evaluate as best we can, and domesticated animals which WPI does not have. Chemicals used in refrigeration will be taken into account and in accordance with EPA regulations. By law they are required to keep accurate records of amounts used but as we found data were incomplete and difficult to obtain.
Besides the political arguments related to distributional impacts, there are good economic reasons for auctioning emissions permits (Cramton and Kerr 2002). First of all, any administrative allocation procedure is likely to be ineﬃcient, at least temporally before secondary market trading occurs, as it cannot guarantee that it will allot the permits to those who value them most, i.e. those with highest abatement costs. Second, an auction – if appropriately designed – can serve as a mechanism to elicit the market value of an item. This aspect is particularly important in an emissions trading scheme, because many abatement measures require long-term planning and need years before they become eﬀective. The early price signals generated by a well-designed auction reﬂect the economy’s marginal costs of greenhousegas abatement and thus help the decision-makers to identify which measures are economically eﬃ- cient. Third, auctioning emissions permits generates public revenues that are
104 it is also important to compare emissions from specified biofuels with those from other fuels that provide the same function, especially fossil fuels, and equal masses or volumes of different fuels are not usually functionally equivalent. It is standard practice in life cycle calculations to express results per unit of product function, known as a functional unit, rather than per unit quantity of product. This facilitates appropriate comparisons between alternative products which provide different levels of the same useful function per unit quantity of product. The function of a transport fuel is to provide energy for operation of transport vehicles. It follows that an appropriate functional unit for assessments of transport fuel life cycles would be a unit of vehicle operational energy derived from the fuel. The amount of energy derived from a vehicle fuel and used to drive vehicle operation depends on the efficiency of the mechanism, usually an internal combustion engine, for converting the chemical energy of the fuel to mechanical energy of the vehicle. Vehicle energy efficiency depends on engine and vehicle design, condition and operating characteristics, and therefore varies between individual vehicles as well as between different operating instances for any vehicle 6 . In general, accounting for the different supply chains that contribute to the production of a single batch of fuel is much simpler than accounting for the multitude of vehicle characteristics that might complete the life cycle of that batch. Specification of fuel efficiency in a single vehicle or in a model representation of a vehicle class or fleet is required if a functional unit is to be a measure of utilized output of vehicle fuel combustion. However, the amounts of fuel energy exploited by particular vehicles (for both locomotion and other
Uncertainty estimates aim to show the uncertainties at the aggregation level of potential key sources suggested by the IPCC Good Practice Guidance. This enables a Tier 2 level and trend key source analysis of the greenhousegas inventory, including the uncertainty in the emission estimates. In the case of the Netherlands, the basis for the uncertainty estimates was the collective expert judgement of groups of experts – consisting of members of the PER Task Forces, other national sectoral experts, and RIVM/MNP/PBL experts responsible for the NIR report. The groups of experts partici- pated in two workshops held in 1999 (one on emissions and one on the LUCF sector), the conclusions of which formed the basis for the greenhousegas inventory improvement programme that started in 2000 (data source types 3,4, and 5, see above). Other country-specific uncertainty estimates were made in so-called factsheets compiled by RIVM 1) as part of the
ovog akcijskog programa osnovana je studijska grupa s ciljem definiranja određenih zadataka koje se odnose na emisije zrakoplovnih motora. Na osnovu njihovog rada, 1977. objavljen je ICAO Cirkular 134, pod nazivom „Control of the Aircraft Engine Emissions”. Navedeni Cirkular sadrži propisane procedure za kontrolu sadržaja produkata izgaranja turbo-mlaznih i optočno- mlaznih motora namijenjenih za podzvučne zrakoplove. Iste godine osnovan je Odbor za emisije zrakoplovnih motora (engl. Committee on Aircraft Engine Emission) koji je odgovoran za razvitak posebnih standarda za ograničenje sastojaka produkata izgaranja zrakoplovnih motora. Na drugom sastanku Odbora održanom 1980. godine predložen je materijal koji bi se trebao uključiti u ICAO dokumente, a godinu dana kasnije izašao je konačni dokument ICAO-a s ciljem ograničenja zrakoplovnih emisija i smanjenja njihova utjecaja na lokalnu kvalitetu zraka. Navedeni dokument je pridružen već postojećem Dodatku 16 koji se odnosi na regulaciju buke. Slijedom toga, Dodatak 16 uključuje sve aspekte utjecaja zrakoplova na okoliš, odnosno sadrži Svezak I (Volume I – Aircraft Noise) i Svezak II (Volume II - Aircraft Engine
(residential and commercial) emissions each year have been commercial electricity, commercial natural gas, residential electricity, residential natural gas, and gasoline. Evanston weather has been an important factor affecting the overall rise in natural gasemissions, with an increase in heating demand contributing to the observed increase in both commercial and residential natural gasemissions. Recycling has increased each year during the four-year period and solid waste disposal has decreased each year from 2006 to 2008.
There are various theories in the field of environmental accounting that could be adopted for the study. These include; Political cost theory which explains how groups external to the firm might be able to impose political cost on the firm as a result of political actions such as pollution, emissions and carbon footprints disclosure made by a firm in relation to their positive or negative impacts on their physical environment (Watts & Zimmerman 1978). Also, positive accounting theory which predicts that all people are driven by self-interest. As such, particular social and environmental activities and their related disclosures would only occur if they have positive wealth implications for the management involved (Watts & Zimmerman, 1986). Another theory is the legitimacy theory, Mathews (1993) provides a good definition of legitimacy as Organisations seek to establish congruence between the social values associated with or implied by their activities and the norms of acceptable behaviour in the larger social system in which they are a part. In so far as these two value systems are congruent we can speak of organizational legitimacy. When an actual or potential disparity exists between the two value systems there will be a threat to organizational legitimacy. This study adopted the legitimacy and political cost theory to underpin the work on the impact of greenhousegas on oil & gas revenue in Nigeria.
Figure 2. Cumulative GHG emissions of nations during 1995–2009. Per capita cumulative GHG emissions of a nation equal to its 265
cumulative GHG emissions during 1995–2009 divided by its population in 2009, while per gross domestic products (GDP) GHG 266
The results in this paper illustrate that reducing GHG emissions through a change to a less intensive production system will have a negative, possibly devastating effect on the returns received by producers. However it is also worth noting that the shift to a less intensive system has associated benefits, such as reduced ground-water contamination (an important problem facing NZ at present) as well as potential animal welfare improvements. Similar changes in production systems are occurring in the EU under agri-environment schemes at present, independent of any greenhousegas mitigation programme. New Zealand producers may benefit from an international perception that dairy products from this country are produced in a more “environmentally-friendly” system and may gain consumers who are willing to pay extra for this type of product. The model does not take such effects into account at this stage.
Without a sweeping edict from the top of the company, it is challenging to get all business units to move in unison to address GHG emissions in the supply chain. However, multinational corporations can use their organizational complexity to their advantage because changes can often be more easily tested within certain business units or in certain lead markets before branching out across the entire company. For instance, Kimberly- Clark is comprised of multiple business units and its global regions are managed autonomously. It solicited sponsorship from one business unit that believed in the importance of managing suppliers’ GHG emissions and agreed to temporarily fund supply chain engagement across the entire company. This launched the initiative to collect GHG emissions data from suppliers for the first phase of the program. Going forward, champions for the initiative within Kimberly-Clark are using demonstrated results to build more diversified support to ensure continued funding and success.
sands field  overlaps with our high-end estimate for upstream unconventional gasemissions in Howarth et al. . The Utah and Colorado studies may not be represen- tative of the typical methane emissions for the entire Uni- ted States, in part, because they focused on regions where they expected high methane fluxes based on recent declines in air quality. But I agree with the conclusion of Brandt and his colleagues  that the “bottom-up” esti- mation approaches that we and all the other papers in Table 1 employed are inherently likely to lead to underes- timates, in part, because some components of the natural gas system are not included. As one example, the recent Pennsylvania study, which quantified fluxes from discrete locations on the ground by mapping methane plumes from an airplane, found very high emissions from many wells that were still being drilled, had not yet reached the shale formation, and had not yet been hydraulically frac- tured . These wells represented only 1% of the wells in the area but were responsible for 6–9% of the regional methane flux from all sources. One explanation is that the drill rigs encountered pockets of shallower gas and released this to the atmosphere. We, the EPA, and all of the papers in Table 1 had assumed little or no methane emissions from wells during this drilling phase.
Another question is how energy and carbon taxes differ in their non-greenhouse effects. Where greenhouse abatement is acknowledged as a policy goal but carbon taxes are not adopted, the reason may be that the non-greenhouse effects of the carbon tax are considered unacceptable. Such effects might include economy-wide welfare losses or severe adjustments to individual economic sectors. Are the non-greenhouse effects of an energy tax likely to prove more acceptable than those of a carbon tax? This paper uses a computable general equilibrium model to address these questions. The model is ORANI, a widely used model of the Australian economy, in a version extended for use in long-run energy policy analysis. With it we simulate several energy-related tax options Ñ a carbon tax, an energy tax covering all fossil fuels, and a tax restricted to refined petroleum products.