Top PDF Quantitative operational risk analysis for dangerous goods transportation through cut and cover road tunnels

Quantitative operational risk analysis for dangerous goods transportation through cut and cover road tunnels

Quantitative operational risk analysis for dangerous goods transportation through cut and cover road tunnels

As a conclusion, the answer to the research question as far as the transportation of dangerous goods is concerned is that there is no evidence of increase in safety from dividing a long urban cut and cover tunnel in smaller parts with open air areas in between. However, the overall safety (that should take into account all risks and not only those that are due to the transportation of dangerous goods) depends to a great extend on the specific characteristics of each particular case, since there are many factors that influence the overall safety of road tunnels. These factors are not taken into consideration by any quantitative risk analysis model, and also by the QRAM. The QRAM only considers increased probabilities of accidents near tunnel portals, a factor that influences risk in route S of the cases examined but does not consider many other critical factors. Therefore it is concluded that risk analysis using systemic approach is crucial for any road tunnel as early as in the design phase and lasting for its whole lifecycle. Moreover, quantitative risk analysis models such as the QRAM should not be the sole basis for decision making by tunnel operators or Administrative Authorities. As Apostolakis (2004) states safety-related decision making is risk-informed, not risk-based. Thus, as far as road tunnel safety is concerned, a systemic approach combining quantitative risk analysis tools with traditional safety analysis and systems theory principles should be implemented.
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Improving safety in Greek road tunnels

Improving safety in Greek road tunnels

In order to achieve a minimum acceptable level of safety, the EU Directive suggests, apart from the measures imposed based on tunnel characteristics, the implementation of a risk analysis in cases such as the opening of a road tunnel to dangerous goods. However, the EU Directive does not indicate either the method for performing the risk analysis or the criteria for risk acceptance. Thus, each country / administrative authority or even each tunnel manager may select the appropriate method of analysis as well as the criteria for risk acceptance. The method that seems to be the most widely accepted by administrative authorities for quantitative risk analysis is the OECD /PIARC QRA Model (QRAM). The QRAM not only assesses the risks from the transportation of dangerous goods in a quantitative way but it also evaluates the effect of the mitigation measures carried out in a specific road tunnel [17].
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Quantitative risk analysis for road tunnels complying with EU regulations

Quantitative risk analysis for road tunnels complying with EU regulations

As it can be deduced from the above literature research, most publications relevant to the OECD / PIARC QRA Model refer to case studies. Thus, the research gap identified here is that the sufficiency of the EU minimum safety requirements for tunnels in the trans-European road network for the transportation of dangerous goods has not been studied as a standalone issue. The rest of this paper attempts to quantify the risk levels of tunnels complying to the EU minimum safety requirements, when transportation of dangerous goods is allowed through them, and to reveal whether these risk levels are below the accepted societal risk levels. In order to examine the worst case scenarios, marginal values of the EC Directive classes have been selected for the traffic and length of the cases examined.
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Implementation of GSM and Zigbee Technology to Improve the Operational Efficiency of Road Transportation System

Implementation of GSM and Zigbee Technology to Improve the Operational Efficiency of Road Transportation System

Abstract: At the moment, reporting bus station is rely mainly on driver’s manual operation, thus, making mistakes and misleading passengers becomes inevitable when driving the bus. Therefore, this Paper proposes a supervisory system based on Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) and Zigbee technology to improve the operation efficiency and realize intelligent transportation system. The research introduces an enhanced bus system from the aspect of both hardware and software design. The principle and the feature of GSM SMS and ZIGBEE communication are analyzed. The system takes into account of the respective advantages and disadvantages of GSM, Zigbee and ARM 7, and designs a feasible solution successfully. The designed system will play a good effect from many aspects.
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Research on Safety Risk of Dangerous Chemicals Road Transportation Based on Dynamic Fault Tree and Bayesian Network Hybrid Method (TECHNICAL NOTE)

Research on Safety Risk of Dangerous Chemicals Road Transportation Based on Dynamic Fault Tree and Bayesian Network Hybrid Method (TECHNICAL NOTE)

four kinds of hazardous chemicals are classified as conventional industrial products, hazardous products. With the development of economy for many years, China's major hazardous chemicals production ranks first in the world [1]. In The catalog of hazardous chemicals (2015 version), there are the dangers of a total of 2828 entries, whether it is petrochemical, pharmaceutical or cosmetic industry, all kinds of hazardous chemicals is the production of raw materials indispensable. Rapid development of chemical industry gave birth to a huge amount of hazardous chemical logistics needs. According to statistics, China's annual transport of hazardous chemicals on the road has exceeded 300 million tons; the amount of dangerous chemicals transported on the river is also close to this figure.In the Yangtze River port alone, there are throughput of 170 million tons of hazardous chemicals. Production and logistics of hazardous chemicals are the two most common parts of the accident [2]. According to the China Chemical Safety Association’s accident information, from January to August 2016, in China,
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Multi path transportation assignment model in urban transportation based on real road network survey

Multi path transportation assignment model in urban transportation based on real road network survey

Real road-network’s nodes and sections are fixed, such as geography map. Here we call them as Fixed Graphics. In the fixed graphics the nodes’ relative position and the sections’ shape are fixed. It can be defined in mathematics language as follows: define V is the not empty aggregate which has n nodes, V  { v 1 , v 2 ,  , v n } , E is the aggregate which has m sections, E  { e 1 , e 2 ,  , e m } , e i which belongs to E is the relation a pair of

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Evaluating Market Benefits of Transportation Tunnels—The Carmel Tunnels as a Case Study

Evaluating Market Benefits of Transportation Tunnels—The Carmel Tunnels as a Case Study

A dynamic financial Excel model was built to quantify direct financial benefits for users of the tunnels and indirect benefits for the general public derived from the Carmel Tunnels, compared to alternative transportation routes. Based on actual travel data for 2014, provided by Carmelton, this study calculated various benefits: time savings, fuel savings, air pollution savings, reduced greenhouse gas emissions, and reduced noise. The base scenario was driving via one or two sections of the tunnel, and for each sec- tion of the tunnel, two additional alternative traffic scenarios were chosen, i.e ., non- tunnel routes within the City of Haifa. The benefits were calculated as the difference between travel costs in each scenario compared to the relevant sections of the tunnels, and based on the actual volume of traffic in the tunnels during 2014 (from January to December).
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Power Consumption in Road Tunnels

Power Consumption in Road Tunnels

You certainly know that Austria is a very mountainous country. Alpine road connections which can also be used during the w inter require the building of long road tunnels. Therefore, it is not surprising that the first long Alpine tun­ nels were built more than 20 years ago, like the Katschberg tunnel (5.2 km), the Radstädter Tauern tunnel (6.4 km), the Gleinalm tunnel (8 km), the Arlberg tunnel (13 km), etc. Mean­ while, the Karavanke tunnel (7.8 km) which connects Austria and Slovenia has been com­ pleted. During the last few years, long by-pass tunnels were built around cities to keep the trough - traffic away from the centers of popu­ lation. Examples are the Plabutsch tunnel (10 km) in Graz, the Pfänder tunnel (7 km) in Bregenz and the Schmitten tunnel (5,1 km) in Zell am See, which is currently under con­ struction.
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USING PROBABILITY TREE METHOD TO PERFORM HUMAN RELIABILITY AND ERROR ANALYSIS IN ROAD TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM

USING PROBABILITY TREE METHOD TO PERFORM HUMAN RELIABILITY AND ERROR ANALYSIS IN ROAD TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM

Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA), is a technique to prospectively identify, analyse and evaluate the potential failure modes of a process, in order to reduce the risk of the production process systematically and effectively. FMEA is an engineering activity that explores the effects of possible failure modes on a system and its environment. Human Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (H-FMEA) is based on the philosophy that human errors can be controlled by managing the performance shaping factors effecting human performance, building barriers to prevent human error, adding controls to detect and correct human error before it leads to an undesirable outcome and building error tolerant systems [11].
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Understanding public attitudes to road user safety: final report  Road safety research report no  111

Understanding public attitudes to road user safety: final report Road safety research report no 111

Previous research suggests that, on the whole, older drivers have less risky attitudes to road user safety (Angle et al., 2007) and are more supportive of interventions aimed at improving road user safety (Stradling and Campbell, 2003). This translates into behaviour with older drivers (age 50 years and over) displaying fewer violations with regard to driver behaviour, especially aggressive violations, suggesting that deliberate risky behaviour is far less prevalent amongst this age group (Parker et al., 2000). This research found similar results – the majority of respondents felt their own driving had become safer with increasing maturity, largely because of increased driving experience, responsibility, a reduction in negative influence from others and a realisation that driving faster does not actually match a reduction in time taken to travel. Hence, it seems that differences in road user safety attitude and behaviour between younger and older drivers are linked to changes within people over time, not to a cohort difference, although further longitudinal research would be required to confirm this.
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Online Transportation of Goods

Online Transportation of Goods

 Describing the whole from origin to the deployment of the process, the materials and products moving into, and out of firm are required to bring about the change. The material received by the suppliers is kept in the monitoring unit of the inbound logistics. Materials management describes the movement of materials and components within a firm. Physical distribution is the term which refers to the transportation of goods from the end of the assembly line to the consumers. All in all, we can say that the logistics is smaller than supply-chain management, and that it helps in linking user‟s directly to the communicating network and it also has a tough engineering staff to employ such process.
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Impact of Seismic Vulnerability on Bridge Management Systems

Impact of Seismic Vulnerability on Bridge Management Systems

Objective 1 is addressed using a classical fragility curve approach. Fragility curves are conditional probability statements which give the likelihood of a bridge reaching, or exceeding, a particular damage level for an earthquake of a given intensity level (Shinozuka et al. 2000a, Nielson 2005). Much research has been devoted to generating fragility curves. Because of the characteristics of APT-BMS, managing a large number and variety of bridge types, a systematic and quick method is required to develop fragility curves. The Hazus model (FEMA, 2003) meets this requirement and was chosen for application to the case study: in contrast with other methods, such as empirical fragility curves or analytical fragility curves that require much previous damage data or extensive computation, only limited information is needed for this model. Using the Hazus model, the fragility curves for all the bridges in the APT stock are generated. Next, the seismic risks for a number of earthquake scenarios are evaluated. I considered 3 earthquake scenarios, with return periods of 72, 475 and 2475 years, and four possible limit states of the bridge: operational (OLS), damage (DLS), life safety(LLS) and collapse (CLS).
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The effects of employment protection and product market regulations on the Italian labor market

The effects of employment protection and product market regulations on the Italian labor market

The regulation sample includes workers and firms in the retail, road transportation, electricity, telecommunications, air transportation and textile sectors.. The retail, road transporta[r]

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Experimental and Finite Element Analysis of Araldite Cy-230 Composite under Compression

Experimental and Finite Element Analysis of Araldite Cy-230 Composite under Compression

Composite materials contain construction, marine goods, aerospace, transportation, sporting goods, and further newly infrastructure, with construction and transportation being the biggest. Generally, more costly but high act continuous carbon-fiber composites are used somewhere light weight along with high stiffness and strength are required, and in fewer demanding applications where weight is not as critical then considerable lower cost fiber - glass composites are used.

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Numerical Analysis of a Moving Object in the Air Tunnel

Numerical Analysis of a Moving Object in the Air Tunnel

These results indicate that moving or transporting an object through an air tunnel is possible. A longer distance can be achieved if the angle of the wing with respect to the horizontal line is adjustable to maintain the pitching moment works on the object at zero. That is, the object is floating with a lift that is equal to the object weight. Moreover, no rotation exists in this situation.

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Lack of Storage Space for Dangerous Goods: Case Study of the Pristina International Airport "Adem Jashari"

Lack of Storage Space for Dangerous Goods: Case Study of the Pristina International Airport "Adem Jashari"

Table (2) presents the grouping of goods which are divided into three groups depending on the risk, the goods are listed as X,Y, and Z. Group I (x): lists all goods that can be flammable if placed in water and their boiling point exceeds 35 ° C, this is an example for Acids. Group II (y): are the goods where their substance reacts easily with water and does not meet the criteria for packing group I. Therefore, before selecting the goods that fit into this group, firstly we have to test that particular good to detect the reaction of the heat, then we would know in which group it belongs to. Group III (z): taking into account substances that are composed of thicker materials such as paints, adhesives, and lotions, metallic powders have a hazardous boiling point of less than 23 °C so its less than 35 °C. “The packing group also determines the degree of protective packaging required. Packages and containers for dangerous goods that have passed rigorous performance testing usually bear UN specification marks (see example below). X, Y, and Z will be used to indicate whether the package is suitable for all 3 packing groups or just 1 packing group. (TGD, 2019).
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Second report from the Commission    on the integration of health protection requirements in Community policies (1995)  COM (96) 407 final, 4 September 1996

Second report from the Commission....on the integration of health protection requirements in Community policies (1995). COM (96) 407 final, 4 September 1996

3.5.5 European Environment Agency 3.5.6 Energy policy 3.6 Transport 3.6.1 Ships 3.6.2 Transport of dangerous goods 3.6.3 .Road transport 3.7 International cooperation, relations with thi[r]

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Practical Calculation of Expected and Unexpected Losses in Operational Risk by Simulation Methods

Practical Calculation of Expected and Unexpected Losses in Operational Risk by Simulation Methods

To establish the appropriate level of capital to cover unexpected losses due to operational risk one first has to establish an adequate confidence level. A confidence level is a statistical concept which corresponds, intuitively, to the probability that an institution will not go bankrupt or fail in some business line due to extreme losses. Obviously, one would like to establish confidence levels close to 100 %. In practice, however, this is not possible since loss distributions are never perfectly identified using (usually incomplete) historical data, and even if we could perfectly identify these loss distributions, the level of capital required would be too high (and costly). Nevertheless, the confidence levels used in risk management usually lie in the range from 95 % to 99 % and higher. 3
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Risk Analysis Methodology for Road Tunnels and  Alternative Routes

Risk Analysis Methodology for Road Tunnels and Alternative Routes

The calculated risk (Fig. 8) exceeds the acceptable risk limit in case of temporary bidirectional traffic. It was suggested to divert one traffic direction instead of having bi- directional traffic inside the tunnels. This solution yielded a significantly lower risk (Fig. 8, situation 3). It was not favored as the capacity of an alternative route is questionable. Therefore, we had to consider alternative risk reduction measures. As seen from the F-N curves, calculated using PIARC - OECD QRAM, over 70% of the overall risk is contributed by the large fire scenario (20 to 100 MW fire heat release rate), which we analyzed in detail using CFD fire simulation combined with evacuation simulation developed by Vidmar [15]. In Table 4 risks are quantified into LR (low risk), HR (high risk) and VHR (very high risk). The results show that the risk for tunnel users of finding themselves in a life- threatening situation when there is 100 MW fire in the tunnel is significant. The only possibility of a large fire risk reduction was to lower speed limit in order to minimize the accident risk and assure fast rescue and extinction operations.
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Technological and economic estimation of efficiency of a route choice for transportation of dangerous goods

Technological and economic estimation of efficiency of a route choice for transportation of dangerous goods

personnel, and cost of ensuring an adequate level of traffic safety. Total of twelve factors with different distinctnesses are identified. An additive indicator was proposed as an evaluation criterion that determines the level of railway traffic safety, however, increased danger during transportation of DG is insufficiently accounted for in this indicator.

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