Top PDF Quantitative programme of research for adult English and maths : longitudinal survey of adult learners

Quantitative programme of research for adult English and maths : longitudinal survey of adult learners

Quantitative programme of research for adult English and maths : longitudinal survey of adult learners

One of the main objectives of the programme of research for adult English and maths was to develop rigorous and valid psychometric test instruments for research. The design process involved Alphaplus developing a large bank of questions at a range of different levels. These were then trialled with learners to ensure their validity, and included at waves 1 and 2 in the longitudinal survey of adult learners (and the RCT, which forms part of the programme of research for adult English and maths). This enabled the research team to identify whether learners had made progress between these 2 survey points. This appendix offers an overview of the assessments to aid comprehension when
Show more

133 Read more

Quantitative programme of research for adult English and maths : longitudinal survey of adult learners

Quantitative programme of research for adult English and maths : longitudinal survey of adult learners

While the general methodological benefits of random-probability sampling designs are acknowledged, in this research pragmatic constraints dictated the use of purposive sampling for local authority providers and quasi-random sampling for colleges. This was to achieve the required numbers of interviews cost-effectively. The sampling approaches achieved strong statistical power to detect change over time. If feasible at all, a random probability sampling approach would perhaps have been more informative with regard to the precision of the estimates derived based on the analysis; however, it would have risked achieving substantially fewer interviews with the population this study targets, at a substantially higher cost. Consequently, it would have limited the power of the analysis to detect the effects of undertaking adult education in English and maths.
Show more

77 Read more

Quantitative programme of research for adult English and maths : longitudinal survey of adult learners

Quantitative programme of research for adult English and maths : longitudinal survey of adult learners

In providing a statistic to show a learner’s ability in English or maths, we are estimating their skills levels based on their answers to test questions. Therefore, such ability estimates will have associated with them a certain amount of error of measurement. Such error of measurement can exist at the level of an individual learner’s score (a standard error of measurement – SEM), and globally, at the level of a test or of a set of equated tests (i.e. an equate). In this latter case, error of measurement can be conceptualised as a reliability coefficient. As well as measurement error, if we are using a model with certain assumptions contained within it, there remains the question of the extent to which the pattern of responses to particular items fits the assumptions of the model. Developed measurement models will provide a range of ‘fit statistics’ to quantify the extent to which an
Show more

318 Read more

Quantitative programme of research for adult English and maths : longitudinal survey of adult learners

Quantitative programme of research for adult English and maths : longitudinal survey of adult learners

These findings can be taken as indicative of learners’ skills but there are broader considerations when interpreting these findings, not least whether it was the learner’s objective to improve his or her skills. For example, some learners may have been working towards a qualification in line with an existing skills level. It is also not possible to identify the extent to which some learners may have started on a course at an inappropriate level for their existing skills. As such, we should not assume that the progression of skills during or beyond their course is an appropriate outcome measure for all learners. Variations in performance may also indicate a regression to the mean - the phenomenon whereby random variations in measured scores disappear when re-measured. Essentially in a real life test situation people can have a bad day or a good day, which means there is a
Show more

113 Read more

FE learners longitudinal survey wave 1 : findings from quantitative research

FE learners longitudinal survey wave 1 : findings from quantitative research

After discussions with DfES and reference to the questionnaires used for NALS (National Adult Learning Survey), the Labour Force Survey and other sources, an initial draft questionnaire was developed. A pilot survey was conducted from Tuesday 7th to Thursday 16th December 2004, in order to test the effectiveness of the questionnaire. A sample of individuals was selected from the ILR and was grouped into four sample points. Sampling points were purposively selected in order to ensure that a variety of area types were included (inner city, rural etc). One interviewer was allocated to each sample point and a total of 44 interviews was carried out. The pilot exercise demonstrated that the interview was slightly shorter than predicted and raised several questionnaire issues to be addressed before the main stage fieldwork.
Show more

169 Read more

FE learners longitudinal survey wave two : findings from quantitative research

FE learners longitudinal survey wave two : findings from quantitative research

There were differences in terms of the subjects studied: learners whose highest prior qualification was below level 2 were more likely to study literacy or numeracy basic skills, English language, ESOL and hairdressing or beauty therapy courses courses. Learners studying at a lower level than their highest qualification were more likely than average to be on arts and crafts and foreign language courses. When asked for the reasons for doing the course, interest in the subject tended to be mentioned more frequently by learners whose prior qualification was higher than the course. Those with a highest prior qualification below level 2 were more likely than average to say they did the course for a future job or career, to get a qualification, to develop reading and writing or maths skills or to improve self- confidence.
Show more

134 Read more

General and Task-Specific Corpus Resources for Polish Adult Learners of English

General and Task-Specific Corpus Resources for Polish Adult Learners of English

The corpus is still being statistically analyzed, but the qualitative analysis of the diphthongs in the corpus has been confirming predictions of the phonological system comparison and broadening the current knowledge about Polish-accented English. English diphthongs produced by Polish learners have component qualities similar to respective Polish vowel counterparts. There are no duration differences between word-final diphthongs, diphthongs before voiced obstruents and diphthongs before voiceless obstruents (N.B. syllable-final voiced obstruents are all devoiced). Sentence-initial diphthongs are preceded by glottal stops. Annotation of diphthongs in nasal contexts is especially difficult, because of widened bandwidths, which make the vocalic parts less distinctive, the lack of a vowel following a nasal, which would allow for relying on vowel formant transitions on both sides when determining the quality of the nasal, nasal releases being only optional and the first formant being often the only visible one. Diphthongs are heavily nasalized when followed by a nasal. Schwa in the nasal plus fricative context, when the nasal is vocalized, is more likely to be substituted by /o/ than in the case of non-nasal contexts. Additionally, if a nasal is followed by a fricative, in most cases the nasal is deleted, and the diphthong either remains nasalized, or just its second part is substituted by a nasal semivowel. The observed patterns of production of a diphthong plus a nasal and of a diphthong plus a nasal plus a fricative vary depending on a diphthong, but more patterns have been observed than predicted: diphthong plus a nasal, diphthong plus a nasal approximant plus a fricative, vowel plus a nasalized approximant plus a fricative, diphthong plus a nasalized approximant, vowel plus a nasalized approximant, diphthong, vowel plus a nasal. Centering diphthongs are pronounced as a vowel plus an /r/ sound, most likely because of the influence of orthography.
Show more

6 Read more

The early phase of /ɹ/ production development in adult Japanese learners of English

The early phase of /ɹ/ production development in adult Japanese learners of English

Differential effects of experience on speech phenomena. Bohn and Flege’s (1990) research led to the conclusion that some L2 segmental distinctions are susceptible to experience effects while others are not, and Trofimovich and Baker (2006) observed the same for aspects of L2 prosody and fluency. In some cases, experience benefits may be tied to particular aspects of the L1 phonological system which can be deployed during L2 learning. Flege and Wang (1990), for example, found that speakers whose L1 permitted more word-final consonants showed greater perceptual sensitivity to the English final /t/–/d/ distinction, than did learners with more restrictive L1s. In a study of the perception of spectral and tonal aspects of Mandarin vowels, Gottfried and Suiter (1997) found that English learners had more difficulty acquiring L2 lexical tone than L2 vowel quality, perhaps because the former is not an aspect of their L1 system, while the latter is.
Show more

42 Read more

Implementing English Morphological Awareness of Derivation in the Teaching of Vocabulary for Adult Learners

Implementing English Morphological Awareness of Derivation in the Teaching of Vocabulary for Adult Learners

In the attempt to promote fluent language production, vocabulary plays a very important role. When one’s vocabulary is limited, he will find it difficult to use the target language effectively (Ambrozova, 2014). Jornlin (2015) and Barcroft (2004) explain that morphological awareness meets the needs for L2 learners to enrich vocabulary. The biggest rationale for this notion is the fact that morphological awareness helps learners make sense of novel words as soon as they find the words. Besides, the use of appropriate lexis due to being aware morphologically in communication promotes success to the message transfer. In the study of linguistics, morphology performs to facilitate learners with the knowledge of word. Morphology is a linguistic study placing its focus on the knowledge of words regarding their internal structure, formation, relationship, pairing, as well as meaning (Hanafi, 2016; Kuo & Anderson, 2006; Pounder, 2000). To successfully choose the proper vocabulary when speaking―e.g. success or successful, crowd or crowded, one must load himself with the morphological awareness.
Show more

11 Read more

Phonemic Awareness and Reading Comprehension among Japanese Adult Learners of English

Phonemic Awareness and Reading Comprehension among Japanese Adult Learners of English

finding. As discussed earlier, L2 word recognition studies have repetitively shown that L2-English readers with logographic L1 backgrounds (Chinese and Japanese) tend to process English words more holistically than do native speakers of English or L2 readers with alphabetic L1s (Akamatsu, 1999; Wang, Koda, & Perfetti, 2003). In other words, L2-English readers with logographic L1s are weak in terms of their ability to utilize phonologi- cal information extracted by grapheme-phoneme correspondences rules. However, the results of the current study suggest that, when compared with those of Koda’s (1998) Chinese group, L1-Japanese and L1-Chinese readers may utilize phonological information differently from one another in their English reading. However, the present study did not contrast Japanese and Chinese readers; thus, this remains a question for future research. Another point to be mentioned through the present study is that very few English L2 studies address PA in adults’ reading process. This might be because L2 researchers believe to some degree that PA explains very lit- tle of the individual differences in RC, a situation suggested by English L1 studies (de Jong & van der Leij, 2002; Hogan, Catts, & Little, 2005; Scarborough, Ehri, Olson, & Fowler, 1998). However, our results suggest that we should not ignore the importance of PA in English reading by L1-Japanese adult learners, even if they learn English as a foreign language and with limited auditory English input, and even if their L1 does not share a script and sublexical unit with English. If future researchers conduct similar studies among EFL adult learners with alphabetic experience in L1s such as Korean or Thai, a clearer answer might be obtained. Additionally, it would be worth clarifying the factors that do or do not cause qualitatively different processing pathways in L2-English reading, by examining, for example, the interplay of learner properties such as ages and language properties such as writing systems within a particular L2 group and/or across the groups (Geva & Siegel, 2000).
Show more

11 Read more

Supporting Adult Learners with Refugee Experiences through English Language Instruction

Supporting Adult Learners with Refugee Experiences through English Language Instruction

A warm and welcoming environment should be created so that learners feel free to express themselves during their language learning process. Since these learners’ healing may first begin with EAL instructors in class (Canadian Centre for Victims of Torture [CCVT], 1995), instructors need to design appropriate lesson plans and effectively deliver these plans among these learners in class. It is equally important that EAL instructors be flexible in their daily lesson planning. When teaching, instructors may realize that the lesson they have prepared with so much effort may not work on a particular day if this plan makes learners with refugee experiences uncomfortable. It may sometimes be difficult for instructors to know what may frustrate this profile of learner when, so it is essential that instructors come to understand these learners’ circumstances and be flexible in what they teach when. Along with such flexibility, there may arise a need for flexibility in outlining course outcomes and contents to be taught (Burgoyne & Hull, 2007), which may also warrant instructors working with their supervisors or members of the curriculum team. Therefore, when preparing long-range or daily lesson plans for classes including learners with refugee experiences, factors, such as learner participation,
Show more

9 Read more

THE IMPACT OF ANXIETY ON SPEAKING IN ADOLESCENT AND ADULT GROUPS OF ENGLISH LEARNERS

THE IMPACT OF ANXIETY ON SPEAKING IN ADOLESCENT AND ADULT GROUPS OF ENGLISH LEARNERS

The major distinction between test anxiety and fear of negative evaluation is the fact that fear of negative evaluation does not have to be correlated with testing context but may emerge in a number of other contexts. It is primarily associated with social anxiety and low self-esteem. Individuals with high self- esteem are perceived as more socially engaged and are more prone to be suc- cessful foreign language learners. They learn from their unfavourable assess- ment such as negative evaluation (Piechurska-Kuciel, 2008).

14 Read more

Self-Evaluation of Thai Adult Learners in English Writing Practice

Self-Evaluation of Thai Adult Learners in English Writing Practice

The implications of this study for teaching and learning EFL writing in graduate level contexts represent the importance of introducing self-evaluation practices in relation to students’ proficiency of English and EFL writing. Grades of individual tasks throughout the term can be used for formative purposes, and summative evaluations should be considered according to the course goals. Having grades on different writing tasks collected all the way through a writing course and evaluated at the end can be a constraining factor to learning. Future research studies in the area of EFL learning could be carried out by focusing on different evaluation results of various forms of writing tasks to see if the results of this current study can be replicated, or if any recurring patterns can be emerged. The adult learners’ motivations of their self-evaluations of their writing tasks and to what they might have attributed their self-evaluated grades in the present study may be analysed further. Besides, positive aspects of specific writing skills of adult learners or other groups of students could be of interest to other researchers in the field.
Show more

17 Read more

The acquisition of questions by Indonesian adult learners of English as a foreign language

The acquisition of questions by Indonesian adult learners of English as a foreign language

The specific aims of this study were: • to identify the types of questions frequently used by Indonesian adult learners of English • to investigate the errors made in forming questions i[r]

235 Read more

Adult English Learners’ Strategy Use in Iran: Four Generations in Focus

Adult English Learners’ Strategy Use in Iran: Four Generations in Focus

The findings of the study were analyzed using basic descriptive statistics providing information including participant code, age, generation, gender, and year learning English began. To present the information, several tables were created, along with some argumentations made by the researchers. To classify the strategies that the participants had used in their personalized learning of English, Jiang and Smith’s (2009) classification was used which involves five strategies (although the last one was adapted for the Iranian context): memorization and rote learning; understanding and memorization; memorization and the need for review; word association and memorization; use of Iranian pronunciation and memorization. These elements are descripted in more detail below.
Show more

11 Read more

Castilian Adult ESL Learners’ pronunciation of the English phonemes /v/ and /w/

Castilian Adult ESL Learners’ pronunciation of the English phonemes /v/ and /w/

distribution which alternate according to the phonetic context they are found at. In addition, Spanish is a syllable-based language, and this stress distribution also affects the pronunciation of the target phonemes. It is “the position in the word and position relative to stress” which are key factors (Shea and Curtin, 2011, p.230). The first allophone, the voiced bilabial stop [b], “occurs post-pause and tends to occur with stress” (Shea and Curtin, 2011, p.230) and “post-nasal consonant” (Canale, 2012, p.158). On the other hand, the bilabial fricative [β] “occurs intervocalically and does not tend to co-occur with stress” (Shea and Curtin, 2011 p. 230). In other words, just as Canale (2012) argues, [β] occurs in all contexts where [b] does not occur because they are in complementary distribution. Interestingly, when the /b/ is found between vowels, they are pronounced more softly and continuously, distancing itself from a stop and nearing the features of the fricative /v/ (Coe, 2011). It becomes clear then, that the pronunciation of the English /v/ can become problematic for Castilian Spanish ESL learners as they might transfer their Spanish /b/ knowledge to use it as bridge towards the English /v/.
Show more

34 Read more

Keys to Success for Adult Learners

Keys to Success for Adult Learners

employees who need additional courses to get promoted, unem- ployed individuals who have been laid off, parents who dropped out of or delayed attending college while taking care of their children, or people who never had a chance to go to or finish college when they were younger. The majority of adult learners have specific goals in mind to improve their employability.

5 Read more

Training and transitions : the lived experiences of adult learners of English as a second (or other) language

Training and transitions : the lived experiences of adult learners of English as a second (or other) language

forming friendships entails meeting regularly, taking an interest in and focusing on others, and speaking naturally in casual contexts for a longer period than is normally possible in everyday social activities. Not only does the language learner benefit from the relationship aspect and practice or application of language skills, but can also gain insights into the culture of the L2. A number of respondents noted that they cultivated relationships with particular types of people, older people and children specifically, with whom they felt comfortable, “Yesterday I visited friends from my church. They are over 70 years old, elderly people. I could have such a good relationship time with them without barriers. We could talk very comfortably with them” (I 6). This again highlights the importance learners themselves placed on participation in social networks within L2 communities, reflecting the concern of Norton and Toohey (2001) for learner participation in the sociocultural community of the target language.
Show more

230 Read more

Use of Learning Strategies and their Effects on English Language Learning of Thai Adult Learners

Use of Learning Strategies and their Effects on English Language Learning of Thai Adult Learners

In the interview, the students complemented the data from the questionnaire survey. For example, they used a great extent of ORG strategies such as taking notes, making summaries, and doing homework in both general learning and English learning contexts. Many of them admitted that ORG strategies were useful for managing their study practices such as requesting for clarification, allocating time for studying, and practicing English. From the data obtained, the students had strategy repertoires that they had developed through years and experience. The interview allowed the students to explain more on the use of strategies for English learning; however, any uses of MGO and COI strategies in particular were not mentioned. This could be perceived that the students only reported what the strategies they recalled using, and they were unlikely to identify strategies they instinctively employed. The discussion in response to the findings of the second research question concerned the strategy transfer from general learning to English learning. According to Ellis (2008), learning strategies could be adopted and changed through time and experience. The data obtained from the questionnaire survey and the interview indicated that individual students kept strategies they considered useful in their repertoire for later applications in other learning contexts. When starting new learning, the students chose strategies they consider useful for particular learning tasks. Various strategies such as taking notes, memorising information through imagery, repeating information for later retrieval, and asking for clarification were common strategies that the students usually used when learning in general contexts. To facilitate their English learning, some of the strategies were developed or changed appropriately according to particular learning situations.
Show more

22 Read more

An Examination of How Adult English Second Language Learners Learn Pronunciation Skills

An Examination of How Adult English Second Language Learners Learn Pronunciation Skills

attempt a conversation in the target language which in turn will produce better speaking skills. As part of a second language pronunciation research project, Lord (2008) used tongue twisters as one method of pronunciation improvement technique. Lord reported favorable effects of dedicated pronunciation teaching. Among these favorable outcomes was improved student attitude toward second language learning, which, in turn, improved student motivation. Lord argued that "a strong sense of classroom community is associated with increased motivation as well as improved performance" (p. 367) indicating that through the use of simple pronunciation drills such as tongue twisters or voice exercises, classmates begin to form a closer bond. These classroom-community-like bonds are formed when the class participates in pronunciation activities that produce clearer pronunciation while the students are joining together as a team. For example, after a few weeks of repeated pronunciation drills (tongue twisters and voice exercises), the students will have memorized some of the drills. This can lead to some friendly competition that could include having two teams compete for the fastest time in a tongue twister contest thereby encouraging camaraderie and fostering a greater classroom community and a sense of belonging for even the quiet students.
Show more

114 Read more

Show all 10000 documents...